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Articles 1 - 15 of 15

Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

Differential Roles Of Mammalian Target Of Rapamycin Complexes 1 And 2 In Migration Of Prostate Cancer Cells, Smrruthi Vaidegi Venugopal May 2019

Differential Roles Of Mammalian Target Of Rapamycin Complexes 1 And 2 In Migration Of Prostate Cancer Cells, Smrruthi Vaidegi Venugopal

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

In this study, we investigated differential activation and the role of two mTOR complexes in cell migration of prostate cancer cells. Specific knock-down of endogenous RAPTOR and RICTOR by siRNA resulted in decreased cell migration in LNCaP, DU145, and PC3 cells indicating that both mTORC1 and mTORC2 are required for cell migration. EGF treatment induced the activation of both mTORC1 and mTORC2 as determined by complex-specific phosphorylation of mTOR protein. Specific knock-down or inhibition of Rac1 activity in PC3 cells blocked EGF-induced activation of mTORC2, but had no effect on mTORC1 activation. Furthermore, the over-expression of constitutively active Rac1 (Rac1Q61L ...


Extraction, Purification And Evaluation Of Prmt5-Inhibitory Phytochemical Compounds For The Treatment Of Prostate Adenocarcinoma, Oliver H. Richmond Iii May 2019

Extraction, Purification And Evaluation Of Prmt5-Inhibitory Phytochemical Compounds For The Treatment Of Prostate Adenocarcinoma, Oliver H. Richmond Iii

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

The development and advancement of prostate cancer is supported by a plethora of genetic and proteomic abnormalities, including events of post-translational modifications. The protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) enzyme regulates epigenetic events of histone modifications and protein post-translational modifications within protein signaling pathways. PRMT5 functions by catalyzing the symmetric dimethylation of terminal arginine residues on target protein substrates. Under abnormal conditions of overexpression and upregulation, PRMT5 methyltransferase activity constitutively drives the growth and proliferation of dysregulated cells. Overexpression or upregulation of PRMT5 correlates with disease progression as observed among numerous cancer types, including breast, colorectal, leukemia, lung, melanoma and prostate ...


Loss Of Id4 Promotes Stemness In Prostate Cancer Cells, Dhanushka Hewabostanthirige May 2019

Loss Of Id4 Promotes Stemness In Prostate Cancer Cells, Dhanushka Hewabostanthirige

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

Inhibitor of differentiation 4 (ID4), a member of the helix-loop-helix family of transcriptional regulators has emerged as a tumor suppressor in prostate cancer (PCa). Recent studies have shown that Id4 is highly expressed in the normal prostate and decreases in prostate cancer due to epigenetic silencing. Id4 knockdown in androgen sensitive LNCaP cells has been shown to lead to castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in vitro and in vivo. Id4-/- mice leads to underdeveloped prostate with PIN like lesions without the loss of Androgen Receptor (AR) expression. In this study we demonstrate that the loss of ID4 expression in PCa ...


Establishment Of Crispr/Cas-9 Aided Knockout Of The Zic2 Gene In The African-American Prostate Cancer Cell Line E006aa-Pr, Janelle Moore May 2019

Establishment Of Crispr/Cas-9 Aided Knockout Of The Zic2 Gene In The African-American Prostate Cancer Cell Line E006aa-Pr, Janelle Moore

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

The largest U.S. cancer health disparity exists in prostate cancer, with African American men having the highest incidence and mortality rates. The present study evaluated the effects of ZIC2 and the underlying mechanisms in the E006 parental African-American cell line that produces tumors at accelerated growth rates because of the increase of ZIC2 genes in African-American males. We analyzed the experimental research that the overexpression of ZIC2 contributes to progression of prostate cancer. E006AA cells with overexpressed or suppressed ZIC2 were analyzed to determine phenotypic differences, PCR, cell proliferation and immunoblot assays. The expression levels of ZIC2 were analyzed ...


Synthetic Approaches Towards Novel Isoform Selective Pi3k Inhibitors And Their Biological Activities Against Prostate Cancer Cells, Idris Wazeerud-Din Aug 2018

Synthetic Approaches Towards Novel Isoform Selective Pi3k Inhibitors And Their Biological Activities Against Prostate Cancer Cells, Idris Wazeerud-Din

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

The development of novel imidazopyridines, which includes both tetrahydroimidazo[1,5-a]pyridine (rIMP) and imidazo[1,5-a]pyridine (IMP) was investigated using conventional and microwave induced procedures that afforded compounds at high yield of 88-96%. rIMP was synthesized using a two-step procedure that involved the microwave synthesis of IMP, then the reduction of the pyridine moiety of the fused imidazopyridine rings using 10% Pd/C and hydrazine monohydrate. The microwave synthesis of imidazopyridines involved the one pot reaction of 2-benzoylpyridine, substituted benzaldehyde and ammonium formate in acetic acid under open vessel microwave conditions, which resulted in products within 40 minutes ...


