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Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

A Machine Learning Classifier Trained On Cancer Transcriptomes Detects Nf1 Inactivation Signal In Glioblastoma, Gregory P. Way, Robert J. Allaway, Stephanie J. J. Bouley, Camilo E. Fadul, Yolanda Sanchez, Casey Greene Feb 2017

A Machine Learning Classifier Trained On Cancer Transcriptomes Detects Nf1 Inactivation Signal In Glioblastoma, Gregory P. Way, Robert J. Allaway, Stephanie J. J. Bouley, Camilo E. Fadul, Yolanda Sanchez, Casey Greene

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

We have identified molecules that exhibit synthetic lethality in cells with loss of the neurofibromin 1 (NF1) tumor suppressor gene. However, recognizing tumors that have inactivation of the NF1 tumor suppressor function is challenging because the loss may occur via mechanisms that do not involve mutation of the genomic locus. Degradation of the NF1 protein, independent of NF1 mutation status, phenocopies inactivating mutations to drive tumors in human glioma cell lines. NF1 inactivation may alter the transcriptional landscape of a tumor and allow a machine learning classifier to detect which tumors will benefit from synthetic lethal molecules. We developed a ...


Comparative Genetic Screens In Human Cells Reveal New Regulatory Mechanisms In Wnt Signaling, Andres M. Lebensohn, Ramin Dubey, Leif Neitzel, Ofelia Tacchelly-Benites Dec 2016

Comparative Genetic Screens In Human Cells Reveal New Regulatory Mechanisms In Wnt Signaling, Andres M. Lebensohn, Ramin Dubey, Leif Neitzel, Ofelia Tacchelly-Benites

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The comprehensive understanding of cellular signaling pathways remains a challenge due to multiple layers of regulation that may become evident only when the pathway is probed at different levels or critical nodes are eliminated. To discover regulatory mechanisms in canonical WNT signaling, we conducted a systematic forward genetic analysis through reporter-based screens in haploid human cells. Comparison of screens for negative, attenuating and positive regulators of WNT signaling, mediators of R-spondin-dependent signaling and suppressors of constitutive signaling induced by loss of the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli or casein kinase 1α uncovered new regulatory features at most levels of the ...


The Adp-Ribose Polymerase Tankyrase Regulates Adult Intestinal Stem Cell Proliferation During Homeostasis In Drosophila, Zhenghan Wang, Ai Tian, Hassina Benchabane, Ofelia Tacchelly-Benites, Eungi Yang, Hisashi Nojima, Yashi Ahmed Mar 2016

The Adp-Ribose Polymerase Tankyrase Regulates Adult Intestinal Stem Cell Proliferation During Homeostasis In Drosophila, Zhenghan Wang, Ai Tian, Hassina Benchabane, Ofelia Tacchelly-Benites, Eungi Yang, Hisashi Nojima, Yashi Ahmed

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Wnt/β-catenin signaling controls intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation, and is aberrantly activated in colorectal cancer. Inhibitors of the ADP-ribose polymerase Tankyrase (Tnks) have become lead therapeutic candidates for Wnt-driven cancers, following the recent discovery that Tnks targets Axin, a negative regulator of Wnt signaling, for proteolysis. Initial reports indicated that Tnks is important for Wnt pathway activation in cultured human cell lines. However, the requirement for Tnks in physiological settings has been less clear, as subsequent studies in mice, fish and flies suggested that Tnks was either entirely dispensable for Wnt-dependent processes in vivo, or alternatively, had tissue-specific roles ...


Targeting Neddylation Induces Dna Damage And Checkpoint Activation And Sensitizes Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells To Alkylating Agents, C Paiva, J C. Godbersen, A Berger, J R. Brown, A V. Danilov Jul 2015

Targeting Neddylation Induces Dna Damage And Checkpoint Activation And Sensitizes Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells To Alkylating Agents, C Paiva, J C. Godbersen, A Berger, J R. Brown, A V. Danilov

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Microenvironment-mediated upregulation of the B-cell receptor (BCR) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling in CLL cells resident in the lymph node and bone marrow promotes apoptosis evasion and clonal expansion. We recently reported that MLN4924 (pevonedistat), an investigational agent that inhibits the NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE), abrogates stromal-mediated NF-κB pathway activity and CLL cell survival. However, the NAE pathway also assists degradation of multiple other substrates. MLN4924 has been shown to induce DNA damage and cell cycle arrest, but the importance of this mechanism in primary neoplastic B cells has not been studied. Here we mimicked the lymph node microenvironment using CD40 ...


