Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Cancer Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 18 of 18

Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

The Role Of Streptococcus Gallolyticus Subspecies Gallolyticus In Colon Cancer Development, Jennifer L. Herold Dec 2016

The Role Of Streptococcus Gallolyticus Subspecies Gallolyticus In Colon Cancer Development, Jennifer L. Herold

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and women and is also the third most common cause of cancer death. A large body of evidence points towards the possibility that bacteria can have a significant impact on the development of cancer. It has been suggested that Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, a group D streptococci, may play a role in the development of CRC. Sg, formerly S. bovis biotype I, has been shown to be highly associated with CRC. In observing patients with either Sg bacteremia or endocarditis it was found that 25-80% of patients with Sg ...


Concomitant Targeting Of The Mtor/Mapk Pathways: Novel Therapeutic Strategy In Subsets Of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Dennis Ruder Dec 2016

Concomitant Targeting Of The Mtor/Mapk Pathways: Novel Therapeutic Strategy In Subsets Of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Dennis Ruder

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Over the last decade, a paradigm-shift in lung cancer therapy has evolved into targeted-driven medicinal approaches. However, patients frequently relapse and develop resistance to available therapies. Herein, we utilized genomic mutation data from advanced chemorefractory non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients enrolled in the Biomarker-Integrated Approaches of Targeted Therapy for Lung Cancer Elimination (BATTLE-2) clinical trial to characterize novel actionable genomic alterations potentially of clinical relevance. We identified RICTOR alterations (mutations, amplifications) in 17% of lung adenocarcinomas and found RICTOR expression correlates to worse overall survival. There was enrichment of MAPK pathway genetic aberrations in key oncogenes (e.g. KRAS ...


Microenvironment-Induced Pten Loss By Exosomal Microrna Primes Brain Metastasis Outgrowth, Lin Zhang Dec 2016

Microenvironment-Induced Pten Loss By Exosomal Microrna Primes Brain Metastasis Outgrowth, Lin Zhang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Development of life-threatening cancer metastases at distant organs requires disseminated tumor cells’ adaptation to and co-evolution with the drastically different microenvironments of metastatic sites. Cancer cells of common origin manifest distinct gene expression patterns after metastasizing to different organs. Clearly, the dynamic interplay between metastatic tumor cells and extrinsic signals at individual metastatic organ sites critically impacts the subsequent metastatic outgrowth. Yet, it is unclear when and how disseminated tumor cells acquire the essential traits from the microenvironment of metastatic organs that prime their subsequent outgrowth. Here we show that primary tumor cells with normal expression of PTEN, an important ...


¬¬Define The Epigenetic Profiles And Subtype-Specific Genes Of Breast Cancer, Wenqian Li Aug 2016

¬¬Define The Epigenetic Profiles And Subtype-Specific Genes Of Breast Cancer, Wenqian Li

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Molecular profiling has identified 5 distinct subtypes of breast cancer, luminal A, luminal B, HER2-enriched, basal-like, and claudin-low breast cancer. These 5 subtypes correlate with hormone response, patient prognosis, and response to therapy. Although steady state gene expression patterns have been explored using expression microarrays, very little is known about the initial, disease-driving transcriptional changes in these cancers or epigenetic changes associated with the differential gene expression signatures. Defining these changes may provide new insights into the mechanisms by which these subtypes arise, as well as new avenues for breast cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Using Chromatin Immunoprecipitation sequencing and ...


Defining The Functions Of Usp22 And Usp44 In Regulation Of H2bub1 Levels, Xianjiang Lan Aug 2016

Defining The Functions Of Usp22 And Usp44 In Regulation Of H2bub1 Levels, Xianjiang Lan

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Aberrant levels of histone ubiquitination are involved in various human diseases including neurodegenerative disorders and cancers. Particularly, Histone H2B monoubiquitination (H2Bub1) is highly associated with gene regulation in both normal cells and diseases. Many deubiquitinases (mainly USPs) are defined to regulate global H2Bub1 levels. However, how these USPs are regulated and how they contribute to diseases are not well understood.

USP22, part of the deubiquitination module (DUBm) in the SAGA complex, is a well-defined regulator of H2Bub1 levels. ATXN7, another crucial subunit of the SAGA DUBm, is involved in a neurodegenerative disease, spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7), due to a ...


Novel Mechanisms Of Β-Adrenergic Signaling In Prostate Cancer Progression, Mohit Hulsurkar Aug 2016

Novel Mechanisms Of Β-Adrenergic Signaling In Prostate Cancer Progression, Mohit Hulsurkar

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among American men. The American Cancer Society estimates that 180,890 men will be will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2016 in the USA. (http://www.cancer.org/cancer/prostatecancer/detailedguide/prostate-cancer-key-statistics). Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the standard treatment for early stage prostate cancer. But most patients relapse with aggressive variants of prostate cancer, with survival time between 1-3 years. In order to develop cure for such aggressive variants of prostate cancer, our present understanding of the mechanisms underlying its progression needs to be advanced.

