Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Cancer Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 46

Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

Proteomic Characterization Of Ovarian And Breast Cancer Microenvironments For Improved Diagnostics And Therapeutic Targeting, Dylan Z. Dieters-Castator Jun 2018

Proteomic Characterization Of Ovarian And Breast Cancer Microenvironments For Improved Diagnostics And Therapeutic Targeting, Dylan Z. Dieters-Castator

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cancers exist within complex microenvironments formed by heterogeneous cell types. This diversity creates significant challenges for detection, diagnosis and treatment. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is a powerful approach capable of characterizing complex biological systems which are characteristic of cancer biology. In this thesis, proteomics was utilized to answer several questions related to ovarian cancer diagnosis and detection, and the effects of NODAL, an embryonic morphogen, on the breast cancer secretome and stromal cell recruitment. First, I compared multiple sample preparation techniques and found high-pH/low-pH fractionation to yield the greatest proteome coverage over commonly used approaches. Second, I compared the proteomes ...


Role Of High Molecular Weight Hyaluronan In Ultraviolet B Light-Induced Transformation, Katelyn Cousteils Oct 2017

Role Of High Molecular Weight Hyaluronan In Ultraviolet B Light-Induced Transformation, Katelyn Cousteils

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Keratinocyte carcinomas (KCs) are the most common cancers globally. Ultraviolet light is the key risk factor for these cancers but sunscreen has proven ineffective in their prevention, indicating a need for new prophylactic agents. Chronic elevation of high molecular weight (HMW) tissue hyaluronan (HA) in skin is linked to tumor resistance in the naked mole rat. To directly assess the role of this polysaccharide in resistance to keratinocyte tumors, a HMW HA phosphatidylethanolamine (HA-PE) formulation that penetrates skin and accumulates as coats around keratinocytes was prepared. The tumor resistance properties of the HA-PE formulation were tested in a mouse model ...


Regulation Of C-Raf Stability By The Ranbpm/Ctlh Complex, Christina J. Mctavish Sep 2017

Regulation Of C-Raf Stability By The Ranbpm/Ctlh Complex, Christina J. Mctavish

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

RanBPM is an evolutionarily conserved multi-domain protein that has been implicated in the regulation of several cellular process, including protein stability, cell migration, gene transcription, and apoptosis. RanBPM is identified as a key member of the CTLH complex, an orthologous complex to a yeast E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, the exact function of which remains unknown. Previously, our laboratory identified RanBPM as an inhibitor of the ERK1/2 pathway through the modulation of C-RAF protein levels. This study shows that RanBPM-mediated degradation of C-RAF occurs through the proteasome and the entire CRA domain of RanBPM is necessary for direct interaction with ...


Contribution Of Activating Transcription Factor 3 To Development Of Acinar-To-Ductal Cell Metaplasia, Jelena Toma Aug 2017

Contribution Of Activating Transcription Factor 3 To Development Of Acinar-To-Ductal Cell Metaplasia, Jelena Toma

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the third leading cause of cancer death in North America. The highest risk factor for PDAC is recurrent pancreatitis. While the link between PDAC and pancreatitis is unknown, de-differentiation of acinar cells is common to both diseases. Our lab has shown that Activating Transcription Factor 3 (ATF3), a factor upregulated during pancreatic injury, contributes to the development of acinar-to-ductal cell metaplasia (ADM), a precursor phenotype of PDAC. The goal of this study was to identify how ATF3 contributes to ADM. I hypothesize that ATF3 regulates acinar gene expression promoting ADM. We observed decreased ADM development ...


Inhibition Of Pannexin 1 Reduces Tumorigenic Properties Of Human Melanoma, Taylor J. Freeman Jul 2017

Inhibition Of Pannexin 1 Reduces Tumorigenic Properties Of Human Melanoma, Taylor J. Freeman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Pannexin 1 (PANX1) is a channel-forming glycoprotein that allows the passage of important signaling molecules, including ATP. We examined PANX1 levels in a panel of human melanomas and evaluated its potential as an effective target for melanoma therapy. We are the first to report endogenous PANX1 levels in multiple human melanoma cell lines, patient-derived melanoma biopsies, and primary melanoma cells. Treatment with two PANX1 channel blockers, Carbenoxolone (CBX) and Probenecid (PBN), on A375 and A375-MA2 melanoma cells significantly reduced cell growth and migration, and increased the production of melanin, a marker for a melanocytic-like phenotype. Daily treatment with CBX or ...