Regulation Of The Pi3-Kinase/Pten Signaling Pathway By Tgf-Β In Prostate Cancer Cells, Mawiyah Kimbrough-Allah May 2018

Regulation Of The Pi3-Kinase/Pten Signaling Pathway By Tgf-Β In Prostate Cancer Cells, Mawiyah Kimbrough-Allah

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

Transforming growth factor -β (TGF-β) plays an important role in the progression of prostate cancer. It acts as a tumor suppressor in normal epithelial cells but as a tumor promoter in advanced prostate cancer cells. The PI3-kinase pathway has been shown to play integral roles in many cellular processes including cell proliferation, survival, and cell migration in many cell types. PI3-kinase pathway mediates TGF-β effects on prostate cancer cell migration and invasion. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a tumor suppressor gene, inhibits PI3-kinase pathway and is frequently mutated in prostate cancers. In this present study, we investigated possible roles of ...


Mechanisms Of Age-Related Prostate Growth And Tumorigenesis, Deon O'Bryant May 2018

Mechanisms Of Age-Related Prostate Growth And Tumorigenesis, Deon O'Bryant

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy among men, but few genetic factors that drive prostate cancer initiation have been identified. The WD repeat domain 77 (Wdr77) protein is essential for cellular proliferation when it localizes in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells at the early stage of prostate development. In the adult prostate, it is transported into the nucleus and functions as a co-regulator of the androgen receptor to promote cellular differentiation and prostate function. This developmental process is reversed during prostate tumorigenesis i.e., Wdr77 is translocated from the nucleus into the cytoplasm to drive proliferation of prostate ...


Inhibition Of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (Ahr) Activity Decreases Abcg2 Expression And Activity, Stanley J. Williams May 2018

Inhibition Of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (Ahr) Activity Decreases Abcg2 Expression And Activity, Stanley J. Williams

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

The androgen receptor’s (AR) resurgence following treatment leads to castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Studies show that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) regulates AR signaling, is constitutively active, and enhances AR signaling in CRPC. AhR has ligands with carcinogenic properties and interacts with phytochemicals with anti-tumorigenic properties. Curcumin inhibits AhR activity and multidrug transporter ABCG2 activity, which mediates substrates out of the cell. Elevated ABCG2 expression causes resistance to anticancer drugs. AhR transcriptionally activates ABCG2 and our hypothesis is that inhibition of AhR activity by curcumin will decrease ABCG2 expression and activity in CRPC cells. C4-2 cells were treated ...


Characterization Of Zic2 As An Oncoprotein In Prostate Cancer, Keira C. Davis May 2017

Characterization Of Zic2 As An Oncoprotein In Prostate Cancer, Keira C. Davis

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

The field of prostate cancer research is in need of biological markers that predict which cancers do not need treatment, those that can be treated successfully with a localized treatment and more specific cases in which patients are likely to have an aggressive form of cancer that will require more aggressive surgical and chemotherapeutic treatments. ZIC2 is one of five members of a family of proteins that play critical roles in neural crest and mesoderm growth in normal embryonic brain development and in the adult cerebellum of vertebrates. Found throughout the animal kingdom, ZIC1-5 genes encode five distinct ZIC proteins ...


Cannabinoid Receptor 2 And C-X-C Chemokine Receptor 4 Interact To Abrogate Cxcl12-Mediated Cellular Response, Christopher James Coke May 2017

Cannabinoid Receptor 2 And C-X-C Chemokine Receptor 4 Interact To Abrogate Cxcl12-Mediated Cellular Response, Christopher James Coke

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

The expression of C-X-C Chemokine Receptor 4 (CXCR4) has been correlated with increased metastatic potential of cancer cells. CXCR4 increases tumor malignancy by encouraging tumors cells to migrate to distal organs expressing its cognate ligand, CXCL12, facilitating metastasis. Thus, targeting the CXCR4/CXCL12 signaling axis provides a good strategy to inhibit the metastatic spread of tumor cells and slow cancer progression. Various studies suggest that cannabis may have anti-proliferative as well as anti-metastatic properties, though a biochemical mechanism describing how this occurs has yet to be discovered. Our lab has confirmed that agonist-bound CXCR4 and agonist-bound Cannabinoid Receptor 2 (CB2 ...


