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Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

Induction Of Ampk Activation By N,N'-Diarylurea Fnd-4b Decreases Growth And Increases Apoptosis In Triple Negative And Estrogen-Receptor Positive Breast Cancers, Jeremy Johnson, Piotr G. Rychahou, Vitaliy M. Sviripa, Heidi L. Weiss, Chunming Liu, David S. Watt, B. Mark Evers Mar 2019

Induction Of Ampk Activation By N,N'-Diarylurea Fnd-4b Decreases Growth And Increases Apoptosis In Triple Negative And Estrogen-Receptor Positive Breast Cancers, Jeremy Johnson, Piotr G. Rychahou, Vitaliy M. Sviripa, Heidi L. Weiss, Chunming Liu, David S. Watt, B. Mark Evers

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Purpose

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most lethal and aggressive subtype of breast cancer. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a major energy regulator that suppresses tumor growth, and 1-(3-chloro-4-((trifluoromethyl)thio)phenyl)-3-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)urea (FND-4b) is a novel AMPK activator that inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in colon cancer. The purpose of this project was to test the effects of FND-4b on AMPK activation, proliferation, and apoptosis in breast cancer with a particular emphasis on TNBC.

Materials and methods

(i) Estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer (ER+BC; MCF-7, and T-47D), TNBC (MDA-MB-231 and HCC-1806), and ...


Star-Related Lipid Transfer Protein 10 (Stard10): A Novel Key Player In Alcohol-Induced Breast Cancer Progression, Andrea Floris, Jia Luo, Jacqueline A. Frank, Jennifer Zhou, Sandro Orrù, Michela Biancolella, Sabina Pucci, Augusto Orlandi, Paolo Campagna, Antonella Balzano, Komal Ramani, Maria Lauda Tomasi Jan 2019

Star-Related Lipid Transfer Protein 10 (Stard10): A Novel Key Player In Alcohol-Induced Breast Cancer Progression, Andrea Floris, Jia Luo, Jacqueline A. Frank, Jennifer Zhou, Sandro Orrù, Michela Biancolella, Sabina Pucci, Augusto Orlandi, Paolo Campagna, Antonella Balzano, Komal Ramani, Maria Lauda Tomasi

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Ethanol abuse promotes breast cancer development, metastasis and recurrence stimulating mammary tumorigenesis by mechanisms that remain unclear. Normally, 35% of breast cancer is Erb-B2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase 2 (ERBB2)-positive that predisposes to poor prognosis and relapse, while ethanol drinking leads to invasion of their ERBB2 positive cells triggering the phosphorylation status of mitogen-activated protein kinase. StAR-related lipid transfer protein 10 (STARD10) is a lipid transporter of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE); changes on membrane composition of PC and PE occur before the morphological tumorigenic events. Interestingly, STARD10 has been described to be highly expressed in 35–40% of ...


Hdl In Endocrine Carcinomas: Biomarker, Drug Carrier, And Potential Therapeutic, Emily E. Morin, Xiang-An Li, Anna Schwendeman Nov 2018

Hdl In Endocrine Carcinomas: Biomarker, Drug Carrier, And Potential Therapeutic, Emily E. Morin, Xiang-An Li, Anna Schwendeman

Physiology Faculty Publications

High-density lipoprotein (HDL) have long been studied for their protective role against cardiovascular diseases, however recently relationship between HDL and cancer came into focus. Several epidemiological studies have shown an inverse correlation between HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and cancer risk, and some have even implied that HDL-C can be used as a predictive measure for survival prognosis in for specific sub-population of certain types of cancer. HDL itself is an endogenous nanoparticle capable of removing excess cholesterol from the periphery and returning it to the liver for excretion. One of the main receptors for HDL, scavenger receptor type B-I (SR-BI), is highly ...