The Role Of P62/Sqstm1 In Tgfβ-Dependent Emt And Autophagy, Evelyn Ng Jun 2017

The Role Of P62/Sqstm1 In Tgfβ-Dependent Emt And Autophagy, Evelyn Ng

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) is a cytokine that regulates cellular adhesion, proliferation and apoptosis. In the context of cancer, TGFβ induces processes such as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). More recently, TGFβ has been discovered to also induce autophagy, and the relationship between TGFβ-induced EMT and autophagy remains unknown. Due to its involvement in autophagy and its established interactions with key TGFβ signaling proteins, this thesis focuses on the sequestosome 1 (p62/SQSTM1) protein. Here, I have shown that p62/SQSTM1 co-localizes with TGFβ receptors at the same time point that the receptors localize to Rab7-positive late endosomes. siRNA-mediated silencing of ...


The Loss Of Atrx Creates Susceptibility To Kras-Mediated Pancreatic Damage, Claire C. Young Jun 2017

The Loss Of Atrx Creates Susceptibility To Kras-Mediated Pancreatic Damage, Claire C. Young

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal disease with a five-year survival rate of 8%. Oncogenic KRAS mutation is found in greater than 95% of PDAC cases, but additional mutations or injury are required for disease initiation and progression. Chromatin remodeling protein ATRX has been previously implicated in DNA repair, replication and maintaining genomic stability. I hypothesized that loss of ATRX could increase the susceptibility of pancreatic tissue to pancreatic injury or KRAS-mediated damage. In this study, combination of inducible ATRX loss in adult mice with recurrent pancreatic injury or oncogenic KRAS activation resulted in increased pancreatic damage, including fibrosis ...


The Role Of Cytoplasmic Polyadenylation Element Binding Protein -2 (Cpeb-2) In Human Breast Cancer, Joshua Tordjman Jun 2017

The Role Of Cytoplasmic Polyadenylation Element Binding Protein -2 (Cpeb-2) In Human Breast Cancer, Joshua Tordjman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is overexpressed in 40-50% of breast cancers, and promotes tumour progression through increased proliferation, migration, invasion, Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), and induction of therapy-resistant Stem-Like-Cells (SLCs). COX-2 stimulates expression of two oncogenic and SLC-promoting microRNAs (miR-526b, miR-655), which simultaneously target one gene, Cytoplasmic Polyadenylation Element Binding Protein-2 (CPEB-2). Hypothesis: CPEB-2 is a tumour- and SLC-suppressing gene in breast cancer. Results: CPEB-2 knockout in a non-tumourigenic mammary epithelial cell line MCF10A demonstrated increases in proliferation, migration, invasion, EMT markers, SLC content, and VEGF-D expression. CPEB-2, an mRNA-binding translation-regulating protein, was found to regulate the translation of tumour suppressor p53. When ...


Nuak1 Has Tumor Suppressive Activity In Epithelial Ovarian Cancer, Parima Saxena Jun 2017

Nuak1 Has Tumor Suppressive Activity In Epithelial Ovarian Cancer, Parima Saxena

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

NUAK1, a downstream substrate of the stress metabolism regulator Liver kinase B1 (LKB1), has been implicated as an oncogene and tumor suppressor, with distinct roles in cell cycle, senescence and cell adhesion. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) spheroids remain dormant during intraperitoneal metastasis with reduced proliferation and metabolism to survive metabolically harsh conditions, possibly implicating a role of NUAK1 in EOC spheroid biology. I hypothesize that NUAK1 is regulated by LKB1 to promote dormancy in EOC. I demonstrate that NUAK1 expression and phosphorylation is regulated by LKB1 in EOC cell lines. NUAK1 is largely under-expressed in many established and new ascites-derived ...


Regulation Of Smad Anchor Necessary For Receptor Activation (Sara) Protein Levels By The E3 Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Smurf2 And Smad7, Sanghyun Lee May 2017

Regulation Of Smad Anchor Necessary For Receptor Activation (Sara) Protein Levels By The E3 Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Smurf2 And Smad7, Sanghyun Lee

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The TGFβ pathway, which regulates cell proliferation and differentiation, has also been shown to induce non-small cell lung cancer cell (NSCLC) migration and invasion. The TGFβ pathway is initiated through the binding of TGFβ to cell surface Ser/Thr kinase receptors. Activated receptors then phosphorylate intracellular signaling proteins, termed Smads, which translocate into the nucleus to regulate transcriptional responses. The protein Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA) facilitates the phosphorylation of Smads and allows for efficient signal transduction. On the other hand, the inhibitory Smad, Smad7, recruits the E3 ubiquitin ligase, Smurf2, to catalyze the degradation of TGFβ receptors. Since ...


