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Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

Regulation Of Canonical And Non-Canonical Hippo Pathway Components In Mitosis And Cancer, Seth Stauffer Dec 2018

Regulation Of Canonical And Non-Canonical Hippo Pathway Components In Mitosis And Cancer, Seth Stauffer

Theses & Dissertations

The Hippo pathway is conserved regulator of organ size through control of proliferation, apoptosis, and stem-cell self-renewal. In addition to this important function, many of the canonical signaling members have also been shown to be regulated during mitosis. Importantly, Hippo pathway components are frequently dysregulated in cancers and have attracted attention as possible targets for improved cancer therapeutics. Further exploration of Hippo-YAP (yes-associated protein) signaling has revealed new regulators and effectors outside the canonical signaling network and has revealed a larger non-canonical network of signaling proteins in which canonical Hippo pathway components crosstalk with important cellular homeostasis and apoptosis signaling ...


Functional Role Of Protein Kinase C Alpha In Endometrial Carcinogenesis, Alice Hsu May 2018

Functional Role Of Protein Kinase C Alpha In Endometrial Carcinogenesis, Alice Hsu

Theses & Dissertations

Protein kinase Cα (PKCα) is a member of the PKC family of serine/threonine kinases that regulate many fundamental cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and transformation. The impact of PKCα on tumorigenesis, and whether it acts as an oncogene or tumor suppressor, has been debated over the years. The overall goal of this study was to establish the functional role of PKCα in endometrial carcinogenesis. Results from this study broaden our knowledge of PKCα signaling and add to our understanding of its role in tumor development.

As understanding of the role of PKCα signaling in the uterus is ...


The Role Of Yes-Associated Protein 1 In Ovarian Physiology And Pathology, Xiangmin Lv Dec 2017

The Role Of Yes-Associated Protein 1 In Ovarian Physiology And Pathology, Xiangmin Lv

Theses & Dissertations

Ovarian granulosa cells are the major somatic components of the ovarian follicle. Proper proliferation and differentiation of ovarian granulosa cells are essential for successful follicle development. Accumulating evidence indicates that the Hippo-YAP signaling pathway plays critical roles in both development and tumorigenesis of several organs. The present study aims to investigate the role of Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP) in ovarian granulosa cell proliferation, differentiation, and malignant transformation. At first, we found that nuclear YAP (active) was highly expressed in proliferative granulosa cells, whereas cytoplasmic YAP (inactive) was detected mainly in terminally-differentiated luteal cells. Further studies suggested that endogenous YAP activity ...


Comparative Molecular Characterization Of Typical And Exceptional Responders In Glioblastoma, Kristin Wipfler Dec 2017

Comparative Molecular Characterization Of Typical And Exceptional Responders In Glioblastoma, Kristin Wipfler

Theses & Dissertations

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and the deadliest type of primary brain tumor, with a median survival time of only 15 months despite aggressive treatment. Although most patients have an extremely poor prognosis, a small number of patients survive far beyond the median survival time. Investigation of these “exceptional responders” has sparked a great deal of interest and is becoming an important focus in the field of cancer research. To investigate the molecular differences between typical and exceptional responders in GBM, comparative analyses of copy number, methylation, gene expression, miRNA expression, and protein expression data sets from The Cancer ...


Identifying The Role Of Janus Kinase 1 In Mammary Gland Development And Breast Cancer, Barbara Swenson Dec 2017

Identifying The Role Of Janus Kinase 1 In Mammary Gland Development And Breast Cancer, Barbara Swenson

Theses & Dissertations

The development of the postnatal mammary gland is tightly controlled by peptide hormones and cytokines. The signaling of these extracellular ligands through their corresponding receptors rely on Janus Kinases (JAKs) that activate downstream Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STATs). The JAK/STAT signaling pathway is crucial for processes such as growth, proliferation, and cell survival of the epithelial tissue, but also for the breakdown and remodeling of the mammary gland via IL-6 class inflammatory cytokines (e.g. LIF and OSM). JAK1 and JAK2, which are expressed in the mammary gland, are thought to have redundant functions. However, our previous ...


