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Articles 1 - 24 of 24

Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

Eralpha Isoforms Modulate The Tumorigenicity Of 24r,25(Oh)2d3 In Estrogen-Responsive Cancer, Anjali Verma Jan 2019

Eralpha Isoforms Modulate The Tumorigenicity Of 24r,25(Oh)2d3 In Estrogen-Responsive Cancer, Anjali Verma

Theses and Dissertations

Over 200,000 cases of breast cancer are diagnosed every year. Nearly 20% of these patients supplement their diets with some form of vitamin D. This high frequency of vitamin D supplement use may be due in part to research suggesting that cancer patients with higher serum vitamin D3 levels have better prognoses than patients with low serum vitamin D3. However, double-blind clinical trials on the efficacy of vitamin D3 supplementation in breast cancer have been inconclusive. A recent meta-analysis showed evidence of reduced cancer recurrence in patients taking vitamin D3 supplements who had ‘estrogen receptor ...


Regorafenib Enhances Lethality Of Sildenafil And Curcumin In Colorectal Cancer Cells, Kervin Benjamin Owusu Jan 2019

Regorafenib Enhances Lethality Of Sildenafil And Curcumin In Colorectal Cancer Cells, Kervin Benjamin Owusu

Theses and Dissertations

In the United States, more than 130,000 people will be diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) each year and an estimated 50,000 people will die from the disease. Standard of care (SOC) therapies for CRC combine multiple cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drugs. These combinations have varying degrees of effectiveness and can often result in significant patient morbidity. For second recurrence patients, the multi-kinase inhibitor, regorafenib, is an approved agent, but is often poorly tolerated at current doses. In the current study, we propose to develop therapeutic regime of combining agents with modest toxicity profiles: curcumin and sildenafil with regorafenib. Using clinically ...


The Role Of Kras In Mechanosensing In Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Krista M. Powell Jan 2019

The Role Of Kras In Mechanosensing In Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Krista M. Powell

Theses and Dissertations

Lung cancer is the number one cause of cancer related death worldwide, with more than 1.6 million fatalities each year. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 80-85% of all lung cancers, with KRAS being one of the most prevalent oncogenic driver mutations. Therapeutic approaches for KRAS-mutated NSCLC have been extensively explored due to the US National Cancer Institute RAS Initiative, but methods of directly targeting KRAS or downstream effectors, such as MEK, still have poor results. Previous reports have shown that KRAS-mutated NSCLC activate distinct receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) depending on the epithelial or mesenchymal state. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition ...


Two Phase Model To Study The Correlation Between Brain Tumor Growth Rate And The Formation Of Peritumoral Edema, Inmaculada Sorribes, Helen Byrne, Nicholas Moore, Harsh Jain May 2018

Two Phase Model To Study The Correlation Between Brain Tumor Growth Rate And The Formation Of Peritumoral Edema, Inmaculada Sorribes, Helen Byrne, Nicholas Moore, Harsh Jain

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Mechanisms Of B-Myb Oncogenicity In Ovarian Cancer, Audra N. Iness Jan 2018

Mechanisms Of B-Myb Oncogenicity In Ovarian Cancer, Audra N. Iness

Theses and Dissertations

High expression of B-Myb (encoded by MYBL2), an oncogenic transcription factor, is associated with cell cycle deregulation and poor prognosis in several cancers, including ovarian cancer. However, the mechanism by which B-Myb alters the cell cycle is not fully understood. In proliferating cells, B-Myb interacts with the MuvB core complex including LIN9, LIN37, LIN52, RBBP4, and LIN54, forming the MMB (Myb-MuvB) complex, and promotes transcription of genes required for mitosis. Alternatively, the MuvB core interacts with Rb-like protein p130 and E2F4-DP1 to form the DREAM complex that mediates global repression of cell cycle genes in G0/G1, including a subset ...