The Effects Of Acetylenic Tricyclic Bis-(Cyano Enone) On Cell Migration, Eddie Chan Feb 2017

The Effects Of Acetylenic Tricyclic Bis-(Cyano Enone) On Cell Migration, Eddie Chan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Although cancer survival rates have significantly improved over the past few decades, the improvements are primarily due to early diagnosis and inhibiting cancer growth. Limited progress has been made in the treatment of cancer metastasis, which contributes to 90% of cancer related deaths, and therapeutic agents targeting the various aspects of metastasis are lacking. One potential approach is to utilize small pharmacological compounds to inhibit tumour cell motility, as a strategy against tumour cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. The acetylenic tricyclic bis-(cyano enone), TBE-31, has been shown to be a promising chemopreventative compound. However, its effects on cell migration ...


Mt1-Mmp Mediates The Migratory And Tumourigenic Potential Of Breast Cancer Cells Via Non-Proteolytic Mechanisms, Mario Cepeda Jan 2017

Mt1-Mmp Mediates The Migratory And Tumourigenic Potential Of Breast Cancer Cells Via Non-Proteolytic Mechanisms, Mario Cepeda

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Membrane Type-1 Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a multifunctional protease that affects cell function via proteolytic and non-proteolytic mechanisms such as promoting degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) or augmentation of cell migration and viability, respectively. MT1-MMP has been implicated in metastatic progression ostensibly due to its ability to degrade ECM components and to allow migration of cells through the basement membrane. Despite in vitro studies demonstrating this principle, this knowledge has not translated into the use of MMP inhibitors (MMPi) that inhibit substrate catalysis as effective cancer therapeutics, or been corroborated by evidence of in vivo ECM degradation mediated by ...


Discovery Of Novel Diagnostic Biomarkers On Prostate Tumor Microparticles For Discriminating Between Low And High Risk Prostate Cancer And Improving Prostate Cancer Screening, Sabine Brett Jan 2017

Discovery Of Novel Diagnostic Biomarkers On Prostate Tumor Microparticles For Discriminating Between Low And High Risk Prostate Cancer And Improving Prostate Cancer Screening, Sabine Brett

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

There are few protein-based biomarkers to accurately distinguish between patients with low risk prostate cancer from those with high risk disease in a non-invasive manner. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is used for clinical follow-up of prostate cancer; however, it is not effective as a screening tool. As a result, many men with non-life threatening disease having to undergo unnecessary and painful biopsies. Therefore, there is a dire need for minimally invasive platforms for monitoring patients with clinically significant prostate cancer. Prostate cell microparticles (PCMPs) released by prostate epithelial cells into plasma are a potential source of biomarkers specific for prostate ...


Regulation Of E2f1 In Keratinocytes During Uv-Damage And Differentiation, Randeep K. Singh Nov 2016

Regulation Of E2f1 In Keratinocytes During Uv-Damage And Differentiation, Randeep K. Singh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The E2F1 transcription factor regulates the expression of key genes involved in cell proliferation and differentiation to maintain skin homeostasis. The expression of E2F1 is tightly regulated during cell cycle progression and when cells are committed to differentiate, as well as in response to DNA damage. In keratinocytes, E2F1 protein and transcript levels increase following UV-induced DNA damage, whereas, in response to Ca2+-induced differentiation, both E2F1 protein and transcript levels decrease. In this thesis, I examined in detail the mechanism that modulates E2F1 stability following DNA damage and during keratinocyte differentiation. I show that E2F1 associates with hHR23 and ...


Characterization Of The Catalytic Ck2 Subunits With Substitutions At Residues Involved In Inhibitor Binding, Paul Desormeaux Sep 2016

Characterization Of The Catalytic Ck2 Subunits With Substitutions At Residues Involved In Inhibitor Binding, Paul Desormeaux

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

CK2 is a constitutively active, ubiquitously expressed and pleiotropic serine/threonine protein kinase that is implicated in many cellular functions including tumorigenesis. CK2 has two catalytic subunits, CK2a and CK2a’, that carry out its function in the cell. Previous studies have indicated that inhibitor-refractory mutants have been effective in recovering residual CK2 activity, in the presence of inhibitors, when compared to wild type CK2. Based on these observations, inhibitor-refractory mutants were created for both CK2a and CK2a’ and tested with various concentrations with two CK2-specific inhibitors, CX-4945 and inhibitor VIII. The CK2a triple mutant (V66A/I174A/H160D) was tested in ...