Metabolic Reprogramming Of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Cells In Response To Chronic Low Ph Stress, Jaime Abrego Dec 2017

Metabolic Reprogramming Of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Cells In Response To Chronic Low Ph Stress, Jaime Abrego

Theses & Dissertations

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is among the most lethal of all cancers with a 5-year survival rate of only 8.2%. This is because PDAC is diagnosed in its advanced stages and is characterized by radio and chemotherapy resistance. Aggressiveness of PDAC tumors is attributed to its high metabolic phenotype, which is characterized by increased glycolysis rate and lactate secretion, while oxidative metabolism is reduced. These metabolic features are required to fulfill the biosynthetic demands of proliferating PDAC cells. However, this increase in metabolic activity results in acidification of the extracellular space because the dense fibrotic stroma of PDAC tumors ...


Role Of Endothelin Axis In Pancreatic Tumor Microenvironment, Suprit Gupta May 2017

Role Of Endothelin Axis In Pancreatic Tumor Microenvironment, Suprit Gupta

Theses & Dissertations

Endothelins (ETs) are a family of three 21 amino-acid vasoactive peptides ET-1, ET-2 and ET-3 that mediate their effects via two G-protein couple receptors ETAR and ETBR which are expressed on various cell types. Apart from their physiological role in vasoconstriction, there is emerging evidence supporting the role of endothelin axis (ET-axis) in cancer. Due to the expression of ET receptors on various cell-types, ET-axis can exert pleotropic effects and contribute to various aspects of cancer pathobiology. Several studies have provided a fragmented picture of the diverse roles or ET-axis in various tumors. However, the comprehensive ...


The Role Of Ehd2 In Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Tumorigenesis And Progression, Timothy A. Bielecki May 2017

The Role Of Ehd2 In Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Tumorigenesis And Progression, Timothy A. Bielecki

Theses & Dissertations

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) comprises 10%-15% of all breast cancer cases, yet is clinically challenging due to lack of targeted therapies which leads to higher mortality. Molecular subtyping has identified the most aggressive subclasses of breast cancer to be enriched in components of caveolae. While caveolae have been linked to many biological processes, their precise role in TNBC is still poorly understood. EHD2, a member of the C-terminal EPS15-Homology Domain-containing (EHD) protein family, has emerged as a new regulator of caveolae dynamics and is essential to maintain a stable membrane pool of caveolae. Studies in model cells demonstrate that ...


Identification Of Important Regulators Of Colon Cancer Tumorigenesis By Functional Screening, Haowei Yi May 2017

Identification Of Important Regulators Of Colon Cancer Tumorigenesis By Functional Screening, Haowei Yi

Theses & Dissertations

TGFβ signaling is an important regulator in colon cancer. miRNAs regulate TGFβ signaling at multiple levels. In this study, through a functional screening, we identified miR-487b-3p and miR-656-3p, which modulate TGFβ effect in colon cancer cells. Further studies revealed that GRM3 and VGLUT3 are their respective targets.

GRM3, a Metabotropic glutamate receptor in glutamatergic pathway is significantly upregulated in majority of human colonic adenocarcinomas tested and colon cancer cell lines. Knockdown of GRM3 expression or inhibition of GRM3 activation in colon cancer cells reduces cell survival and anchorage-independent growth in vitro and inhibits tumor growth in vivo. Mechanistically, GRM3 antagonizes ...


The Role Of Semaphorin 5a In Pancreatic Cancer Progression And Metastasis, Sugandha Saxena Dr. May 2017

The Role Of Semaphorin 5a In Pancreatic Cancer Progression And Metastasis, Sugandha Saxena Dr.

