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Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Articles 1 - 21 of 21

Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

Characterization Of A More Clinically Relevant Human Leukemia Xenograft Model To Examine Perturbation Of Met/Sam Metabolism As A Novel Therapeutic Paradigm For Mll-R Leukemia In Vivo., Aditya Barve Aug 2019

Characterization Of A More Clinically Relevant Human Leukemia Xenograft Model To Examine Perturbation Of Met/Sam Metabolism As A Novel Therapeutic Paradigm For Mll-R Leukemia In Vivo., Aditya Barve

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), is a heterogeneous clonal disorder characterized by an accumulation of malignant myeloid progenitors in the bone marrow (BM), hindering normal hematopoiesis. AML exhibits dramatic heterogeneity in terms of cytogenetics, morphology, and chemotherapeutic sensitivity. Therefore, the investigation of novel, efficacious AML therapeutics will require advanced preclinical in vivo model systems, capable of recapitulating patient specific disease heterogeneity, and induction chemotherapy outcomes. A major focus and eventual outcome of this work was the establishment and development of a more clinically relevant mouse xenograft model of patient AML, that efficiently harbors patient derived xenografts (PDXs), and unlike more prevalent ...


Paraoxonase 2 Is Critical For Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Proliferation., Aaron Whitt May 2019

Paraoxonase 2 Is Critical For Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Proliferation., Aaron Whitt

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) comprises 85% of lung cancer diagnoses and is plagued by drug resistance. Thus, elucidating the underlying mechanisms of NSCLC is paramount to expand future treatment options. Paraoxonase 2 (PON2), an intracellular enzyme with arylesterase and lactonase functions, has well-established anti-atherosclerotic activity. Recent studies show PON2 is overexpressed in a variety of tumors and confers drug resistance, although these interactions have not been thoroughly examined in NSCLC. Thus, we sought to investigate the role of PON2 in cellular proliferation using PON2-knockout mice, primary mouse cells, and NSCLC cell lines. Using these approaches, we demonstrate that PON2 ...


Egfr Signaling From The Early Endosome., Julie A. Gosney Aug 2018

Egfr Signaling From The Early Endosome., Julie A. Gosney

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is an integral component of proliferative signaling. When activated by a ligand at the plasma membrane, EGFR dimerizes with another ErbB family receptor, leading to kinase domain activation and transphosphorylation of C-terminus tyrosine residues. These phosphotyrosines act as crucial regulators of EGFR signaling as effector proteins dock to the receptor at these sites. The receptor undergoes clathrin-mediated endocytosis into early endosomes, where it can then be trafficked to a lysosome for degradation. However, the kinase domain of EGFR retains its activity during trafficking, suggesting that EGFR can continue ...


Deciphering The Role Of Human Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase 1 (Nat1) In Breast Cancer Cell Metabolism Using A Systems Biology Approach., Samantha Marie Carlisle Aug 2018

Deciphering The Role Of Human Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase 1 (Nat1) In Breast Cancer Cell Metabolism Using A Systems Biology Approach., Samantha Marie Carlisle

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) is a phase II xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme found in almost all tissues. NAT1 can additionally hydrolyze acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) in the absence of an arylamine substrate. NAT1 expression varies inter-individually and is elevated in several cancers including estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancers. Additionally, multiple studies have shown the knockdown of NAT1, by both small molecule inhibition and siRNA methods, in breast cancer cells leads to decreased invasive ability and proliferation and decreased anchorage-independent colony formation. However, the exact mechanism by which NAT1 expression affects cancer risk and progression remains unclear. Additionally, consequences ...


Pi3k/Akt Signaling Activates Hsf1 To Preserve Proteostasis And Sustain Growth, Zijian Tang May 2018

Pi3k/Akt Signaling Activates Hsf1 To Preserve Proteostasis And Sustain Growth, Zijian Tang

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Signaling through oncogenic PI3K/AKT kinase pathway is crucial to cell and organ growth. Phosphorylation by AKT has long been perceived as a key factor to enhance protein biosynthesis that enables cell growth and survival. Here, we report that HSF1, the master regulator of the proteotoxic stress response (PSR), is a new AKT substrate. Beyond mobilizing the PSR under heat shock, the AKT-mediated HSF1 activation supports robust growth. In a mouse model of human megalencephaly, expression of a constitutively active PI3KCAsuffices to drive brain overgrowth, and strikingly, it also provokes proteomic chaos including protein aggregation and amyloidogenesis. Deletion of ...