Synthetic Triterpenoids Can Protect Against Toxicity Without Reducing The Efficacy Of Treatment With Carboplatin And Paclitaxel In Experimental Lung Cancer, Karen T. Liby Jan 2014

Synthetic Triterpenoids Can Protect Against Toxicity Without Reducing The Efficacy Of Treatment With Carboplatin And Paclitaxel In Experimental Lung Cancer, Karen T. Liby

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Synthetic oleanane triterpenoids are multifunctional drugs being developed for the prevention and treatment of a variety of chronic diseases driven by inflammation and oxidative stress. Low nanomolar concentrations of triterpenoids inhibit the induction of inflammatory cytokines, and these drugs are potent activators of the Nrf2 cytoprotective pathway. In contrast, low micromolar concentrations of triterpenoids increased the production of ROS and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in malignant MCF10 CA1a breast cancer cells. Because cancer cells respond differently to ROS than normal cells, it should be possible to exploit these differences therapeutically. In an experimental model of lung cancer, the ...


Sensitization Of Human Cancer Cells To Gemcitabine By The Chk1 Inhibitor Mk-8776: Cell Cycle Perturbation And Impact Of Administration Schedule In Vitro And In Vivo, Ryan Montano, Ruth Thompson, Injae Chung, Huagang Hou, Nadeem Khan, Alan Eastman Dec 2013

Sensitization Of Human Cancer Cells To Gemcitabine By The Chk1 Inhibitor Mk-8776: Cell Cycle Perturbation And Impact Of Administration Schedule In Vitro And In Vivo, Ryan Montano, Ruth Thompson, Injae Chung, Huagang Hou, Nadeem Khan, Alan Eastman

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Chk1 inhibitors have emerged as promising anticancer therapeutic agents particularly when combined with antimetabolites such as gemcitabine, cytarabine or hydroxyurea. Here, we address the importance of appropriate drug scheduling when gemcitabine is combined with the Chk1 inhibitor MK-8776, and the mechanisms involved in the schedule dependence.


Killerflip: A Novel Lytic Peptide Specifically Inducing Cancer Cell Death, B Pennarun, G. Gaidos, O Bucur, A Tinari Oct 2013

Killerflip: A Novel Lytic Peptide Specifically Inducing Cancer Cell Death, B Pennarun, G. Gaidos, O Bucur, A Tinari

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

One of the objectives in the development of effective cancer therapy is induction of tumor-selective cell death. Toward this end, we have identified a small peptide that, when introduced into cells via a TAT cell-delivery system, shows a remarkably potent cytoxicity in a variety of cancer cell lines and inhibits tumor growth in vivo, whereas sparing normal cells and tissues. This fusion peptide was named killer FLIP as its sequence was derived from the C-terminal domain of c-FLIP, an anti-apoptotic protein. Using structure activity analysis, we determined the minimal bioactive core of killerFLIP, namely killerFLIP-E. Structural analysis of cells using ...


Interleukin-1Β Mediates Metalloproteinase-Dependent Renal Cell Carcinoma Tumor Cell Invasion Through The Activation Of Ccaat Enhancer Binding Protein Β, Brenda L. Petrella, Matthew P. P. Vincenti May 2012

Interleukin-1Β Mediates Metalloproteinase-Dependent Renal Cell Carcinoma Tumor Cell Invasion Through The Activation Of Ccaat Enhancer Binding Protein Β, Brenda L. Petrella, Matthew P. P. Vincenti

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Effective treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains a major medical concern, as these tumors are refractory to standard therapies and prognosis is poor. Although molecularly targeted therapies have shown some promise in the treatment of this disease, advanced RCC tumors often develop resistance to these drugs. Dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying the progression to advanced disease is necessary to design alternative and improved treatment strategies. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) found in aggressive RCC tumors produce a variety of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1 b (IL-1b). Moreover, the presence of TAMs and high serum levels of IL-1b in RCC patients correlate ...