Comprehensive Evaluation Of Treatment And Outcomes Of Low-Grade Diffuse Gliomas, Catherine R. Garcia, Stacey A. Slone, Thomas A. Pittman, William H. St. Clair, Donita D. Lightner, John L. Villano Sep 2018

Comprehensive Evaluation Of Treatment And Outcomes Of Low-Grade Diffuse Gliomas, Catherine R. Garcia, Stacey A. Slone, Thomas A. Pittman, William H. St. Clair, Donita D. Lightner, John L. Villano

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Background

Low-grade gliomas affect younger adults and carry a favorable prognosis. They include a variety of biological features affecting clinical behavior and treatment. Having no guidelines on treatment established, we aim to describe clinical and treatment patterns of low-grade gliomas across the largest cancer database in the United States.

Methods

We analyzed the National Cancer Database from 2004 to 2015, for adult patients with a diagnosis of World Health Organization grade II diffuse glioma.

Results

We analyzed 13,621 cases with median age of 41 years. Over 56% were male, 88.4% were white, 6.1% were black, and 7 ...


Identification Of Susceptibility Pathways For The Role Of Chromosome 15q25.1 In Modifying Lung Cancer Risk, Xuemei Ji, Yohan Bossé, Maria Teresa Landi, Jiang Gui, Xiangjun Xiao, David Qian, Philippe Joubert Joubert, Maxime Lamontagne, Yafang Li, Ivan Gorlov, Mariella De Biasi, Younghun Han, Olga Gorlova, Rayjean J. Hung, Xifeng Wu, James Mckay, Xuchen Zong, Robert Carreras-Torres, David C. Christiani, Neil Caporaso, Mattias Johansson, Geoffrey Liu, Stig E. Bojesen, Loic Le Marchand, Demetrios Albanes, Heike Bickeböller, Melinda C. Aldrich, William S. Bush, Adonina Tardon, Gad Rennert, Susanne M. Arnold Aug 2018

Identification Of Susceptibility Pathways For The Role Of Chromosome 15q25.1 In Modifying Lung Cancer Risk, Xuemei Ji, Yohan Bossé, Maria Teresa Landi, Jiang Gui, Xiangjun Xiao, David Qian, Philippe Joubert Joubert, Maxime Lamontagne, Yafang Li, Ivan Gorlov, Mariella De Biasi, Younghun Han, Olga Gorlova, Rayjean J. Hung, Xifeng Wu, James Mckay, Xuchen Zong, Robert Carreras-Torres, David C. Christiani, Neil Caporaso, Mattias Johansson, Geoffrey Liu, Stig E. Bojesen, Loic Le Marchand, Demetrios Albanes, Heike Bickeböller, Melinda C. Aldrich, William S. Bush, Adonina Tardon, Gad Rennert, Susanne M. Arnold

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified the chromosome 15q25.1 locus as a leading susceptibility region for lung cancer. However, the pathogenic pathways, through which susceptibility SNPs within chromosome 15q25.1 affects lung cancer risk, have not been explored. We analyzed three cohorts with GWAS data consisting 42,901 individuals and lung expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data on 409 individuals to identify and validate the underlying pathways and to investigate the combined effect of genes from the identified susceptibility pathways. The KEGG neuroactive ligand receptor interaction pathway, two Reactome pathways, and 22 Gene Ontology terms were identified and replicated to ...


Doxorubicin-Induced Elevated Oxidative Stress And Neurochemical Alterations In Brain And Cognitive Decline: Protection By Mesna And Insights Into Mechanisms Of Chemotherapy-Induced Cognitive Impairment ("Chemobrain"), Jeriel T. R. Keeney, Xiaojia Ren, Govind Warrier, Teresa Noel, David K. Powell, Jennifer M. Brelsfoard, Rukhsana Sultana, Kathryn E. Saatman, Daret K. St. Clair, D. Allan Butterfield Jul 2018

Doxorubicin-Induced Elevated Oxidative Stress And Neurochemical Alterations In Brain And Cognitive Decline: Protection By Mesna And Insights Into Mechanisms Of Chemotherapy-Induced Cognitive Impairment ("Chemobrain"), Jeriel T. R. Keeney, Xiaojia Ren, Govind Warrier, Teresa Noel, David K. Powell, Jennifer M. Brelsfoard, Rukhsana Sultana, Kathryn E. Saatman, Daret K. St. Clair, D. Allan Butterfield

