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Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

Using Crispr To Induce A Knock-Out Of Dprl-1 In Drosophila Melanogaster, Alicia Walker Jan 2018

Using Crispr To Induce A Knock-Out Of Dprl-1 In Drosophila Melanogaster, Alicia Walker

Summer Research

Phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL) is a protein that controls cell processes such as growth and division which has unknown targets. PRL has been found to have both oncogenic and tumor suppressive properties. This study aimed to create a knock out of PRL in Drosohpila melanogaster in order to assess its role in development and in order to illuminate its activity when it is expressed in cancers. We hypothesize that dPRL-1 plays an important role in embryogenesis and that the progeny which lack this gene will be unviable. The CRISPR/Cas9 system was selected as the method in which to ...


Impact Of Ros Presence On Oncogenic Ras Activity, Chris Andersen Jan 2018

Impact Of Ros Presence On Oncogenic Ras Activity, Chris Andersen

Summer Research

Previous research has suggested a connection between oncogenic Ras and the cell’s levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). The underlying cellular mechanism is not well understood. To investigate this connection, we applied the UAS-GAL4 system in Drosophila melanogaster flies to control the expression of Ras and Keap1, a key redox regulator.2 We expected the activity of Ras to vary with its redox environment and thus impact protein activity downstream of Ras signaling cascades. In monitoring three proteins downstream of Ras—Dcp-1, Akt, and MAPK—we aimed to determine which pathways were impacted by ROS modulation.


Investigating The Essential Roles Of Dprl-1 In Drosophila Melanogaster, Alex Lee Jan 2017

Investigating The Essential Roles Of Dprl-1 In Drosophila Melanogaster, Alex Lee

Summer Research

Phosphatase of Regenerating Liver (PRL) proteins regulate a number of important cellular processes, including cell growth and division. Humans have three PRL proteins: PRL-1, PRL-2, and PRL-3. An accumulation of evidence has shown that elevated levels of PRLs are strongly correlated with uncontrollable growth and metastasis of tumors. However, contradictory findings have arisen indicating that PRLs instead function to halt cell division thereby preventing uncontrollable tumor growth. In light of these results, the underlying mechanisms regarding how PRLs function within cellular processes remains unclear. To investigate the functions of PRLs, we will create transgenic fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) with knockout ...


Effect Of Altered Cellular Redox Environment On Oncogenic Activity Of The Drosophila Prl Protein, Frances Welsh Jan 2015

Effect Of Altered Cellular Redox Environment On Oncogenic Activity Of The Drosophila Prl Protein, Frances Welsh

Summer Research

Aberrant expression of members of the phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL) family has been implicated as a key factor in the progression of several forms of human cancers. However, despite a wide range of studies supporting the role of the enzyme PRL as an oncogene, it has also been identified as a growth suppressor when tested under different conditions. One proposed explanation for this change in function is that redox regulation controls the accessibility of the active site of PRLs, which is necessary for oncogenic output. In this study, cellular redox environment was altered in vivo using Drosophila melanogaster, the ...


Regulation Of The Wnt/Β-Catenin Pathway By Steroid Hormones In Danio Rerio Ovarian Tissue, Macaulie Casey Jan 2015

Regulation Of The Wnt/Β-Catenin Pathway By Steroid Hormones In Danio Rerio Ovarian Tissue, Macaulie Casey

Summer Research

The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway regulates genes involved in proliferation (cell growth) and apoptosis (cell death). It has been implicated in ovarian cancer, where higher levels of β-catenin may be involved in the development of tumors. Steroid hormones play a significant role in female reproductive tissue, and studies have shown that estrogens and progestins may regulate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. My past research suggested testosterone may also affect the pathway. Few studies have investigated how steroid hormone mimics, such as Bisphenol A (BPA), affect these regulatory patterns. This study investigated the affect of estrogen and BPA on the Wnt/β-catenin ...