Recently, it has ...


Function And Mechanism Of Alkbh5 In N6-Methyl-Adenosine Rna Modification In Glioblastoma, Sicong Zhang Aug 2016

Function And Mechanism Of Alkbh5 In N6-Methyl-Adenosine Rna Modification In Glioblastoma, Sicong Zhang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

N6-methyl-adenosine (m6A) is the most prevalent internal chemical modification of mRNAs in eukaryotes. In mammals, m6A installed by m6A methyltransferases METTL3 and METTL14 is erased by two members of the AlkB family of nonheme Fe(II)/a-ketoglutarate (a-KG)-dependent dioxygenases, fat-mass and obesity associated protein (FTO) or ALKBH5. ALKBH5 affects nuclear RNA export and metabolism, gene expression and mouse fertility. To date, little is known about the biological significance of m6A in human cancer. We found that ALKBH5 is highly expressed in human glioblastoma stem cells which are resistant to ...


Regulation Of Breast Cancer Initiation And Progression By 14-3-3zeta, Chia-Chi Chang Aug 2016

Regulation Of Breast Cancer Initiation And Progression By 14-3-3zeta, Chia-Chi Chang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

14-3-3ζ is a ubiquitously expressed family member of proteins that have been implicated to have oncogenic potential through its interactions and involvement in cancer initiation and progression. 14-3-3ζ belongs to the highly conserved 14-3-3ζ protein family and modulates numerous pathways in cancer. Overexpression of 14-3-3ζ is an early event, occurs in more than 40% of human breast cancer cases, and is associated with disease recurrence and poor prognosis. Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer. Cancer cells elevate aerobic glycolysis to produce metabolic intermediates and reducing equivalents, thereby facilitating cellular adaptation to the adverse environment and sustaining fast proliferation. Interestingly ...


Investigating The Roles Of Δnp63 As A Suppressor Of Migration, Invasion, And Metastasis, Ramon E. Flores Gonzalez Aug 2016

Investigating The Roles Of Δnp63 As A Suppressor Of Migration, Invasion, And Metastasis, Ramon E. Flores Gonzalez

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death and disease in the world. Considerable resources are spent to study and understand cancer, with the hope of developing new treatments and eventually cures that will help millions of people. Efforts to understand cancer are hindered by its inherent complexity and instability. Nonetheless, understanding the basics of tumor development and progression are the key to focused on studying the role of ΔNp63 in cancer, a p53 family member known to be involved in epithelial development, microRNA biogenesis, and stem cell maintenance. Using the strength of in vivo mouse models, we found ...


The Role Of Amp-Activated Protein Kinase (Ampk) In Tumorigenesis, Fei Han May 2016

The Role Of Amp-Activated Protein Kinase (Ampk) In Tumorigenesis, Fei Han

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

AMPK plays a central role in controlling cellular and whole body energy level. Increasing studies have also discovered the diverse function of AMPK in cancer, such as autophagy and mitochondria biogenesis. However, how AMPK promotes cancer progression is still not clear. Here, we show that AMPK is essential for EGF-induced Akt activation, Glut1 expression, and glucose uptake. AMPK is also required for various stresses induced Akt activation and promote cell survival, including hypoxia and glucose deprivation. In addition, we found glucose deprivation-induced VEGF expression and secretion is also depend on AMPK, which may contribute to angiogenesis of surrounding endothelial cell ...


Genomic Drivers Of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Development, Vida Chitsazzadeh May 2016

Genomic Drivers Of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Development, Vida Chitsazzadeh

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in humans. Annually, in U.S. there are over 3 million cases with an estimated overall economic impact of $2 billion. Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma (cuSCC) comprises 15-20% of all skin cancers. cuSCC has the best-defined progression from a distinct precancerous lesion, the Actinic Keratosis (AK), to invasive cuSCC. Destructive therapies for AK treatment must be used repetitively, causing significant morbidity. There is a tremendous need for targeted diagnostics and therapy for AKs, representing an important opportunity for secondary skin cancer prevention. Our knowledge of the molecular and cellular events that lead to ...


Characterization Of Stem Cell Turnover In A Living Epithelial Bilayer, Elizabeth Sumner May 2016

Characterization Of Stem Cell Turnover In A Living Epithelial Bilayer, Elizabeth Sumner

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Homeostatic maintenance of epithelia requires the renewal and replacement of old or dying cells while sustaining a functional barrier. Imbalance between cell production and elimination are hypothesized to underlie many pathological conditions. However, our knowledge of cell turnover within living tissues remains largely restricted to static images due to the limited ability to study epithelia in their native context. Here we report that clearance of damaged basal stem cells promotes compensatory proliferation of neighboring stem cells to maintain overall population numbers in a bilayered epithelium. Time-lapse imaging and electron microscopy experiments reveal that dying cells are rapidly cleared as nearby ...