Evaluation And Adaptation Of Live-Cell Interferometry For Applications In Basic, Translational, And Clinical Research, Kevin A. Leslie Jan 2018

Evaluation And Adaptation Of Live-Cell Interferometry For Applications In Basic, Translational, And Clinical Research, Kevin A. Leslie

Theses and Dissertations

Cell mass is an important indicator of cell health and status. A diverse set of techniques have been developed to precisely measure the masses of single cells, with varying degrees of technical complexity and throughput. Here, the development of a non-invasive, label-free optical technique, termed Live-Cell Interferometry (LCI), is described. Several applications are presented, including an evaluation of LCI’s utility for assessing drug response heterogeneity in patient-derived melanoma lines and the measurement of CD3+ T cell kinetics during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The characterization of mast cells during degranulation, the measurement of viral reactivation kinetics in Kaposi’s Sarcoma ...


Ibrutinib In Combination With Sorafenib Synergistically Inhibits Proliferation And Survival Of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells By Targeting Egfr Signaling Pathway, Cho-Hao Lin, Nissar Wani, Khadija Elkholy, Kalpana Ghoshal Jan 2017

Ibrutinib In Combination With Sorafenib Synergistically Inhibits Proliferation And Survival Of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells By Targeting Egfr Signaling Pathway, Cho-Hao Lin, Nissar Wani, Khadija Elkholy, Kalpana Ghoshal

Hepatobiliary Cancers: Pathobiology and Translational Advances

No abstract provided.


Convergence Of Wnt/Beta-Catenin And Mtor Signaling In Liver Physiology And Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Adeola O. Adebayo Michael, Junyan Tao, Satdarshan P. Monga Jan 2017

Convergence Of Wnt/Beta-Catenin And Mtor Signaling In Liver Physiology And Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Adeola O. Adebayo Michael, Junyan Tao, Satdarshan P. Monga

Hepatobiliary Cancers: Pathobiology and Translational Advances

No abstract provided.


Oncogenic Nelfe Enhances Myc-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinogenesis, Hien Dang, Atsushi Takai, Marshonna Forgues, Yosawat Pomyen, Haiwei Mou, Wen Xue, Debashish Ray, Kevn Ha, Quiad Morris, Timothy Hughes, Xin Wei Wang Jan 2017

Oncogenic Nelfe Enhances Myc-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinogenesis, Hien Dang, Atsushi Takai, Marshonna Forgues, Yosawat Pomyen, Haiwei Mou, Wen Xue, Debashish Ray, Kevn Ha, Quiad Morris, Timothy Hughes, Xin Wei Wang

Hepatobiliary Cancers: Pathobiology and Translational Advances

No abstract provided.


Hepatocyte-Specific Deletion Of Tristetraprolin Family Of Rna Binding Proteins Result In The Development Of Hepatocellular Carcinomas, Sonika Patial Jan 2017

Hepatocyte-Specific Deletion Of Tristetraprolin Family Of Rna Binding Proteins Result In The Development Of Hepatocellular Carcinomas, Sonika Patial

Hepatobiliary Cancers: Pathobiology and Translational Advances

No abstract provided.


Yap Functions Via Tead Mediated Transcriptional Activation In Hepatoblastoma Pathogenesis, Junyan Tao 8598903, Pin Liu, Jie Zhang, Sucha Singh, Xin Chen, Na Zhan, Satdarshan (Paul) Singh Monga Jan 2017

Yap Functions Via Tead Mediated Transcriptional Activation In Hepatoblastoma Pathogenesis, Junyan Tao 8598903, Pin Liu, Jie Zhang, Sucha Singh, Xin Chen, Na Zhan, Satdarshan (Paul) Singh Monga

Hepatobiliary Cancers: Pathobiology and Translational Advances

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Kinase Fusion Dnajb1-Prkaca In Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Yi Guo Jan 2017

The Role Of Kinase Fusion Dnajb1-Prkaca In Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Yi Guo

Hepatobiliary Cancers: Pathobiology and Translational Advances

No abstract provided.


Kruppel-Like Factor 2 In Cholangiocarcinoma, Cody J. Wehrkamp, Justin L. Mott Jan 2017

Kruppel-Like Factor 2 In Cholangiocarcinoma, Cody J. Wehrkamp, Justin L. Mott

Hepatobiliary Cancers: Pathobiology and Translational Advances

No abstract provided.