Theses & Dissertations

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is an aggressive disease with an overall 5-year survival rate of less than 7%, statistics that have not changed in almost five decades. Metastasis is one of the leading causes of mortality in PC. Accumulating evidence suggests that axon guidance molecules, such as semaphorins, are involved in cancer progression, invasion, and metastasis. Recent genomic characterization of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma revealed aberration in axon guidance pathway genes as well. Previous reports from our laboratory have identified one such molecule Semaphorin5A (SEMA5A) as a putative cell adhesion molecule which is involved in organ-specific homing during PC metastasis. My dissertation ...


Aberrant Glycosylation In Pancreatic Cancer Progression, Seema Chugh May 2017

Aberrant Glycosylation In Pancreatic Cancer Progression, Seema Chugh

Theses & Dissertations

Aberrant changes in O-glycosylation patterns underlie pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) progression and metastasis. Glycosylation is a post-translational modification in which carbohydrate moieties are attached to the protein substrate. My dissertation is focused on mucin-type O-glycosylation, which is the predominant form of O-glycosylation and is regulated by a myriad of glycosyltransferases.

PDAC is one of the most lethal diseases and the mechanistic involvement of aberrant O-glycosylation in its progression and metastasis is unknown. The aberrant glycosylation refers to the appearance of unusual carbohydrate structures such as truncated carbohydrate antigens, often referred to as tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens.

In this dissertation, my goal ...


Regulation Of Alteration/Deficiency In Activation 3 (Ada3) By Acetylation And Its Role In Cell Cycle Regulation And Oncogenesis, Shashank Srivastava Dec 2016

Regulation Of Alteration/Deficiency In Activation 3 (Ada3) By Acetylation And Its Role In Cell Cycle Regulation And Oncogenesis, Shashank Srivastava

Theses & Dissertations

The ADA3 (Alteration/Deficiency in Activation 3) protein is a transcriptional adaptor protein that was initially discovered as a component of several HAT (Histone Acetyltransferase) complexes, the enzyme complex responsible for histone acetylation, which is a prerequisite for transcription. Earlier the studies from Dr. Band’s laboratory and that of others’ have deciphered a crucial role of ADA3 in cell cycle regulation (both through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions) and in maintaining the genomic stability.

While our laboratory investigated the mechanism behind the role of ADA3 in G1/S transition, the same remained unknown for ...


Role Of Cbl-Family Ubiquitin Ligases As Critical Negative Regulators Of T Cell Activation And Functions, Benjamin Goetz Dec 2016

Role Of Cbl-Family Ubiquitin Ligases As Critical Negative Regulators Of T Cell Activation And Functions, Benjamin Goetz

Theses & Dissertations

Adaptive T cell immunity is essential for defense against foreign antigens and immune surveillance against cancer. Tight regulation of T cell activation is required to avoid autoimmunity to self-antigens or protracted inflammation after foreign antigens are cleared. Incomplete or inappropriate stimulation leads to an active shutdown of T cell activation called anergy. The Casitas B-lineage Lymphoma (CBL)-family of ubiquitin ligases (E3s) are essential negative regulators of T cell activation that impinge on thymic selection as well as anergy induction programs. Single gene studies show that CBL is critical during T cell development while CBL-B plays an essential role in ...


Role Of Ddr1 In Pancreatic Cancer, Huocong Huang Aug 2016

Role Of Ddr1 In Pancreatic Cancer, Huocong Huang

Theses & Dissertations

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas are highly malignant cancers, characterized by extensive invasion into surrounding tissues, metastasis to distant organs at a very early stage, and a limited response to therapy. One of the main features of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas is desmoplasia, which leads to extensive deposition of collagen I. We have demonstrated that collagen I can induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in pancreatic cancer cells. A hallmark of EMT is an increase in the expression of a mesenchymal cadherin, N-cadherin. Our previous studies have shown that up-regulation of N-cadherin can promote tumor cell invasion and that collagen I-induced EMT is through two ...