Mechanism Of Action Of Id4 As A Tumor Suppressor, Shravan Kumar Komaragiri Dec 2016

Mechanism Of Action Of Id4 As A Tumor Suppressor, Shravan Kumar Komaragiri

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

Initial studies demonstrated that Inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation protein 4 (Id4) acts as a tumor suppressor in prostate cancer (PCa). To further confirm and investigate the mechanism by which ID4 acts as a tumor suppressor, herein we concentrated on two different approaches. In the first approach we investigated ID4 role as a tumor suppressor by regulating AKT/PI3K pathway. In the second approach, we examined the role of Id4 in blocking the tumorogenic properties of metastatic PC3 cells. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Protein kinase B (PI3/AKT) pathway regulates multiple biological processes leading to cell survival, proliferation and growth in cancerous ...


Id4 And Fkbp52 Interaction Regulates Androgen Receptor Activity: Mechanistic Insight, Jugal Bharat Joshi Dec 2016

Id4 And Fkbp52 Interaction Regulates Androgen Receptor Activity: Mechanistic Insight, Jugal Bharat Joshi

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

The inhibitor of DNA binding protein 4 (ID4) is a dominant negative regulator of basic helix loop helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors.1 Recently, Patel et al., demonstrated that inhibitor of differentiation 4 (ID4) acts as a tumor suppressor and its loss, frequently observed in prostate cancer, promotes castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) through constitutive androgen receptor (AR) activation.2 However, the mechanism by which loss of ID4 promotes constitutively active AR signaling in the CRPC conditions is unknown. The rationale of the present study was to unravel the underlying molecular mechanisms through which loss of ID4 potentiates AR signaling ...


Epas1 Promotes Endothelial Cell Migration In An Irx3-Dependent Manner, Petrina K. Barnett May 2016

Epas1 Promotes Endothelial Cell Migration In An Irx3-Dependent Manner, Petrina K. Barnett

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

Iroquois homeobox gene 3 (Irx3) is a transcription factor belonging to the Iroquois family of homeobox genes that is expressed in the embryonic organs of multiple organisms. Although much is known about Irx3 during embryogenesis, the cross talk of expression and function of Irx3 in peripheral vascular disease (PVD) remains to be investigated. Herein, we demonstrate that Endothelial PAS Domain 1 (EPAS1), which is involved in vasculogenesis and diseases associated with hypoxia, is an upstream regulator of Irx3, and this interaction contributes to the cellular movement of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs). Genetic EPAS1 loss-of-function (LOF) studies in HMVECs resulted ...


Id4 Acts As A Tumor Suppressor Via P53: Mechanistic Insight, Derrick J. Morton Jr. May 2016

Id4 Acts As A Tumor Suppressor Via P53: Mechanistic Insight, Derrick J. Morton Jr.

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

Overexpression of tumor-derived mutant p53 is a common event in tumorigenesis, suggesting an advantageous selective pressure in cancer initiation and progression. Given that p53 is found to be mutated in 50% of all human cancers, restoration of mutant p53 to its wild type biological function has been a widely sought after avenue for cancer therapy. Most research efforts have largely focused on restoration of mutant p53 by artificial means given that p53 has some degree of conformational flexibility allowing for introduction of short peptides and artificial compounds. Recently, theoretical modeling and studies focused on restoration of mutant p53 by physiological ...


Epigenetic Silencing Of Id4 In Prostate Cancer: Mechanistic Insight, Swathi Chinaranagari May 2015

Epigenetic Silencing Of Id4 In Prostate Cancer: Mechanistic Insight, Swathi Chinaranagari

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

Inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation protein 4 (ID4) is a dominant negative regulator of basic helix loop helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors. ID4 shares the homology of HLH domain with other ID proteins (ID1, ID2, and ID3) and lack the basic DNA binding region. Evidence suggested that unlike ID1, ID2 and ID3, ID4 acts as a tumor suppressor in prostate cancer by attenuating cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis. Consistent with these observations ID4 is epigenetically silenced in DU145 prostate cancer cell line. In this study we investigated whether ID4 is also epigenetically silenced in prostate cancer. We also examined ...