Survival Model Of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma; Sex As A Biological Variable, Mary A. Phillippi, Justin L. Mott, Cody J. Wehrkamp, Ying Xie, David Oupicky, Ashley M. Mohr, Bailey A. Stringham Jan 2017

Survival Model Of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma; Sex As A Biological Variable, Mary A. Phillippi, Justin L. Mott, Cody J. Wehrkamp, Ying Xie, David Oupicky, Ashley M. Mohr, Bailey A. Stringham

Hepatobiliary Cancers: Pathobiology and Translational Advances

No abstract provided.


Explicitly Separating Growth And Motility In A Glioblastoma Tumor Model, Tracy Stepien, Erica Rutter, Meng Fan, Yang Kuang May 2016

Explicitly Separating Growth And Motility In A Glioblastoma Tumor Model, Tracy Stepien, Erica Rutter, Meng Fan, Yang Kuang

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Adducins Are Negative Regulators Of Migration And Invasion Of Normal Lung Epithelial Cells And Lung Cancer Cells, Parth Hitenbhai Amin, Parth Amin Jan 2016

Adducins Are Negative Regulators Of Migration And Invasion Of Normal Lung Epithelial Cells And Lung Cancer Cells, Parth Hitenbhai Amin, Parth Amin

Theses and Dissertations

Cell migration is an important component of many physiological and pathological processes such as tissue and organ morphogenesis during development, wound healing, inflammatory immune response, and tumor metastasis. The actin cytoskeleton is the basic engine driving cell migration. In the present study, we elucidate the role of an important actin interacting proteins, Adducins, in motility of normal lung epithelium and lung cancer cells. Adducins are the family of cytoskeleton protein capping the fast growing end and facilitating the bundling of actin filaments. Adducins are encoded by the three closely related genes namely alpha (ADD1), beta (ADD2) and gamma (ADD3) Adducin ...


Introducing Novel Combinatorial Targeted Therapies In Multiple Types Of Cancer, Mehrad Tavallai Jan 2016

Introducing Novel Combinatorial Targeted Therapies In Multiple Types Of Cancer, Mehrad Tavallai

Theses and Dissertations

The cancers of liver, colon and breast are amongst the top five most prevalent and most fatal worldwide. As the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway is frequently deregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), sorafenib, a Raf kinase inhibitor, became the first systemic therapy approved for the treatment of patients with HCC. However, sorafenib only produced modest effects with low response rates in the clinic. Similarly, regorafenib, which was approved for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC), has had a poor response rate in the clinic. Since phosphodiesterase type 5 has been reported to be overexpressed in HCC and CRC, we hypothesized ...


Rheb Dynamics On Lysosomal Membranes Determines Mtorc1 Activity After Loss Of P53 Or Activation Of Ampk, Catherine M. Bell Jan 2015

Rheb Dynamics On Lysosomal Membranes Determines Mtorc1 Activity After Loss Of P53 Or Activation Of Ampk, Catherine M. Bell

Theses and Dissertations

The tumor suppressor TP53 is the most frequently altered gene in human cancers. The growth-promoting complex, mTORC1 plays a part of the oncogenic profile caused by dysfunctional p53. mTORC1 sits downstream of AMPK and other crucial tumor suppressors/oncogenes, PTEN, LKB1, and Akt. The antifolate pemetrexed was found by this laboratory to activate AMPK via the inhibition of the enzyme AICART in de novo purine synthesis. This work presents a mechanism of mTORC1 activation with p53 loss, as well as of mTORC1 inhibition by pemetrexed-induced AMPK. We have found that mTORC1 activity was substantially upregulated by the loss or mutation ...


Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity And Its Modulation In The Treatment Of Colorectal Cancer, Asim Alam Jan 2015

Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity And Its Modulation In The Treatment Of Colorectal Cancer, Asim Alam

Theses and Dissertations

The American Cancer Society estimates more than 141,000 new cases of and about 50,000 deaths from colorectal cancer every year. Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy and targeted therapies such as anti-angiogenics. However, no therapies address the key driving factor of colorectal cancer: inflammation. It is well known that chronic inflammatory conditions such as Crohn’s Disease, ulcerative colitis, diabetes, obesity and cigarette smoking all elevate the risk of developing colorectal cancer. One of the hallmarks of chronic inflammation is the elevated levels of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). A primary source of these ROS/RNS is ...