Exploration Into The Functional Impact Of Muc1 On The Formation And Regulation Of Transcriptional Complexes Containing Ap-1 And P53, Ryan L. Hanson Aug 2016

Exploration Into The Functional Impact Of Muc1 On The Formation And Regulation Of Transcriptional Complexes Containing Ap-1 And P53, Ryan L. Hanson

Theses & Dissertations

The transmembrane glycoprotein MUC1 is aberrantly expressed in the majority of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cases and promotes tumor progression by engaging in morphogenetic signaling through its cytoplasmic tail. Furthermore, MUC1 can translocate to the nucleus and function as a transcriptional co-regulator in conjunction with transcriptional complexes containing activator protein-1 (AP-1) and p53. The specificity of these interactions are thought to rely on specific patterning of post-translational modifications within the cytoplasmic tail of MUC1.

Within this dissertation, we examined how MUC1 influences the formation and activity of these transcription factors and the resulting impact on tumor progression and metastasis. In our ...


Role Of Ecdysoneless In Erbb2/Her2 Mediated Breast Oncogenesis, Shalis A. Ammons May 2016

Role Of Ecdysoneless In Erbb2/Her2 Mediated Breast Oncogenesis, Shalis A. Ammons

Theses & Dissertations

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths in women in the United States. The human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 (ErbB2) gene amplification and/or receptor overexpression subtype of breast cancer accounts for 25% of all breast cancers. A crucial regulator of the ErbB2 signaling pathway is the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and its interacting protein complex. One such complex is the R2TP/Prefoldin-like complex that is composed of four proteins, RUVBL1, RUVBL2, PIH1D1, and RPAP3 and seven prefoldin-like proteins. This complex has been shown to be involved in telomere elongation, ribosome biogenesis, protein stability; etc ...


The Role Of Ada3 Overexpression In Proliferation Through Enhancing Myc Expression, Nicolas I. Griffin May 2016

The Role Of Ada3 Overexpression In Proliferation Through Enhancing Myc Expression, Nicolas I. Griffin

Theses & Dissertations

Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths in women. Cancer is defined as abnormally heightened proliferation. In order for gene transcription and eventual translation to occur to drive the cell cycle to generate more cells, DNA must be uncoiled from nucleosomes by histone acetylation complexes. One of the key evolutionarily conserved components of these HAT complexes is alteration/deficiency in activation 3 (ADA3). In addition to the role in histone acetylation, this protein also functions as a coactivator for nuclear hormone receptors. Recent findings indicated that nuclear Ada3 correlates with ER ...


Recurrent Mutations Of T-Cell Receptor And Co-Stimulatory Signaling Proteins In Peripheral T-Cell Lymphomas, Joseph Rohr May 2016

Recurrent Mutations Of T-Cell Receptor And Co-Stimulatory Signaling Proteins In Peripheral T-Cell Lymphomas, Joseph Rohr

Theses & Dissertations

Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) comprise a heterogeneous group of mature T-cell neoplasms with a poor prognosis. Recently, mutations in TET2 and other epigenetic modifiers as well as RHOA have been identified in these diseases, particularly in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL). CD28 is the major co-stimulatory receptor in T-cells which, upon binding ligand, induces sustained T-cell proliferation and cytokine production when combined with T-cell receptor stimulation, through many signaling molecules including VAV1. This thesis identifies recurrent mutations in CD28 in PTCLs, as well as mutations in VAV1. Two residues of CD28 – D124 and T195 – were recurrently mutated in 11.3% of ...