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI) is now widely recognized as a real and too common complication of cancer chemotherapy experienced by an ever-growing number of cancer survivors. Previously, we reported that doxorubicin (Dox), a prototypical reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing anti-cancer drug, results in oxidation of plasma proteins, including apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) leading to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-mediated oxidative stress in plasma and brain. We also reported that co-administration of the antioxidant drug, 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate sodium (MESNA), prevents Dox-induced protein oxidation and subsequent TNF-α elevation in plasma. In this study, we measured oxidative stress in both brain and plasma of ...


Grp78 Is A Targetable Receptor On Cancer And Stromal Cells, Nathalia Araujo, Nikhil Hebbar, Vivek M. Rangnekar Jul 2018

Grp78 Is A Targetable Receptor On Cancer And Stromal Cells, Nathalia Araujo, Nikhil Hebbar, Vivek M. Rangnekar

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Alcohol Consumption Promotes Colorectal Carcinoma Metastasis Via A Ccl5-Induced And Ampk-Pathway-Mediated Activation Of Autophagy, Haodong Zhao, Danlei Chen, Rui Cao, Shiqing Wang, Dandan Yu, Yakun Liu, Yu Jiang, Mei Xu, Jia Luo, Siying Wang Jun 2018

Alcohol Consumption Promotes Colorectal Carcinoma Metastasis Via A Ccl5-Induced And Ampk-Pathway-Mediated Activation Of Autophagy, Haodong Zhao, Danlei Chen, Rui Cao, Shiqing Wang, Dandan Yu, Yakun Liu, Yu Jiang, Mei Xu, Jia Luo, Siying Wang

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

There is a definite relationship between alcohol consumption and colorectal cancer (CRC) development. We investigated effect of alcohol consumption on CRC patients’ progression and prognosis by utilizing epidemiological data and found patients with alcohol consumption increased risks of tumor-node-metastasis (TNM), organ metastasis and poorer prognosis. Because their tumor tissues displayed increased expression of C-C chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5), we hypothesized CCL5 might participate in cancer progression in such patients. Ethanol increased the secretion of CCL5 in two CRC cell lines, HT29 and DLD-1. Treatment with CCL5 directly increased migratory ability of these cells, whereas neutralization or knockdown of CCL5 can ...


Preclinical Evaluation Of Novel Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitors In Primary Colorectal Cancer Cells And A Patient-Derived Xenograft Model Of Colorectal Cancer, Yekaterina Y. Zaytseva, Piotr G. Rychahou, Anh-Thu Le, Timothy L. Scott, Robert M. Flight, Ji Tae Kim, Jennifer Harris, Jinpeng Liu, Chi Wang, Andrew J. Morris, Theru A. Sivakumaran, Teresa Fan, Hunter Moseley, Tianyan Gao, Eun Young Lee, Heidi L. Weiss, Timothy S. Heuer, George Kemble, B. Mark Evers May 2018

Preclinical Evaluation Of Novel Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitors In Primary Colorectal Cancer Cells And A Patient-Derived Xenograft Model Of Colorectal Cancer, Yekaterina Y. Zaytseva, Piotr G. Rychahou, Anh-Thu Le, Timothy L. Scott, Robert M. Flight, Ji Tae Kim, Jennifer Harris, Jinpeng Liu, Chi Wang, Andrew J. Morris, Theru A. Sivakumaran, Teresa Fan, Hunter Moseley, Tianyan Gao, Eun Young Lee, Heidi L. Weiss, Timothy S. Heuer, George Kemble, B. Mark Evers

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN), a key enzyme of de novo lipogenesis, is upregulated in many cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC); increased FASN expression is associated with poor prognosis. Potent FASN inhibitors (TVBs) developed by 3-V Biosciences demonstrate anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo and a favorable tolerability profile in a Phase I clinical trial.