The Role Of Srsf3 In Control Of Alternative Splicing Of Cpeb2 In Triple Negative Breast Cancer, Brian P. Griffin Jan 2015

The Role Of Srsf3 In Control Of Alternative Splicing Of Cpeb2 In Triple Negative Breast Cancer, Brian P. Griffin

Theses and Dissertations

In the presented study, we identified that SRSF3 controls the alternative splicing of CPEB2 and consequently promotes a metastatic phenotype in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). TNBC causes thousands of deaths annually, frequently due to a lack of effective treatments and a high rate of metastasis in patients. Alternative splicing has been found to be dysregulated in numerous cancers, while splicing factors such as SRSF3 are variably expressed. In this study we performed a siRNA panel to screen potential splicing factors, then used specific siRNA to study the effect of its knockdown on cellular function. These results showed that SRSF3 ...


Immunotherapy Of Cancer: Reprogramming Tumor/Immune Cellular Crosstalk To Improve Anti-Tumor Efficacy, Kyle K. Payne Jan 2015

Immunotherapy Of Cancer: Reprogramming Tumor/Immune Cellular Crosstalk To Improve Anti-Tumor Efficacy, Kyle K. Payne

Theses and Dissertations

Immunotherapy of cancer has been shown to be promising in prolonging patient survival. However, complete elimination of cancer and life-long relapse-free survival remain to be major challenge for anti-cancer therapeutics. We have previously reported that ex vivo reprogramming of tumor-sensitized immune cells by bryostatin 1/ionomycin (B/I) and the gamma-chain (γ-c) cytokines IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15 resulted in the generation of memory T cells as well as CD25+ NKT cells and CD25+ NK cells. Adoptive cellular therapy (ACT) utilizing these reprogrammed immune cells protected FVBN202 mice from tumor challenge, and overcame the suppressive functions of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs ...


Pemetrexed, A Modulator Of Amp-Activated Kinase Signaling And An Inhibitor Of Wild Type And Mutant P53, Stuti Agarwal Jan 2015

Pemetrexed, A Modulator Of Amp-Activated Kinase Signaling And An Inhibitor Of Wild Type And Mutant P53, Stuti Agarwal

Theses and Dissertations

New drug discoveries and new approaches towards diagnosis and treatment have improved cancer therapeutics remarkably. One of the most influential and effective discoveries in the field of cancer therapeutics was antimetabolites, such as the antifolates. The interest in antifolates increased as some of the antifolates showed responses in cancers, such as mesothelioma, leukemia, and breast cancers. When pemetrexed (PTX) was discovered, our laboratory had established that the primary mechanism of action of pemetrexed is to inhibit thymidylate 22 synthase (TS) (E. Taylor et al., 1992). Preclinical studies have shown that PTX has a broad range of antitumor activity in human ...


The Effect Of Lactic Acid On Mast Cell Function, Andrew J. Spence Jan 2014

The Effect Of Lactic Acid On Mast Cell Function, Andrew J. Spence

Theses and Dissertations

This study shows for the first time the effect that L-(+)-lactic acid has on mast cell activation. Lactic acid is a byproduct of anaerobic glycolysis and is associated with inflammatory environments such as wounds, tumors and, asthma. In this study, pre-treatment with lactic acid altered cytokine production by bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC). Specifically, lactic acid enhanced cytokine secretion following IgE cross-linking, but decreased IL-33 mediated cytokine production. These effects were altered by genetic background, since C57BL/6 mast cells demonstrated the aforementioned result, but lactic acid had no effect on IgE-mediated cytokine production in 129/SvJ mast cells ...


Sildenafil And Celecoxib Interact To Kill Breast Cancer Cells, Brittany Binion Jan 2014

Sildenafil And Celecoxib Interact To Kill Breast Cancer Cells, Brittany Binion

Theses and Dissertations

Breast cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among American women and is responsible for the second highest number of cancer-related deaths. Targeted therapeutic agents sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, and celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, have been used individually in conjunction with other chemotherapeutic agents to enhance cell killing in a variety of cancers. Sildenafil when combined with traditional chemotherapeutic drugs, such as the taxanes and anthracyclines, or celecoxib combined with traditional hormone therapies have been used to increase cytotoxicity and cell killing. The data presented here demonstrates that the novel combination of sildenafil and celecoxib work together ...