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Articles 1 - 14 of 14
Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology
Combination Regimens Using Dietary Components For The Chemoprevention Of Colorectal Cancer And Inflammation, Christina Dimarco-Crook
COMBINATION REGIMENS USING DIETARY COMPONENTS FOR THE
CHEMOPREVENTION OF COLORECTAL CANCER
CHRISTINA DIMARCO-CROOK, B.S., IMMACULATA UNIVERSITY
M.S., DREXEL UNIVERSITY
Ph.D., UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST
Directed by: Professor Hang Xiao
Dietary components have been found to effectively modulate multiple deregulated signaling pathways associated with the initiation and progression of carcinogenesis and inflammation in cellular and animal models. However, clinical studies have shown mixed results when examining the efficacy of individual dietary components, perhaps suggestive of the synergism that exists between multiple components within a particular food and the diet as a whole. Additional ...
Inhibition Of Dna Methylation In Acquired Tamoxifen-Resistant Breast Cancer: Cell Line Model And Clinical Implications, Stephanie Zimmers
One out of every eight American women will develop invasive breast cancer throughout their lifetime. Approximately 70% of breast cancers are estrogen receptor alpha (ER)-positive and can therefore be treated with an anti-estrogen such as tamoxifen. Although tamoxifen treatment has been successful at reducing breast cancer death rates, nearly one-third of women treated with tamoxifen for 5 years will have disease recurrence. Therefore, it is imperative that researchers investigate the mechanisms involved in developing acquired tamoxifen resistance and identify biomarkers that are predictive of acquired resistance.
DNA methylation is known to play a role in the development of breast ...
Bioengineered Platforms To Study Carcinoma Cell Response To Drug Treatment, Thuy V. Nguyen
The tumor extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in facilitating tumor growth and mediating tumor cells' resistance to drugs. However, during drug development, potential chemotherapeutics are screened in plastic plates, which lack relevant ECM physicochemical cues. In order to improve drug development process, this dissertation includes the development of relevant 2D and 3D biomaterial systems that can be used to study carcinoma cell response to drug treatment.
A novel poly(ethylene glycol)-phosphorylcholine (PEG-PC) high-throughput biomaterial platform was developed to study how the ECM mechanochemical properties affect cancer cells' response to drug. The PEG-PC biomaterial is optically transparent, has ...
Alternative Methods For The Treatment Of Chemo-Resistant Cancers, Kaitlyn Wong
Great strides have been made in cancer therapy in the past century, yet it remains one of the leading causes of death in the United States today. This work aimed to shed light on novel methods to treat a variety of aggressive and often chemo-resistant cancers both in vitro and in vivo.
The first aim of this work was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of poly(methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (polyMPC) prodrugs compared to standard chemotherapeutic agents. Conjugation of polyMPC to drugs such as doxorubicin (Dox) can result in its improved solubility, prolonged half-life and therapeutic efficacy. PolyMPC and polyMPC-Dox (at a ...
Investigation Of Zyflamend On Ampk Signaling And Potential Interactions Of Its Components, Yi Zhao
The reductionist approach contributes greatly to our understanding of anticancer properties of phytonutrients, but in vitro studies demand concentrations that are 100-1000 times higher than achievable in humans, producing results with little physiologic relevance, resulting in disappointing outcomes in clinical trials. However, maintaining these bioactives in the presence of other compounds originally derived from the food/extract of origin may synergistically lower the bioactive dose so translatability becomes feasible. The first objective of this study was to determine if bioefficacy of phytonutrients can be enhanced when used in combination at doses that are ineffective when used in isolation. In this ...
Mimicking The Arterial Microenvironment With Peg-Pc To Investigate The Roles Of Physicochemical Stimuli In Smc Phenotype And Behavior, William G. Herrick
The goal of this dissertation was to parse the roles of physical, mechanical and chemical cues in the phenotype plasticity of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in atherosclerosis. We first developed and characterized a novel synthetic hydrogel with desirable traits for studying mechanotransduction in vitro. This hydrogel, PEG-PC, is a co-polymer of poly(ethylene glycol) and phosphorylcholine with an incredible range of Young’s moduli (~1 kPa - 9 MPa) that enables reproduction of nearly any tissue stiffness, exceptional optical and anti-fouling properties, and support for covalent attachment of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. To our knowledge, this combination of mechanical range, low ...
Engineering Novel Detection And Treatment Strategies For Bacterial Therapy Of Cancer, Jan T. Panteli
Finding and treating cancer is difficult due to limited sensitivity and specificity of current detection and treatment strategies. Many chemotherapeutic drugs are small molecules that are limited by diffusion, making it difficult to reach cancer sites requiring high doses that lead to systemic toxicity and off-target effects. Tomographic detection techniques, like PET, MRI and CT, are good at identifying macroscopic lesions in the body but are limited in their ability to detect microscopic lesions. Biomarker detection strategies are extremely sensitive and able to identify ng/ml concentrations of protein, but are poor at discriminating between healthy and disease state levels ...