Inhibition Of Mt1-Mmp Proteolytic Function And Erk1/2 Signalling Influences Breast Cancer Cell Migration And Invasion Through Changes In Mmp-2 And Mmp-9 Expression, Caitlin L. Evered Aug 2016

Inhibition Of Mt1-Mmp Proteolytic Function And Erk1/2 Signalling Influences Breast Cancer Cell Migration And Invasion Through Changes In Mmp-2 And Mmp-9 Expression, Caitlin L. Evered

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a multifunctional protease that invokes changes extracellularly via cleavages of ECM substrates, and intracellularly through induction of cell signalling cascades, both to influence cell behaviour and motility. The effects of MT1-MMP activation, MMP catalytic activity, and ERK1/2 signalling were examined by chemically or genetically altering each parameter. Regardless of treatment, expression of the two gelatinases, MMP-2 and -9, were always altered in an inverse relationship. This work proposes a pathway through active MT1-MMP initiation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and subsequent targeting the NF-κB transcription factor, to ultimately influence MMP-9 expression. Modulation of MT1-MMP ...


Characterization Of Numb As A Regulator Of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase, Ran Wei Jun 2016

Characterization Of Numb As A Regulator Of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase, Ran Wei

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cellular events rely on protein-protein interactions that are often mediated by modular domains which recognize particular sequence motifs in binding partners. The NUMB protein is the first described cell fate determinant and multifaceted adaptor that is involved in a wide variety of cellular events. NUMB mainly mediates protein interactions via its modular PTB domain. Here we present a systematic investigation of the NUMB-PTB interactome by employing an integrative strategy combining both protein and peptide arrays. We profiled NUMB-PTB binding specificity and interacting proteins genome-wide. The receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are found highly enriched in the interactome, raising the possibility that ...


The Cytoplasmic Domain Of Membrane-Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase Is Required For Its Survival-Promoting, But Not Its Migration-Promoting Function In Mcf-7 Breast Cancer Cells, Jacob Jh Pelling Jun 2016

The Cytoplasmic Domain Of Membrane-Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase Is Required For Its Survival-Promoting, But Not Its Migration-Promoting Function In Mcf-7 Breast Cancer Cells, Jacob Jh Pelling

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a multifunctional protease that degrades proteins during cell migration, and influences cell survival. Both the protein localization and signal transduction capabilities of MT1-MMP depend on its cytoplasmic domain (CD), indicative of a diverse regulatory function. The effects of CD mutations on cell migration and survival were examined by ectopically expressing MT1-MMP variants in MCF-7 cells. CD alteration by substitution or deletion did not abolish the migration-promoting effects of MT1-MMP, but did decrease cell survival and increase apoptosis. Expression of CD-altered MT1-MMP resulted in a protrusive cell morphology in 3D culture that was lost upon ...


Oncolytic Virus Therapy For The Treatment Of Metastatic Ovarian Cancer, Jessica Tong Apr 2016

Oncolytic Virus Therapy For The Treatment Of Metastatic Ovarian Cancer, Jessica Tong

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The management of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) faces two major challenges which standard treatments fail to effectively address: 1) Diffuse metastasis as a consequence of late stage diagnosis and 2) intra-tumoral heterogeneity, which fuels tumor evolution and drives the acquisition of chemotherapeutic resistance. In this thesis, we tested new therapeutic strategies using a 3-dimensional in vitro spheroid culture model that mimics key steps of epithelial ovarian cancer metastasis; and another model that mimics both temporal and cellular heterogeneity by establishing multiple cell lines from a single patient over the course of disease progression. Using these models, we investigated ...


Exploring The Regulation And Function Of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Plasticity In Ovarian Cancer Spheroids, Samah Rafehi Apr 2016

Exploring The Regulation And Function Of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Plasticity In Ovarian Cancer Spheroids, Samah Rafehi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) serves as a key mechanism driving tumour cell migration, invasion, and metastasis in many carcinomas. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) signalling is implicated in several steps during cancer pathogenesis and acts as a classical inducer of EMT. Since epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells have the potential to switch between epithelial and mesenchymal states during metastasis, we predicted that modulation of TGFβ signalling would significantly impact EMT and the malignant potential of EOC spheroid cells. Ovarian cancer patient ascites-derived cells naturally underwent an EMT response when aggregating into spheroids, and this was reversed upon spheroid re-attachment to a substratum ...


