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Articles 1 - 11 of 11

Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

Characterization Of A More Clinically Relevant Human Leukemia Xenograft Model To Examine Perturbation Of Met/Sam Metabolism As A Novel Therapeutic Paradigm For Mll-R Leukemia In Vivo., Aditya Barve Aug 2019

Characterization Of A More Clinically Relevant Human Leukemia Xenograft Model To Examine Perturbation Of Met/Sam Metabolism As A Novel Therapeutic Paradigm For Mll-R Leukemia In Vivo., Aditya Barve

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), is a heterogeneous clonal disorder characterized by an accumulation of malignant myeloid progenitors in the bone marrow (BM), hindering normal hematopoiesis. AML exhibits dramatic heterogeneity in terms of cytogenetics, morphology, and chemotherapeutic sensitivity. Therefore, the investigation of novel, efficacious AML therapeutics will require advanced preclinical in vivo model systems, capable of recapitulating patient specific disease heterogeneity, and induction chemotherapy outcomes. A major focus and eventual outcome of this work was the establishment and development of a more clinically relevant mouse xenograft model of patient AML, that efficiently harbors patient derived xenografts (PDXs), and unlike more prevalent ...


Paraoxonase 2 Is Critical For Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Proliferation., Aaron Whitt May 2019

Paraoxonase 2 Is Critical For Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Proliferation., Aaron Whitt

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) comprises 85% of lung cancer diagnoses and is plagued by drug resistance. Thus, elucidating the underlying mechanisms of NSCLC is paramount to expand future treatment options. Paraoxonase 2 (PON2), an intracellular enzyme with arylesterase and lactonase functions, has well-established anti-atherosclerotic activity. Recent studies show PON2 is overexpressed in a variety of tumors and confers drug resistance, although these interactions have not been thoroughly examined in NSCLC. Thus, we sought to investigate the role of PON2 in cellular proliferation using PON2-knockout mice, primary mouse cells, and NSCLC cell lines. Using these approaches, we demonstrate that PON2 ...


Egfr Signaling From The Early Endosome., Julie A. Gosney Aug 2018

Egfr Signaling From The Early Endosome., Julie A. Gosney

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is an integral component of proliferative signaling. When activated by a ligand at the plasma membrane, EGFR dimerizes with another ErbB family receptor, leading to kinase domain activation and transphosphorylation of C-terminus tyrosine residues. These phosphotyrosines act as crucial regulators of EGFR signaling as effector proteins dock to the receptor at these sites. The receptor undergoes clathrin-mediated endocytosis into early endosomes, where it can then be trafficked to a lysosome for degradation. However, the kinase domain of EGFR retains its activity during trafficking, suggesting that EGFR can continue ...


Deciphering The Role Of Human Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase 1 (Nat1) In Breast Cancer Cell Metabolism Using A Systems Biology Approach., Samantha Marie Carlisle Aug 2018

Deciphering The Role Of Human Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase 1 (Nat1) In Breast Cancer Cell Metabolism Using A Systems Biology Approach., Samantha Marie Carlisle

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) is a phase II xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme found in almost all tissues. NAT1 can additionally hydrolyze acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) in the absence of an arylamine substrate. NAT1 expression varies inter-individually and is elevated in several cancers including estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancers. Additionally, multiple studies have shown the knockdown of NAT1, by both small molecule inhibition and siRNA methods, in breast cancer cells leads to decreased invasive ability and proliferation and decreased anchorage-independent colony formation. However, the exact mechanism by which NAT1 expression affects cancer risk and progression remains unclear. Additionally, consequences ...


The Dlk1-Meg3 Locus In Malignant Cells Of Proposed Primordial Germ Cell Origins., Zachariah Payne Sellers Aug 2017

The Dlk1-Meg3 Locus In Malignant Cells Of Proposed Primordial Germ Cell Origins., Zachariah Payne Sellers

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are hypothesized to deposit hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) along their migration route through the embryo during the early stages of embryogenesis. PGCs also undergo global chromatin remodeling, including the erasure and reestablishment of genomic imprints, during this migration. While PGCs do not spontaneously form teratomas, their malignant development into germ cell tumors (GCTs) in vivo is often accompanied by the retention of hypomethylation at the IGF2-H19 imprinting control differentially methylated region (DMR). Previous studies in bimaternal embryos determined that proper genomic imprinting at two paternally imprinted loci was necessary for their growth and development: Igf2-H19 and ...