Pv1 Down-Regulation Via Shrna Inhibits The Growth Of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Xenografts, Sophie J. Deharvengt, Dan Tse, Olga Sideleva, Caitlin Mcgarry, Jason R. Gunn, Daniel S. Longnecker, Catherine Carriere, Radu V. Stan May 2012

Pv1 Down-Regulation Via Shrna Inhibits The Growth Of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Xenografts, Sophie J. Deharvengt, Dan Tse, Olga Sideleva, Caitlin Mcgarry, Jason R. Gunn, Daniel S. Longnecker, Catherine Carriere, Radu V. Stan

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

PV1 is an endothelial-specific protein with structural roles in the formation of diaphragms in endothelial cells of normal vessels. PV1 is also highly expressed on endothelial cells of many solid tumours. On the basis of in vitro data, PV1 is thought to actively participate in angiogenesis. To test whether or not PV1 has a function in tumour angiogenesis and in tumour growth in vivo, we have treated pancreatic tumour-bearing mice by single-dose intratumoural delivery of lentiviruses encoding for two different shRNAs targeting murine PV1. We find that PV1 down-regulation by shRNAs inhibits the growth of established tumours derived from two ...


Cdk1 And Plk1 Mediate A Clasp2 Phospho-Switch That Stabilizes Kinetochore–Microtubule Attachments, Ana R. R. Maia, Zaira Garcia, Lilian Kabeche, Marin Barisic Jan 2012

Cdk1 And Plk1 Mediate A Clasp2 Phospho-Switch That Stabilizes Kinetochore–Microtubule Attachments, Ana R. R. Maia, Zaira Garcia, Lilian Kabeche, Marin Barisic

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis relies on a dynamic kinetochore (KT)-microtubule (MT) interface that switches from a labile to a stable condition in response to correct MT attachments. This transition is essential to satisfy the spindle-assembly checkpoint (SAC) and couple MT-generated force with chromosome movements, but the underlying regulatory mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we show that during mitosis the MT- and KT-associated protein CLASP2 is progressively and distinctively phosphorylated by Cdk1 and Plk1 kinases, concomitant with the establishment of KT-MT attachments. CLASP2 S1234 was phosphorylated by Cdk1, which primed CLASP2 for association with Plk1. Plk1 recruitment to ...


Variations In Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 Status And Dna Damage-Induced S-Phase Arrest In The Cell Lines Of The Nci60 Panel, Kristen M. K. Garner, Alan Eastman May 2011

Variations In Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 Status And Dna Damage-Induced S-Phase Arrest In The Cell Lines Of The Nci60 Panel, Kristen M. K. Garner, Alan Eastman

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN) complex is a regulator of cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair. Defects in MRN can lead to defective S-phase arrest when cells are damaged. Such defects may elicit sensitivity to selected drugs providing a chemical synthetic lethal interaction that could be used to target therapy to tumors with these defects. The goal of this study was to identify these defects in the NCI60 panel of cell lines and identify compounds that might elicit selective cytotoxicity.


Cd277 Is A Negative Co-Stimulatory Molecule Universally Expressed By Ovarian Cancer Microenvironmental Cells, Juan R. Cubillos-Ruiz, Diana Martinez, Uciane K. Scarlett, Melanie R. Rutkowski, Yolanda C. Nesbeth, Ana L. Camposeco-Jacobs, Jose R. Conejo-Garcia Sep 2010

Cd277 Is A Negative Co-Stimulatory Molecule Universally Expressed By Ovarian Cancer Microenvironmental Cells, Juan R. Cubillos-Ruiz, Diana Martinez, Uciane K. Scarlett, Melanie R. Rutkowski, Yolanda C. Nesbeth, Ana L. Camposeco-Jacobs, Jose R. Conejo-Garcia

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

CD277, a member of the butyrophilin subfamily 3 (BTN3), shares significant sequence similarities and predicted common structural features with inhibitory B7-H4 and other members of the B7 superfamily. Here we report that CD277 is consistently expressed in stromal, as well as tumor cells in the microenvironment of human advanced ovarian carcinoma specimens, both of primary and metastatic origin. MHC-II+ myeloid antigenpresenting leukocytes (dendritic cells and macrophages) express significantly higher levels of surface CD277, compared to other tumor-infiltrating leukocyte subsets, and this expression is significantly up-regulated by multiple common tumor microenvironmental signals, including VEGF and CCL3. Most importantly, engagement of CD277 ...