Characterizing The C-Terminal Region Of Human Adenovirus E1a: An Undiscovered Country, Michael J. Cohen Sep 2015

Characterizing The C-Terminal Region Of Human Adenovirus E1a: An Undiscovered Country, Michael J. Cohen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Human Adenovirus (HAdV) E1A is the first protein expressed during viral infection. The primary function of E1A is to reprogram the cell for viral replication, but it is additionally capable of transforming primary rodent cells in co-operation with other oncogenes such as HAdV E1B. Despite extensive study, little is known about the function and cellular targets of the C-terminal region of E1A. Importantly, this region is required for the transforming ability of E1A with E1B, but can also suppress transformation with Ras. Previous studies showed that interaction with the C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP) plays a role in both functions described ...


Clinical And Experimental Importance Of Circulating Tumor Cells In Prostate Cancer, Lori Lowes Sep 2015

Clinical And Experimental Importance Of Circulating Tumor Cells In Prostate Cancer, Lori Lowes

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Prostate cancer (PCa) remains a leading cause of death in men, primarily due to ineffective treatment in the metastatic setting. During this phase of PCa, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are shed into the bloodstream and their presence and number are important in patient prognosis. The CellSearch® system (CSS) is the only U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Health Canada approved instrument for detection of CTCs, making it the current clinical gold standard in CTC technology. Although the CSS provides a minimally invasive means of patient monitoring in the metastatic setting, little is known about the role of CTCs ...


The Role Of Connexins And Pannexins In Mammary Gland Development And Tumorigenesis, Michael K. G. Stewart Aug 2015

The Role Of Connexins And Pannexins In Mammary Gland Development And Tumorigenesis, Michael K. G. Stewart

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The identification of key regulators of breast cancer onset and progression is critical for the development of targeted therapies. Connexins and pannexins are characterized by their ability to form large-pore channels and are frequently dysregulated in cancer. However, their role in breast cancer progression remains poorly understood due to a lack of in vivo models capable of assessing the proposed and opposing roles of connexins and pannexins as both tumor suppressors and/or facilitators in multiple stages of the disease. Using 2 previously uncharacterized genetically-modified mice, connexin43 (Cx43) and connexin26 (Cx26) were evaluated for their role in normal mammary gland ...


The Lung Microenvironment Influences The Metastatic Behaviour Of Breast Cancer Cells In An Innovative 3d Ex Vivo Pulmonary Metastasis Model, Matt M. Piaseczny Jun 2015

The Lung Microenvironment Influences The Metastatic Behaviour Of Breast Cancer Cells In An Innovative 3d Ex Vivo Pulmonary Metastasis Model, Matt M. Piaseczny

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Lung metastasis remains a leading cause of death in breast cancer patients. This study established an innovative 3D ex vivo pulmonary metastasis assay (PuMA) to test the hypothesis that the lung microenvironment promotes metastatic behaviour of whole population and stem-like ALDHhiCD44+ breast cancer cells. Following in vivo delivery of breast cancer cells to mice, lungs were excised, maintained in culture and imaged to observe breast cancer growth over time. We observed metastatic progression of breast cancer cells in the PuMA, most notably of ALDHhiCD44+ cells which progressed rapidly from single cells to multicellular colonies over 21 ...


Investigating The Role Of Hydrogen Sulfide In The Survival, Growth And Angiogenic Potential Of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines And Xenografts, Eric Sonke Jun 2015

Investigating The Role Of Hydrogen Sulfide In The Survival, Growth And Angiogenic Potential Of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines And Xenografts, Eric Sonke

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-deficiency, resulting in pseudohypoxic, angiogenic and glycolytic tumours. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenously-produced gasotransmitter that accumulates under hypoxia and has been shown to be pro-angiogenic and cytoprotective in cancer. It was hypothesized that H2S levels are elevated in VHL-deficient ccRCC, contributing to survival, metabolism, and angiogenesis. Using H2S-specific probes, it was found that H2S levels were higher in VHL-deficient ccRCC cell lines compared to cells with wild-type VHL. Inhibition of H2S-producing enzymes could reduce the proliferation, metabolism ...