Identifying The Signaling Mechanisms Of Egfr-Mediated Apoptosis., Nicole Marion Jackson May 2017

Identifying The Signaling Mechanisms Of Egfr-Mediated Apoptosis., Nicole Marion Jackson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is a 170-kilodalton transmembrane protein that belongs to the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Upon ligand-mediated activation, the EGFR is responsible for cell growth, proliferation, and tissue homeostasis; however, the EGFR is overexpressed in many human malignancies, including MDA-MB-468 cells, a metastatic breast epithelial cell line. Studies within this cell line, and other cell lines characterized with high EGFR levels, have shown that EGF stimulation results in the induction of apoptosis. However, the mechanisms and signaling effectors implicated in this process have yet to be elucidated. The overarching research goal of this dissertation ...


Syndecan-1 Tagged Liposomes As A Theranostic Nanoparticle For Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma., Wenyuan Yin May 2016

Syndecan-1 Tagged Liposomes As A Theranostic Nanoparticle For Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma., Wenyuan Yin

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

Theranostic nanoparticles are emerging as a novel mechanism for detecting and treating cancer. Due to the difficulties in detection and treatment of pancreatic cancer, these particles could serve within this unique niche. In this study, a Syndecan-1 ligand was utilized to increase tumor specificity of fluorescent dye encapsulated liposomes which were evaluated as a potential theranostic nanoparticle for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Their diagnostic capabilities and specificity to pancreatic adenocarcinoma were determined in vitro using immunocytochemistry and in vivo using multi-spectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT). Immunocytochemistry showed that liposomes preferentially bound and released their contents into cells expressing high levels of Insulin-Like Growth ...


Modulation Of Cell Death Signaling And Cell Proliferation By The Interaction Of Homoserine Lactones And Paraoxonase 2., Aaron Mackallan Neely May 2016

Modulation Of Cell Death Signaling And Cell Proliferation By The Interaction Of Homoserine Lactones And Paraoxonase 2., Aaron Mackallan Neely

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-homoserine lactone (C12) as a quorum-sensing molecule that functions to facilitate bacteria-bacteria communication. C12 has also been reported to affect many aspects of human host cell physiology, including evoking cell death in various types of cells. However, the signaling pathway(s) leading to C12-triggerred cell death remains unclear. To clarify cell death signaling induced by C12, we examined mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient in one or more caspases. Our data indicate that, unlike most apoptotic inducers, C12 evokes a novel form of apoptosis in cells, probably through the direct induction of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. Previous ...


Microrna-186 And Metastatic Prostate Cancer., Dominique Zilpha Jones May 2016

Microrna-186 And Metastatic Prostate Cancer., Dominique Zilpha Jones

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

MicroRNA (miR) dysregulation alters cancer-associated gene expression, which contributes to cancer pathogenesis. For example, miR-186 over expression lead to enhanced proliferation and migration in pancreatic cancer cell models. However, the role of miR-186 in prostate cancer (PCa) remains controversial. Previously, miR-186-5p was up-regulated in PCa patient serum (stage III/IV) compared to controls. Furthermore, miR-186-5p was up-regulated in metastatic PCa (PC-3, MDA PCa 2b, LNCaP) relative to normal prostate epithelial cells (RWPE1). We hypothesized miR-186 inhibition will reduce aggressive PCa using metastatic cell models. To test this, we evaluated whether miR-186-5p inhibition would reduce aggressive PCa behavior and overexpression induce ...


Regulation Of The Retinoblastoma Tumor Suppressor By The Novel Ras Effector Nore1a., Thibaut François Barnoud Dec 2015

Regulation Of The Retinoblastoma Tumor Suppressor By The Novel Ras Effector Nore1a., Thibaut François Barnoud

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ras is the most frequently mutated oncogene in human cancers. It acts as a critical branch point in signal transduction, regulating numerous downstream effectors involved in cell growth and differentiation. While Ras can activate many growth promoting pathways, it can paradoxically regulate growth inhibitory pathways leading to apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. One of the ways Ras can inhibit the growth of cells is via a family of effectors called the RASSF proteins. RASSF5 (NORE1A) is a tumor suppressor that is frequently inactivated in human tumors by epigenetic mechanisms. NORE1A binds directly to Ras and promotes Ras-induced senescence. We have ...


The Ras Effector Nore1a Forms A Tumor Suppressor Complex With Brca1., Nicholas C Nelson Dec 2015

The Ras Effector Nore1a Forms A Tumor Suppressor Complex With Brca1., Nicholas C Nelson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ras proteins function as molecular signaling switches that can stimulate multiple mitogenic pathways in response to extracellular signaling. Oncogenic activation of Ras by structural mutation is a highly transforming event in ~1/3 of human cancers. However, aberrant Ras activation can also promote oncogene-induced senescence. This Ras-induced irreversible growth arrest is a physiological process that acts as a barrier to malignancy. The mechanisms by which Ras drives senescence and how this process is bypassed during Ras-driven transformation remains poorly understood.

Although mutations in the RAS gene are extremely rare in human breast cancer, the Ras signaling pathway is constitutively activated ...