The Roles Of Malt1 In Nf-Κb Activation And Solid Tumor Progression, Deng Pan May 2016

The Roles Of Malt1 In Nf-Κb Activation And Solid Tumor Progression, Deng Pan

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The transcription factor NF-κB plays a central role in many aspects of biological processes and diseases, such as inflammation and cancer. Although it has been suggested thatNF-κB is critical in tumorigenesis and tumor progression, the molecular mechanism by which NF-κB is activated in solid tumor remains largely unknown. In the current work, we focus on growth factor receptor-induced NF-κB activation and tumor progression, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-induced NF-κB in lung cancer and heregulin receptor (HER2)-induced NF-κB in breast cancer. We found that Mucosa-associated lymphoma translocation protein 1 (MALT1), also known as paracaspase, is required for EGFR-induced ...


Functional Regulation Of Yap By Aurora A Kinase In Triple-Negative Breast Cancer, Shih-Shin Chang May 2016

Functional Regulation Of Yap By Aurora A Kinase In Triple-Negative Breast Cancer, Shih-Shin Chang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The Yes-associated protein (YAP) is an effector that transduces the output of the Hippo pathway to transcriptional modulation. Considering the role of YAP in cancers, this protein has emerged as a key node in malignancy development. In this study, we determined that Aurora A kinase acts as a positive regulator for YAP-mediated transcriptional machinery. Specifically, YAP associates with Aurora A predominantly in the nucleus. Activation of Aurora A can impinge on YAP activity through direct phosphorylation. Moreover, aberrant expression of YAP and Aurora A signaling is highly correlated with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We herein provide evidence to establish the ...


Lipocalin 2 Promotes The Establishment Of A Pro-Tumorigenic Microenvironment In Pancreatic Cancer, Sobeyda B. Gomez-Chou May 2016

Lipocalin 2 Promotes The Establishment Of A Pro-Tumorigenic Microenvironment In Pancreatic Cancer, Sobeyda B. Gomez-Chou

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a disease characterized by a dismal prognosis with a 5-year survival rate of 7%. A unique hallmark of this disease is an abundant desmoplastic reaction that can account for up to 90% of the solid tumor volume. Key components of the PDAC stroma include the extracellular matrix (ECM) rich in collagen type I and III, activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) and inflammatory cells such as neutrophils and macrophages. The main line of evidence has suggested a pro-tumorigenic role for the PDAC stroma as it has been shown to help enhance tumor growth, invasive potential and ...


In Vivo Kinome Screen Reveals Non-Canonical Cdk-Driven Metabolic Adaptation In Brain Metastasis, Frank J. Lowery Iii May 2016

In Vivo Kinome Screen Reveals Non-Canonical Cdk-Driven Metabolic Adaptation In Brain Metastasis, Frank J. Lowery Iii

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Brain metastasis, which frequently arises from breast cancer, lung cancer, melanoma, and colorectal cancer, remains a severely unmet medical need and its incidence continues to rise while treatment options remain palliative. To better understand the biology underlying its aggressive, incurable nature, I performed an unbiased in vivo kinome screen to identify potential driver kinases of experimental brain metastasis in a nude xenograft model using the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Several of the kinase pools led to decreased brain metastasis-specific survival in nude mice, shortening survival time by up to 50% relative to controls. Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) was ...


Gsk3Beta-Mediated Ezh2 Phosphorylation Suppresses Methylation Of H3k27 And Ezh2’S Oncogenic Functions, How-Wen Ko May 2016

Gsk3Beta-Mediated Ezh2 Phosphorylation Suppresses Methylation Of H3k27 And Ezh2’S Oncogenic Functions, How-Wen Ko

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

During the process of tumorigenesis, inactivation of tumor suppressors is a critical step. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a histone methyltransferase and the enzymatic core subunit of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), promotes cell growth and migration through catalyzing trimethylation of histone H3 at Lys 27 (H3K27me3) and plays an important role in tumorigenesis. Its expression can be controlled by phosphorylation. However, the regulation of EZH2 activity by tumor suppressor kinase is not well understood. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3b), a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase, is involved in many cellular processes. GSK3b also participates in neoplastic transformation, tumor ...


Trim24 Orchestrates Metabolic Reprogramming And Emt In Breast Cancer, Kaushik Thakkar May 2016

Trim24 Orchestrates Metabolic Reprogramming And Emt In Breast Cancer, Kaushik Thakkar

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

In this dissertation, I report the oncogenic functions of an epigenetic regulator Tripartite Motif Protein 24 (TRIM24) coupled with metabolic reprogramming and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in breast cancer. TRIM24 was first established by our laboratory as a previously unknown negative regulator of p53 via its RING domain, as a co-regulator of nuclear receptors and a PHD/Bromodomain reader of specific histone modifications. TRIM24 expression correlates with poor prognosis of breast cancer, but the mechanisms of TRIM24-mediated oncogenesis are unknown. In the first part of my thesis, I found that TRIM24 is aberrantly expressed in early stages of breast cancer ...