5Α-Dihydrotestosterone And The Wnt/Β-Catenin Pathway In Danio Rerio Ovarian Tissue Following 2 And 4 Hour Incubations, Macaulie Casey Jan 2014

5Α-Dihydrotestosterone And The Wnt/Β-Catenin Pathway In Danio Rerio Ovarian Tissue Following 2 And 4 Hour Incubations, Macaulie Casey

Summer Research

The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway regulates genes involved in proliferation and apoptosis. These two traits are hallmarks of cancer cells, which grow excessively and demonstrate low mortality. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been implicated in ovarian cancer, specifically epithelial ovarian cancer, wherein higher levels of β-catenin may be involved in the development of tumors. Ovarian epithelial tissue also displays high quantities of androgen receptors and thus may be more susceptible to changes in androgen concentration. This study investigated whether exogenous testosterone (DHT) utilized the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in Danio rerio ovarian tissue by monitoring β-catenin and GSK-3β mRNA expression through ...


Examining The Functional Role Of Dprl-1 In Drosophila Melanogaster, John Valenzuela Jan 2013

Examining The Functional Role Of Dprl-1 In Drosophila Melanogaster, John Valenzuela

Summer Research

The Phosphatase of Regenerating Liver (PRL) family of proteins control cell growth, motility and proliferation. They have been shown to elevate the levels of these functions, leading to an increase in cancer metastasis (“malignancy”), when they are overexpressed. The goal of this experiment is to knockout PRL gene expression to examine the general function of PRL proteins. Drosophila melanogaster have only one copy of the PRL gene (dPRL-1), as opposed to humans and other mammals, which have 3. Thus, using P-element imprecise excision to create mutant strains either fully lacking or with decreased function of the dPRL-1 protein, I propose ...


Using Fruit Flies To Investigate A Cancer Metastasis Biomarker: A Study Of Mammalian Prl-3 Function, Chris Large Jan 2013

Using Fruit Flies To Investigate A Cancer Metastasis Biomarker: A Study Of Mammalian Prl-3 Function, Chris Large

Summer Research

Phosphatase of Regenerating Liver 3 (PRL-3), a human protein in the Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase (PTP) gene family, has been highly correlated with cancer’s ability to metastasis in numerous types of cancer. Until recently, this was thought to be the primary function of PRL-3 within mammalian cancer cells, but Basak et al., (2008) found that PRL-3 could have function in inhibiting cellular growth, a contradicting cellular response. Further research was done by Pagarigan et al., (2013) using fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) as a model. Their findings echoed these claims and showed that specific structural portions of dPRL-1, fruit flies’ only ...


Rok And Rac Mediation Of Prl-1 Function In The Wings Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Rosemary Dinkins May 2012

Rok And Rac Mediation Of Prl-1 Function In The Wings Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Rosemary Dinkins

Honors Program Theses

By the time a cancer metastasizes it has reached its most deadly stage. It therefore is essential that the underpinning mechanisms promoting metastasis are understood. Phosphatases of regenerating liver (PRL) have been repeatedly connected to cancer metastasis when overexpressed. However, little is yet known about the normal PRL function and biological pathways let alone the PRL pathway promoting metastasis. The current study explores the relationship between PRL-1 and two other genes, ROK and Rac,that have also been implicated in cell migration and metastasis. Increased PRL-1 function in conjunction with increased or decreased Rac function was forced to the dorsal ...


Prl-1’S Inhibition Of Drosophila Melanogaster Cell Growth Is Dependent On The Caax Membrane Localization Domain, Bryce Bunn Jan 2012

Prl-1’S Inhibition Of Drosophila Melanogaster Cell Growth Is Dependent On The Caax Membrane Localization Domain, Bryce Bunn

Summer Research

The human body exhibits a spectacular collection of cells, integrated with seemingly infinite communication techniques and control mechanisms. Cancer’s disastrous influence on this complex system proves difficult to map. The shotgun clinical trial testing of human cancers has provided a feast of proteins suspected of encouraging cancerous cell behavior. One, Phosphatase of Regenerating Liver protein-1 (PRL-1), has been found to encourage cancerous growth while localizing in a variety of subcellular locations within metastasizing human tumor cells. However, PRL-1 has also been found to act as a tumor suppressor while localizing to the cell membrane in mammalian and insect models ...