The Role Of Nag-1 In Tumorigenesis, Kyung-Won Min
The Role Of Nag-1 In Tumorigenesis, Kyung-Won Min
This dissertation explores the nature of a divergent member of the Transforming Growth Factor-β [beta] superfamily, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs activated gene (NAG-1), as it relates to its regulation and biological activity in cancer context. Our lab has extensively studied on the molecular mechanism by which phytochemicals and NSAIDs induce apoptosis correlation with NAG-1 expression in human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Significant data from in vitro studies suggest that NAG-1 has an anti-tumorigenic activity which elicits apoptosis in a cyclooxygenase (COX)-independent manner in CRC cells. Indeed, NAG-1 transgenic mice developed less aberrant polyp foci (APC) compared to those of ...
Suppression Of Chronically Induced Breast Carcinogenesis And Role Of Mesenchymal Stem-Like Cells, Kusum Rathore
Sporadic breast cancers are mainly attributable to long-term exposure to environmental factors, via a multi-year, multi-step, and multi-path process of tumorigenesis involving cumulative genetic and epigenetic alterations in the chronic carcinogenesis of breast cells from a non-cancerous stage to precancerous and cancerous stages. Epidemiologic and experimental studies have suggested that various dietary compounds like green tea and grape seed may be used as preventive agents for breast cancer control. In this research, I have developed a cellular model that mimics breast cell carcinogenesis chronically induced by cumulative exposures to low doses of environmental carcinogens. I used the chronic carcinogenesis model ...
The Utilization Of Mouse Models To Study Gene Functions: The Role Of Foxn3 And Chd2 In Murine Development And Cancer, George Azaz Samaan
Murine model organisms are an essential tool in the scientific community quest to decipher the molecular etiology of human diseases. Currently, several methods are used to induce or reproduce human diseases in mouse models using advanced genetic engineering techniques to mutate the wild-type genes. We utilized the Baygenomics gene-trap method to study the effects of two mammalian genes: FOXN3 and CHD2. The Forkhead Box (FOX) family of transcription factors shares a common DNA-binding domain and has been associated with organ development, differentiation, cell growth and proliferation, and cancer. Meanwhile, the CHD (Chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein) family of proteins is ...
Alternative Splicing In Human Colorectal Cancer, Jae Hoon Bahn
Alternative Splicing In Human Colorectal Cancer, Jae Hoon Bahn
Most human genes undergo alternative splicing, and many abnormal splicing processes are associated with human diseases. However, the molecular relationship between alternative splicing and tumorigenesis is not well understood. Here, we identified novel Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) splicing variants produced by exon skipping in human cancer cell lines as well as colon tumor tissues. To elucidate the mechanism involved in KLF4 alternative splicing, we developed KLF4 minigene system and found that RNA binding motif protein 5 (RBM5) plays an important role in KLF4 splicing, as assessed by gain and loss of functional studies. Several anti-tumorigenic compounds were also tested for ...
Characterizing The Role Of Dna Repair Proteins In Telomere Length Regulation And Maintenance: Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group C Protein And 8-Oxoguanine Dna Glycosylase, David Beomjin Rhee
Telomeres are the chromosome end structures consisting of telomere-associated proteins and short tandem repeat sequences, TTAGGG, in humans and mice. Telomeres prevent chromosome termini from being recognized as broken DNA ends. The structural integrity of DNA including telomeres is constantly threatened by a variety of DNA damaging agents on a daily basis. To counteract the constant threats from DNA damage, organisms have developed a number of DNA repair pathways to ensure that the integrity of genome remains intact. A number of DNA repair proteins localize to telomeres and contribute to telomere maintenance; however, it is still unclear as to what ...
Functional Analysis Of Chromodomain Helicase Dna Binding Protein 2(Chd2) Mediated Genomic Stability, Sangeetha Rajagopalan
Histone modifying enzymes and chromatin remodeling complexes play an important regulatory role in chromatin dynamics that dictate the interaction of regulatory factors involved in processes such as DNA replication, recombination, repair and transcription, with DNA template. The CHD (Chromodomain Helicase DNA Binding Protein) family of proteins is known to be involved in the regulation of gene expression, recombination and chromatin remodeling via their chromatin specific interactions and activities. Phenotypic analysis of the Chd2 mutant mouse model developed by our laboratory indicates that the Chd2 protein plays a critical role in tumor suppression as the heterozygous mutant mice develop spontaneous lymphomas ...
Studies On The Morphology And Growh Rate Of The Cestode Hymenolepis Microstoma After Gamma Irradiation Of The Cysticercoids And Eggs, Huldrich H. Kuhlman
From the literature on effects of radiation on mammals, insects, and other organisms, it appears that radiation produces abnormalities chiefly by destroying or inhibiting growing cells and tissues. The effects on length of the worms may be due to reduction in cell population responsible for growth. The presence of certain morphological abnormalities which have been observed, particularly those which have been characterized by the absence of one or more reproductive organs, might also be attributed to a change in the growth or embryological apparatus and that radiation only serves to increase the frequency of these disturbances.
For further similar studies ...