However, CRC characteristics associated with responsiveness to FASN inhibition are not fully understood. We evaluated the effect of TVB-3664 on tumor growth in nine CRC patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) and investigated molecular and metabolic changes associated with CRC responsiveness to FASN inhibition.

CRC cells and PDXs ...


Human Cancer And Platelet Interaction, A Potential Therapeutic Target, Shike Wang, Zhenyu Li, Ren Xu Apr 2018

Human Cancer And Platelet Interaction, A Potential Therapeutic Target, Shike Wang, Zhenyu Li, Ren Xu

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Cancer patients experience a four-fold increase in thrombosis risk, indicating that cancer development and progression are associated with platelet activation. Xenograft experiments and transgenic mouse models further demonstrate that platelet activation and platelet-cancer cell interaction are crucial for cancer metastasis. Direct or indirect interaction of platelets induces cancer cell plasticity and enhances survival and extravasation of circulating cancer cells during dissemination. In vivo and in vitro experiments also demonstrate that cancer cells induce platelet aggregation, suggesting that platelet-cancer interaction is bidirectional. Therefore, understanding how platelets crosstalk with cancer cells may identify potential strategies to inhibit cancer metastasis and to reduce ...


Mtbp Inhibits The Erk1/2-Elk-1 Signaling In Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Atul Ranjan, Swathi V. Iyer, Christopher Ward, Tim Link, Francisco J. Diaz, Animesh Dhar, Ossama W. Tawfik, Steven A. Weinman, Yoshiaki Azuma, Tadahide Izumi, Tomoo Iwakuma Apr 2018

Mtbp Inhibits The Erk1/2-Elk-1 Signaling In Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Atul Ranjan, Swathi V. Iyer, Christopher Ward, Tim Link, Francisco J. Diaz, Animesh Dhar, Ossama W. Tawfik, Steven A. Weinman, Yoshiaki Azuma, Tadahide Izumi, Tomoo Iwakuma

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and the prognosis of HCC patients, especially those with metastasis, remains extremely poor. This is partly due to unclear molecular mechanisms underlying HCC metastasis. Our previous study indicates that MDM2 Binding Protein (MTBP) suppresses migration and metastasis of HCC cells. However, signaling pathways regulated by MTBP remain unknown. To identify metastasis-associated signaling pathways governed by MTBP, we have performed unbiased luciferase reporter-based signal array analyses and found that MTBP suppresses the activity of the ETS-domain transcription factor Elk-1, a downstream target of Erk1/2 MAP kinases. MTBP also inhibits ...


Extracellular Vesicles Released By Cardiomyocytes In A Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiac Injury Mouse Model Contain Protein Biomarkers Of Early Cardiac Injury, Chontida Yarana, Dustin W. Carroll, Jing Chen, Luksana Chaiswing, Yanming Zhao, Teresa Noel, Michael Alstott, Younsoo Bae, Emily V. Dressler, Jeffrey A. Moscow, D. Allan Butterfield, Haining Zhu, Daret K. St. Clair Apr 2018

Extracellular Vesicles Released By Cardiomyocytes In A Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiac Injury Mouse Model Contain Protein Biomarkers Of Early Cardiac Injury, Chontida Yarana, Dustin W. Carroll, Jing Chen, Luksana Chaiswing, Yanming Zhao, Teresa Noel, Michael Alstott, Younsoo Bae, Emily V. Dressler, Jeffrey A. Moscow, D. Allan Butterfield, Haining Zhu, Daret K. St. Clair

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Purpose—Cardiac injury is a major cause of death in cancer survivors, and biomarkers for it are detectable only after tissue injury has occurred. Extracellular vesicles (EV) remove toxic biomolecules from tissues and can be detected in the blood. Here, we evaluate the potential of using circulating EVs as early diagnostic markers for long-term cardiac injury.

Experimental Design—Using a mouse model of doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiac injury, we quantified serum EVs, analyzed proteomes, measured oxidized protein levels in serum EVs released after DOX treatment, and investigated the alteration of EV content.