Exploitation Of The Ligand-Binding Properties Of The Mannose 6-Phosphate/Insulin-Like Growth Factor Ii (Igf-Ii) Receptor To Inhibit Igf-Ii-Dependent Growth Of Cancer Cells, Megan Zavorka Thomas May 2016

Exploitation Of The Ligand-Binding Properties Of The Mannose 6-Phosphate/Insulin-Like Growth Factor Ii (Igf-Ii) Receptor To Inhibit Igf-Ii-Dependent Growth Of Cancer Cells, Megan Zavorka Thomas

Theses & Dissertations

The mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor (M6P/IGF2R) is a multifunctional, type I transmembrane receptor that is a member of the P-type lectin family. A large, extracytoplasmic (EC) region of the M6P/IGF2R binds various ligands, allowing the receptor to regulate multiple biological functions, including the role as a tumor suppressor. Two major classes of ligands, M6P-glycosylated (i.e. any proteins that bear M6P due to post-translational modification in the trans-Golgi network (TGN)) and non-glycosylated (i.e., the mitogen insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II)), bind within distinct regions of the EC of the receptor and are trafficked to ...


Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Myc And Pgc1Β Expression In Colon Cancer, Jamie L. Mccall May 2016

Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Myc And Pgc1Β Expression In Colon Cancer, Jamie L. Mccall

Theses & Dissertations

Identification and characterization of pathways specific to tumor cell survival, but absent in normal tissues, provide opportunities to develop effective cancer therapies with reduced toxicity to the patient. Kinase suppressor of Ras 1 (KSR1) is required for the survival of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells, but dispensable in normal cells. Using KSR1 as a reference standard, we identified EPH (erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma) receptor (EPHB4) as a KSR1 functional analog.

We show here that, like KSR1, EPHB4 is aberrantly overexpressed in human CRC cells and selectively required for their survival. Both KSR1 and EPHB4 support tumor cell survival by promoting the expression ...


Sprouty 2: A Novel Attenuator Of B Cell Receptor And Mapk Signaling In Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Ashima Shukla May 2016

Sprouty 2: A Novel Attenuator Of B Cell Receptor And Mapk Signaling In Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Ashima Shukla

Theses & Dissertations

Clinical heterogeneity is a major barrier to effective treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL). Emerging evidence suggests that constitutive activation of various signaling pathways plays a role in the heterogeneous clinical outcome of CLL patients. MAPK-Erk signaling represents one such pathway with a demonstrated role in CLL pathogenesis. In this study, we have investigated the role of Sprouty2 (SPRY2) as a negative regulator of receptor and non-receptor tyrosine kinase signaling in the pathogenesis of CLL. We show that SPRY2 expression is significantly decreased in CLL cells, particularly from poor prognosis patients compared to those from good prognosis patients. Over-expression of ...


The Role Of Dna Methyltransferases In Normal And Malignant Hematopoiesis, Staci Haney May 2016

The Role Of Dna Methyltransferases In Normal And Malignant Hematopoiesis, Staci Haney

Theses & Dissertations

DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that regulates gene transcription. The addition of a methyl group to cytosine is catalyzed by a family of enzymes known as DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts). The three catalytically active Dnmts in humans and mice are Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, and Dnmt3b. DNA methylation is clinically relevant, as aberrations in the methylation landscape are a hallmark of nearly all human cancers. Cancer methylomes are typically characterized by genome wide hypomethylation and regional specific hypermethylation, both of which have been linked to alterations in gene expression. In order to understand the contribution of epimutations to the development of hematological ...


Defining The Role Of Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 In Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia., Vipul Shukla May 2016

Defining The Role Of Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 In Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia., Vipul Shukla

Theses & Dissertations

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) represents the most common adult leukemia in the Western hemisphere. Despite considerable progress in our current understanding of CLL, this disease remains incurable and the molecular events underlying the complex pathogenesis of CLL are not fully elucidated. Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 (IRF4) belongs to the IRF superfamily of transcription factors that has been shown to play critical roles at multiple stages of B cell development. Interestingly, a Genome Wide Association Study identified Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) mediated IRF4 down regulation, as a major predisposing genetic event during the development of CLL. However, whether low levels of ...