Atrx Loss-Of-Function In Mouse Neuroprogenitor Cells As A Model Of Early Events In Gliomagenesis, Hannah E. Goldberg Feb 2015

Atrx Loss-Of-Function In Mouse Neuroprogenitor Cells As A Model Of Early Events In Gliomagenesis, Hannah E. Goldberg

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

ATRX is a chromatin remodeling protein important for neural development, and ATRX inactivation leads to genomic instability, mitotic defects and TP53-mediated apoptosis. In the last few years, ATRX mutations were identified in a large proportion of paediatric and adult gliomas that often coincide with mutations in the tumor suppressor TP53. The present work shows that combinatorial loss of ATRX and TP53 function in vitro causes genomic instability while improving cell viability, identifying potential early events in gliomagenesis. Furthermore, several gene transcripts associated with glioma development and known oncogenic pathways were significantly upregulated in the Atrx-null neonatal mouse forebrain. Finally ...


Characterizing The Interaction Between Ranbpm And C-Raf, Wesley Berube-Janzen Aug 2014

Characterizing The Interaction Between Ranbpm And C-Raf, Wesley Berube-Janzen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

RanBPM/RanBP9 is a multi-domain nucleocytoplasmic protein which has been linked to numerous cellular processes including cell adhesion, migration, transcription and apoptosis. Although RanBPM is a member of the mammalian CTLH complex, the counterpart of a conserved yeast E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, its exact function remains unknown. Previous work in our laboratory has shown that RanBPM inhibits the ERK pathway by interacting with the kinase c-Raf and downregulating c-Raf levels. Here, we show that the N-terminus, LisH/CTLH and CRA domains of RanBPM are required for downregulation of c-Raf and that RanBPM interacts directly with c-Raf through its CRA domain ...


Genomic Predictors Of Drug Response To The Alpha-Specific Phosphoinositol 3-Kinase (Pi3ka-Alpha) Inhibitor Byl719 In Head And Neck Cancers, Giananthony T. Rizzo Jul 2014

Genomic Predictors Of Drug Response To The Alpha-Specific Phosphoinositol 3-Kinase (Pi3ka-Alpha) Inhibitor Byl719 In Head And Neck Cancers, Giananthony T. Rizzo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

PIK3CA is the only frequently mutated, druggable oncogene in head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC), with PIK3CA point mutations and gene amplification rates of 17.5% and 40% respectively, with higher rates in HPV-positive disease. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of BYL719, an α-specific PI3K inhibitor in HNSCC cell lines.

All cell lines with PIK3CA hotspot point mutations or gene amplifications will be sensitive to BYL719.

Twenty-eight HNSCC cell lines were subjected to increasing concentrations of BYL719 and cell viability was measured over time. Cell lines were screened for activating PIK3CA hotspot mutations and ...


Investigating Microenvironmental Regulation Of Human Chordoma Cell Behaviour, Priya Patel Jun 2014

Investigating Microenvironmental Regulation Of Human Chordoma Cell Behaviour, Priya Patel

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The tumor microenvironment is complex and often includes matricellular proteins and regions of hypoxia, which can promote stem and progenitor properties that regulate cancer cell biology. We hypothesized that hypoxia and CCN2 would promote notochord progenitor-like characteristics in human chordoma (U-CH1) cells, and assessed cell phenotype using Real-time qPCR and in vitro functional assays. We found the expression of CCN family members CCN1, CCN2, CCN3 and CCN5 in U-CH1 cells. We demonstrate that hypoxia and CCN2 promoted progenitor-like characteristics specific to the notochordal tissue of origin. Specifically, hypoxia had the greatest ability to promote progenitor characteristics (increase in notochord markers ...


Characterization Of The Anti-Apoptotic Function Of The Lysine Demethylase Plant Homeodomain Finger Protein 8 (Phf8), Kimberly Muranko Jun 2014

Characterization Of The Anti-Apoptotic Function Of The Lysine Demethylase Plant Homeodomain Finger Protein 8 (Phf8), Kimberly Muranko

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Apoptosis is an essential process in development and tissue maintenance. The tumor suppressor protein p53 initiates apoptosis through transactivation of pro-apoptotic genes when cellular stress is detected. This study identifies a regulatory role for the lysine demethylase, PHF8, in the p53-mediated apoptosis pathway. We initially suspected PHF8 of demethylating the adaptor protein Numb, however found this to be untrue. PHF8 has been found to have oncogenic properties including an anti-apoptotic effect, however how PHF8 negatively affects apoptosis has not been previously investigated. We found PHF8 inhibits translation of the pro-apoptotic genes TP53, BAX and CASP3. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed PHF8 binding ...