Wnt Pathway Reprogramming During Human Embryonal Carcinoma Differentiation And Potential For Therapeutic Targeting, Grace E. Snow, Allison C. Kasper, Alexander M. Busch, Elisabeth Schwarz, Katherine E. Ewings, Thomas Bee, Michael J. Spinella, Ethan Dmitrovsky, Sarah J. Freemantle Oct 2009

Wnt Pathway Reprogramming During Human Embryonal Carcinoma Differentiation And Potential For Therapeutic Targeting, Grace E. Snow, Allison C. Kasper, Alexander M. Busch, Elisabeth Schwarz, Katherine E. Ewings, Thomas Bee, Michael J. Spinella, Ethan Dmitrovsky, Sarah J. Freemantle

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are classified as seminonas or non-seminomas of which a major subset is embryonal carcinoma (EC) that can differentiate into diverse tissues. The pluripotent nature of human ECs resembles that of embryonic stem (ES) cells. Many Wnt signalling species are regulated during differentiation of TGCT-derived EC cells. This study comprehensively investigated expression profiles of Wnt signalling components regulated during induced differentiation of EC cells and explored the role of key components in maintaining pluripotency.


Growth Factor–Induced Shedding Of Syndecan-1 Confers Glypican-1 Dependence On Mitogenic Responses Of Cancer Cells, Kan Ding, Martha Lopez-Burks, José A. Sánchez-Duran, Murray Korc, Arthur D. Lander Nov 2005

Growth Factor–Induced Shedding Of Syndecan-1 Confers Glypican-1 Dependence On Mitogenic Responses Of Cancer Cells, Kan Ding, Martha Lopez-Burks, José A. Sánchez-Duran, Murray Korc, Arthur D. Lander

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) glypican-1 is up-regulated by pancreatic and breast cancer cells, and its removal renders such cells insensitive to many growth factors. We sought to explain why the cell surface HSPG syndecan-1, which is also up-regulated by these cells and is a known growth factor coreceptor, does not compensate for glypican-1 loss. We show that the initial responses of these cells to the growth factor FGF2 are not glypican dependent, but they become so over time as FGF2 induces shedding of syndecan-1. Manipulations that retain syndecan-1 on the cell surface make long-term FGF2 responses glypican ...


Ube1l Is A Retinoid Target That Triggers Pml/Rarα Degradation And Apoptosis In Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia, Sutisak Kitareewan, Ian Pitha-Rowe, David Sekula, Christopher H. Lowrey, Michael J. Nemeth, Todd R. Golub, Sarah J. Freemantle, Ethan Dmitrovsky Mar 2002

Ube1l Is A Retinoid Target That Triggers Pml/Rarα Degradation And Apoptosis In Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia, Sutisak Kitareewan, Ian Pitha-Rowe, David Sekula, Christopher H. Lowrey, Michael J. Nemeth, Todd R. Golub, Sarah J. Freemantle, Ethan Dmitrovsky

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

All-trans-retinoic acid (RA) treatment induces remissions in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cases expressing the t(15;17) product, promyelocytic leukemia (PML)/RA receptor α (RARα). Microarray analyses previously revealed induction of UBE1L (ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1-like) after RA treatment of NB4 APL cells. We report here that this occurs within 3 h in RA-sensitive but not RA-resistant APL cells, implicating UBE1L as a direct retinoid target. A 1.3-kb fragment of the UBE1L promoter was capable of mediating transcriptional response to RA in a retinoid receptor-selective manner. PML/RARα, a repressor of RA target genes, abolished this UBE1L promoter ...