Role Of Cell Type And Genetic Alterations In Driving Breast Cancer Pathogenesis, Divya Bhagirath May 2016

Role Of Cell Type And Genetic Alterations In Driving Breast Cancer Pathogenesis, Divya Bhagirath

Theses & Dissertations

Breast cancer is the second most leading cause of death among women in the United States. Several environmental and genetic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. It is classified into different subtypes based on expression of certain markers as well as that of set of genes that define the disease progression and associated mortality. Identification of various subtypes namely: Luminal-like (Luminal-A, Luminal-B), ErbB2 over-expressing, Basal-like and Claudin low types, showed an association of survival outcomes with that of the corresponding gene expression signatures, thus paving a way for therapeutic intervention. It further emphasizes the importance of nature of ...


The Role Of Tumor Suppressor Co-Chaperone Chip/Stub1 In Erbb2-Mediated Oncogenesis, Haitao Luan Dec 2015

The Role Of Tumor Suppressor Co-Chaperone Chip/Stub1 In Erbb2-Mediated Oncogenesis, Haitao Luan

Theses & Dissertations

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family member ErbB2 (Her2) is overexpressed in 20 -30% of invasive breast cancers and this overexpression correlates with poor prognosis and shorter overall as well as disease-free survival. Aberrant expression of ErbB2 through gene amplification, transcriptional deregulation and/or altered endocytic trafficking results in overexpression of ErbB2 at the plasma membrane and biases ErbB2 from primarily ligand-driven hetero-dimerization under normal expression conditions to increased ligand-independent homo-dimer and hetero-dimer formation and consequent activation. C-terminus of HSC70-Inteeracting protein (CHIP)/STIP1-homologous U-Box containing protein 1 (STUB1) is an HSP90/HSC70 interacting negative co-chaperone known to promote ubiquitination ...


The Role Of Cxcr2 In Pancreatic Cancer Development And Progression, Abhilasha Purohit Dec 2015

The Role Of Cxcr2 In Pancreatic Cancer Development And Progression, Abhilasha Purohit

Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation examines the role of CXCR2, a seven transmembrane G- protein coupled receptor, in mediating autocrine as well as paracrine mechanisms during pancreatic cancer progression. Data presented in the initial section demonstrates the aberrant expression of the CXCR2 biological axis in human pancreatic cancer tissue specimens. A study performed within the first section of this dissertation investigates the contribution of CXCR2 signaling in pancreatic cancer initiation. These studies have identified a novel role of CXCR2 in mediating KRAS(G12D) -induced autocrine growth transformation of pancreatic cancer cells. The upregulation of the CXCR2 biological axis was found to be directly ...


Role Of Hippo-Yap Signaling In Mitosis And Prostate Cancer, Lin Zhang Aug 2015

Role Of Hippo-Yap Signaling In Mitosis And Prostate Cancer, Lin Zhang

Theses & Dissertations

The Hippo pathway controls organ size and tumorigenesis by inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis. KIBRA [kidney and brain expressed protein] is an upstream regulator of the Hippo-YAP signaling. The role KIBRA plays in mitosis has not been established. We show that KIBRA activates the Aurora kinases during mitosis and KIBRA promotes the phosphorylation of large tumor suppressor 2 by activating Aurora-A. We further show that knockdown of KIBRA causes mitotic abnormalities, including defects of spindle and centrosome formation and chromosome misalignment. The transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif is a downstream effector of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway. In the ...


Lgr5 Activates Tgfβ Signaling And Suppresses Metastasis In Colon Cancer, Xiaolin Zhou May 2015

Lgr5 Activates Tgfβ Signaling And Suppresses Metastasis In Colon Cancer, Xiaolin Zhou

Theses & Dissertations

Metastasis is the major cause of death in colorectal cancer patients, mainly due to the ineffectiveness of current therapies once metastases begin to form. Further insight into the biology of colorectal cancer metastasis is, therefore, essential in order to gain a greater understanding of this process and ultimately to develop better cancer therapies to prevent or target metastasis. LGR5 is leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and was discovered as a marker for proliferating adult stem cells in the small intestine. LGR5 and its homologs LGR4 and LGR6 are receptors of R-spondins (RSPOs), which are secreted agonists of canonical ...