The Dlk1-Meg3 Locus In Malignant Cells Of Proposed Primordial Germ Cell Origins., Zachariah Payne Sellers Aug 2017

The Dlk1-Meg3 Locus In Malignant Cells Of Proposed Primordial Germ Cell Origins., Zachariah Payne Sellers

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are hypothesized to deposit hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) along their migration route through the embryo during the early stages of embryogenesis. PGCs also undergo global chromatin remodeling, including the erasure and reestablishment of genomic imprints, during this migration. While PGCs do not spontaneously form teratomas, their malignant development into germ cell tumors (GCTs) in vivo is often accompanied by the retention of hypomethylation at the IGF2-H19 imprinting control differentially methylated region (DMR). Previous studies in bimaternal embryos determined that proper genomic imprinting at two paternally imprinted loci was necessary for their growth and development: Igf2-H19 and ...


Identifying The Signaling Mechanisms Of Egfr-Mediated Apoptosis., Nicole Marion Jackson May 2017

Identifying The Signaling Mechanisms Of Egfr-Mediated Apoptosis., Nicole Marion Jackson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is a 170-kilodalton transmembrane protein that belongs to the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Upon ligand-mediated activation, the EGFR is responsible for cell growth, proliferation, and tissue homeostasis; however, the EGFR is overexpressed in many human malignancies, including MDA-MB-468 cells, a metastatic breast epithelial cell line. Studies within this cell line, and other cell lines characterized with high EGFR levels, have shown that EGF stimulation results in the induction of apoptosis. However, the mechanisms and signaling effectors implicated in this process have yet to be elucidated. The overarching research goal of this dissertation ...


Dynamics Of Gene Networks In Cancer Research, Paul Scott Jan 2017

Dynamics Of Gene Networks In Cancer Research, Paul Scott

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cancer prevention treatments are being researched to see if an optimized treatment schedule would decrease the likelihood of a person being diagnosed with cancer. To do this we are looking at genes involved in the cell cycle and how they interact with one another. Through each gene expression during the life of a normal cell we get an understanding of the gene interactions and test these against those of a cancerous cell. First we construct a simplified network model of the normal gene network. Once we have this model we translate it into a transition matrix and force changes on ...


Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution, Synergistic Activity, And Antitumor Activity Of Two Isomeric Flavones, Crystal L. Whitted Dec 2016

Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution, Synergistic Activity, And Antitumor Activity Of Two Isomeric Flavones, Crystal L. Whitted

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Flavonoids are polyphenolic secondary metabolites found in plants that have bioactive properties including antiviral, antioxidant, and anticancer. Two isomeric flavone were extracted from Gnaphalium elegans and Achyrocline bogotensis, plants used by the people from the Andean region of South America as remedies for cancer. 5,7-dihydroxy-3,6,8-trimethoxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one (5, 7–dihydroxy- 3, 6, 8 trimethoxy flavone/ flavone A) and 3,5-dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one (3, 5–dihydroxy-6, 7, 8–trimethoxy flavone/ flavone B) have shown antineoplastic activity against colon cancer cell lines dependent upon their differentiation status. Pharmacokinetic studies reported herein were used to determine dosing for antitumor assays, as ...


The Apoptotic And Inhibitory Effects Of Phylloquinone In The U937 Cell Line, Tesha E. Blair May 2016

The Apoptotic And Inhibitory Effects Of Phylloquinone In The U937 Cell Line, Tesha E. Blair

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Phylloquinone is a natural analog of vitamin K that has been shown to both inhibit cancer cell growth and induce apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. This study examined these effects in a non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell line, known as U937. Cell growth inhibition and apoptosis were assessed through the quantification of cell density and area, following treatment with several concentrations of phylloquinone. In addition, apoptosis was detected and quantified using immunofluorescent markers of apoptosis (i.e. annexin V, APO-BrdU). Treatment with phylloquinone resulted in reduced overall cell density, increased overall cell area, and an increased frequency of apoptosis in U937 ...


Investigation Of Novel Functions For Dna Damage Response And Repair Proteins In Escherichia Coli And Humans, Benjamin A. Hilton May 2016

Investigation Of Novel Functions For Dna Damage Response And Repair Proteins In Escherichia Coli And Humans, Benjamin A. Hilton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Endogenous and exogenous agents that can damage DNA are a constant threat to genome stability in all living cells. In response, cells have evolved an array of mechanisms to repair DNA damage or to eliminate the cells damaged beyond repair. One of these mechanisms is nucleotide excision repair (NER) which is the major repair pathway responsible for removing a wide variety of bulky DNA lesions. Deficiency, or mutation, in one or several of the NER repair proteins is responsible for many diseases, including cancer. Prokaryotic NER involves only three proteins to recognize and incise a damaged site, while eukaryotic NER ...