Results—Treatment with DOX caused a significant increase ...


Pre-Diagnostic Biomarkers Of Metabolic Dysregulation And Cancer Mortality, Tomi Akinyemiju, Justin Xavier Moore, Suzanne E. Judd, Maria Pisu, Michael Goodman, Virginia J. Howard, Leann Long, Monika Safford, Susan C. Gilchrist, Mary Cushman Mar 2018

Pre-Diagnostic Biomarkers Of Metabolic Dysregulation And Cancer Mortality, Tomi Akinyemiju, Justin Xavier Moore, Suzanne E. Judd, Maria Pisu, Michael Goodman, Virginia J. Howard, Leann Long, Monika Safford, Susan C. Gilchrist, Mary Cushman

Epidemiology Faculty Publications

INTRODUCTION: The obesogenic milieu is a pro-tumorigenic environment that promotes tumor initiation, angiogenesis and metastasis. In this prospective cohort, we examined the association between pre-diagnostic metabolic biomarkers, plasma adiponectin, resistin, leptin and lipoprotein (a), and the risk of cancer mortality.

METHODS: Prospective data was obtained from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort of Blacks and Whites followed from 2003 through 2012 for cancer mortality. We determined the association between metabolism biomarkers (log-transformed and tertiles) and risk of cancer mortality using Cox Proportional Hazards models with robust sandwich estimators to calculate the 95% confidence intervals (CIs ...


Profiling Prostate Cancer Therapeutic Resistance, Cameron A. Wade, Natasha Kyprianou Mar 2018

Profiling Prostate Cancer Therapeutic Resistance, Cameron A. Wade, Natasha Kyprianou

Urology Faculty Publications

The major challenge in the treatment of patients with advanced lethal prostate cancer is therapeutic resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) and chemotherapy. Overriding this resistance requires understanding of the driving mechanisms of the tumor microenvironment, not just the androgen receptor (AR)-signaling cascade, that facilitate therapeutic resistance in order to identify new drug targets. The tumor microenvironment enables key signaling pathways promoting cancer cell survival and invasion via resistance to anoikis. In particular, the process of epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT), directed by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), confers stem cell properties and acquisition of a migratory and invasive phenotype via resistance to anoikis ...


Acute Loss Of Iron-Sulfur Clusters Results In Metabolic Reprogramming And Generation Of Lipid Droplets In Mammalian Cells, Daniel R. Crooks, Nunziata Maio, Andrew N. Lane, Michal Jarnik, Richard M. Higashi, Ronald G. Haller, Ye Yang, Teresa Whei-Mei Fan, W. Marston Linehan, Tracey A. Rouault Mar 2018

Acute Loss Of Iron-Sulfur Clusters Results In Metabolic Reprogramming And Generation Of Lipid Droplets In Mammalian Cells, Daniel R. Crooks, Nunziata Maio, Andrew N. Lane, Michal Jarnik, Richard M. Higashi, Ronald G. Haller, Ye Yang, Teresa Whei-Mei Fan, W. Marston Linehan, Tracey A. Rouault

Center for Environmental and Systems Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Iron–sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are ancient cofactors in cells and participate in diverse biochemical functions, including electron transfer and enzymatic catalysis. Although cell lines derived from individuals carrying mutations in the Fe-S cluster biogenesis pathway or siRNA-mediated knockdown of the Fe-S assembly components provide excellent models for investigating Fe-S cluster formation in mammalian cells, these experimental strategies focus on the consequences of prolonged impairment of Fe-S assembly. Here, we constructed and expressed dominant–negative variants of the primary Fe-S biogenesis scaffold protein iron–sulfur cluster assembly enzyme 2 (ISCU2) in human HEK293 cells. This approach enabled us to study the ...