Modulation Of Cell Death Signaling And Cell Proliferation By The Interaction Of Homoserine Lactones And Paraoxonase 2., Aaron Mackallan Neely May 2016

Modulation Of Cell Death Signaling And Cell Proliferation By The Interaction Of Homoserine Lactones And Paraoxonase 2., Aaron Mackallan Neely

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-homoserine lactone (C12) as a quorum-sensing molecule that functions to facilitate bacteria-bacteria communication. C12 has also been reported to affect many aspects of human host cell physiology, including evoking cell death in various types of cells. However, the signaling pathway(s) leading to C12-triggerred cell death remains unclear. To clarify cell death signaling induced by C12, we examined mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient in one or more caspases. Our data indicate that, unlike most apoptotic inducers, C12 evokes a novel form of apoptosis in cells, probably through the direct induction of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. Previous ...


Microrna-186 And Metastatic Prostate Cancer., Dominique Zilpha Jones May 2016

Microrna-186 And Metastatic Prostate Cancer., Dominique Zilpha Jones

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

MicroRNA (miR) dysregulation alters cancer-associated gene expression, which contributes to cancer pathogenesis. For example, miR-186 over expression lead to enhanced proliferation and migration in pancreatic cancer cell models. However, the role of miR-186 in prostate cancer (PCa) remains controversial. Previously, miR-186-5p was up-regulated in PCa patient serum (stage III/IV) compared to controls. Furthermore, miR-186-5p was up-regulated in metastatic PCa (PC-3, MDA PCa 2b, LNCaP) relative to normal prostate epithelial cells (RWPE1). We hypothesized miR-186 inhibition will reduce aggressive PCa using metastatic cell models. To test this, we evaluated whether miR-186-5p inhibition would reduce aggressive PCa behavior and overexpression induce ...


Regulation Of The Retinoblastoma Tumor Suppressor By The Novel Ras Effector Nore1a., Thibaut François Barnoud Dec 2015

Regulation Of The Retinoblastoma Tumor Suppressor By The Novel Ras Effector Nore1a., Thibaut François Barnoud

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ras is the most frequently mutated oncogene in human cancers. It acts as a critical branch point in signal transduction, regulating numerous downstream effectors involved in cell growth and differentiation. While Ras can activate many growth promoting pathways, it can paradoxically regulate growth inhibitory pathways leading to apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. One of the ways Ras can inhibit the growth of cells is via a family of effectors called the RASSF proteins. RASSF5 (NORE1A) is a tumor suppressor that is frequently inactivated in human tumors by epigenetic mechanisms. NORE1A binds directly to Ras and promotes Ras-induced senescence. We have ...


The Ras Effector Nore1a Forms A Tumor Suppressor Complex With Brca1., Nicholas C Nelson Dec 2015

The Ras Effector Nore1a Forms A Tumor Suppressor Complex With Brca1., Nicholas C Nelson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ras proteins function as molecular signaling switches that can stimulate multiple mitogenic pathways in response to extracellular signaling. Oncogenic activation of Ras by structural mutation is a highly transforming event in ~1/3 of human cancers. However, aberrant Ras activation can also promote oncogene-induced senescence. This Ras-induced irreversible growth arrest is a physiological process that acts as a barrier to malignancy. The mechanisms by which Ras drives senescence and how this process is bypassed during Ras-driven transformation remains poorly understood.

Although mutations in the RAS gene are extremely rare in human breast cancer, the Ras signaling pathway is constitutively activated ...


New Insights Into The Roles Of Human Dna Damage Checkpoint Protein Atr In The Regulation Of Nucleotide Excision Repair And Dna Damage-Induced Cell Death, Zhengke Li Dec 2013

New Insights Into The Roles Of Human Dna Damage Checkpoint Protein Atr In The Regulation Of Nucleotide Excision Repair And Dna Damage-Induced Cell Death, Zhengke Li

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Integrity of the human genome is frequently threatened by endogenous and exogenous DNA damaging reagents that may lead to genome instability and cancer. Cells have evolved multiple mechanisms to repair DNA damage or to eliminate the damaged cells beyond repair and to prevent diverse diseases. Among these are ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR)-mediated DNA damage checkpoint and nucleotide excision repair (NER) that are the major pathways by which cells handle ultraviolet C (UV-C)- or other exogenous genotoxin-induced bulky DNA damage. However, it is unclear how these 2 pathways may be coordinated. In this study we show that ATR physically ...


Investigating Potential Bioactive Compounds From Rhodococcus And Their Effects On Mcf7 Breast Cancer Cells, Megan N. Crabtree Dec 2013

Investigating Potential Bioactive Compounds From Rhodococcus And Their Effects On Mcf7 Breast Cancer Cells, Megan N. Crabtree

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Many drugs used in the treatment of various cancers are derived from or influenced by compounds from nature. The soil bacterium Rhodococcus is of interest because of its identified secondary metabolic pathways and the production of novel natural antibiotics from several strains. In this study, a solid agar extraction method was used to collect compounds from strains of Rhodococcus. These bacterial compound extracts were then tested using a MTT assay in order to evaluate their effectiveness in augmenting MCF7 breast cancer cell death. The results of two way ANOVA analyses revealed 18 compound extracts from 15 strains of Rhodococcus that ...


Prostasin Is Expressed In Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia And Regulates Cell Proliferation And Invasion Via Inos, Icam-1, And Cycli, Meghan Hatfield Jan 2008

Prostasin Is Expressed In Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia And Regulates Cell Proliferation And Invasion Via Inos, Icam-1, And Cycli, Meghan Hatfield

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Prostasin is expressed in normal prostate epithelial cells but down-regulated in prostate cancers, while prostasin re-expression in invasive prostate cancer cells reduced invasion. We examined prostasin expression and function in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We evaluated prostasin expression in 12 BPH specimens by immunohistochemistry, and evaluated the impact of prostasin silencing by siRNA on the expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and cyclin D1, as well as on cell proliferation and invasion, using the BPH-1 human prostate epithelial cell line model. Prostasin expression was localized in the glands of BPH tissues by immunohistochemistry, in ...


Role Of Transient Receptor Potential Canonical-6 (Trpc6) Channel In Metastasis Of Glioblastoma Multiforme, Rajarajeshwari Venkataraman Jan 2008

Role Of Transient Receptor Potential Canonical-6 (Trpc6) Channel In Metastasis Of Glioblastoma Multiforme, Rajarajeshwari Venkataraman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the extremely fatal brain tumors. The main reason that makes it so lethal is its capability to invade and spread to other parts of CNS producing secondary tumors. Among other factors hypoxia, reduced oxygen availability, is linked to higher metastatic potential of cancers. Hypoxia causes numerous changes in genome and proteome of the cell. These changes help a normal cell to adapt to nutritional deficiency, but the same changes can increase the malignancy and metastasis in tumor cells. Extensive research by a number of curious scientists reveal that various pathways involving numerous proteins cross-talk ...


Lim Kinase 1 Modulates Expression Of Matrix Metalloproteinases And Associates With Gamma-Tubulin: Dual Role In Invasion And Mito, Tenekua Tapia Jan 2007

Lim Kinase 1 Modulates Expression Of Matrix Metalloproteinases And Associates With Gamma-Tubulin: Dual Role In Invasion And Mito, Tenekua Tapia

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1) is a unique dual specificity serine/threonine kinase containing two N-terminal LIM domains in tandem, a PDZ domain and a C-terminal catalytic domain. LIMK1 is involved in modulation of actin cytoskeleton through inactivating phosphorylation of the ADF (actin depolymerization factor) family protein cofilin. Recent studies have shown that LIMK1 is upregulated in breast and prostate cancer cells and tissues, promotes metastasis in animals and induces acquisition of an invasive phenotype when ectopically expressed in benign prostate epithelial (BPH) cells. Furthermore, overexpression of LIMK1 was associated with altered sub cellular localization of the membrane type 1 matrix ...


Mechanism Of Action And Regulation Of Membrane Serine Protease Prostasin In The Prostate And Prostate Cancer, Mengqian Chen Jan 2007

Mechanism Of Action And Regulation Of Membrane Serine Protease Prostasin In The Prostate And Prostate Cancer, Mengqian Chen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored serine protease prostasin (PRSS8) is expressed at the apical membrane surface of epithelial cells and acts as a suppressor of tumor invasion when re-expressed in highly invasive human prostate and breast cancer cell lines. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-invasion phenotype associated with prostasin re-expression in prostate cancer cells, we expressed wild-type human prostasin or a serine active-site mutant prostasin in the PC-3 human prostate carcinoma cells. Molecular changes were measured at the mRNA and the protein levels. The expression of several invasion-promoting molecules is regulated by prostasin re-expression, mediated by a protein-level ...