Inhibition Of Dihydrotestosterone Synthesis In Prostate Cancer By Combined Frontdoor And Backdoor Pathway Blockade, Michael V. Fiandalo, John J. Stocking, Elena A. Pop, John H. Wilton, Krystin M. Mantione, Yun Li, Kristopher M. Attwood, Gissou Azabdaftari, Yue Wu, David S. Watt, Elizabeth M. Wilson, James L. Mohler Jan 2018

Inhibition Of Dihydrotestosterone Synthesis In Prostate Cancer By Combined Frontdoor And Backdoor Pathway Blockade, Michael V. Fiandalo, John J. Stocking, Elena A. Pop, John H. Wilton, Krystin M. Mantione, Yun Li, Kristopher M. Attwood, Gissou Azabdaftari, Yue Wu, David S. Watt, Elizabeth M. Wilson, James L. Mohler

Center for Pharmaceutical Research and Innovation Faculty Publications

Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is palliative and prostate cancer (CaP) recurs as lethal castration-recurrent/resistant CaP (CRPC). One mechanism that provides CaP resistance to ADT is primary backdoor androgen metabolism, which uses up to four 3α-oxidoreductases to convert 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol (DIOL) to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The goal was to determine whether inhibition of 3α-oxidoreductase activity decreased conversion of DIOL to DHT. Protein sequence analysis showed that the four 3α-oxidoreductases have identical catalytic amino acid residues. Mass spectrometry data showed combined treatment using catalytically inactive 3α-oxidoreductase mutants and the 5α-reductase inhibitor, dutasteride, decreased DHT levels in CaP cells better than dutasteride alone ...


Multivariate Analysis To Identify Potential Biomarkers For Prognosis And Treatment Resistance In Head And Neck Cancer Patients, Christina Ann Wicker Jan 2018

Multivariate Analysis To Identify Potential Biomarkers For Prognosis And Treatment Resistance In Head And Neck Cancer Patients, Christina Ann Wicker

Theses and Dissertations--Toxicology and Cancer Biology

It is estimated that nearly 50,000 individuals in the United States will be diagnosed with head and neck cancer in 2017 (American Cancer Society www.cancer.org). Ninety percent of oral cancers are head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Major obstacles in the treatment of HNSCC are recurrence and treatment resistance, which contributes to increased mortality. Therefore, there is increased need to determine genetic alterations in HNSCC that may be ideal novel drug targets, and biomarkers to improve diagnostic and prognostic testing.

Abnormal localization and overexpression of base excision repair protein and transcriptional regulator Apurinic/Apyrimidic endonuclease (APE1 ...


Targeting The Cellular Redox Environment: A Novel Approach For The Treatment Of Hematopoietic Neoplasms, Dustin W. Carroll Jan 2018

Targeting The Cellular Redox Environment: A Novel Approach For The Treatment Of Hematopoietic Neoplasms, Dustin W. Carroll

Theses and Dissertations--Toxicology and Cancer Biology

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that function to maintain the hematopoietic compartment through self-renewal and differentiation capacities, as well as their downstream progeny, are susceptible to transformation resulting in the generation of the leukemic stem cell (LSC). Chief in the factors that control HSC regulation and protection of the HSC compartment is the cellular redox environment. Deregulation of the Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cell (HSPC) redox environment results in loss of HSPC function and exhaustion. The characteristic developments of HSPC exhaustion via exposure to redox stress closely mirror phenotypic traits of hematopoietic malignancies, presenting the HSPC/LSC redox environment as a potential ...


Nanoparticle Orientation To Control Rna Loading And Ligand Display On Extracellular Vesicles For Cancer Regression, Fengmei Pi, Daniel W. Binzel, Tae Jin Lee, Zhefeng Li, Meiyan Sun, Piotr G. Rychahou, Hui Li, Farzin Haque, Shaoying Wang, Carlo M. Croce, Bin Guo, B. Mark Evers, Peixuan Guo Jan 2018

Nanoparticle Orientation To Control Rna Loading And Ligand Display On Extracellular Vesicles For Cancer Regression, Fengmei Pi, Daniel W. Binzel, Tae Jin Lee, Zhefeng Li, Meiyan Sun, Piotr G. Rychahou, Hui Li, Farzin Haque, Shaoying Wang, Carlo M. Croce, Bin Guo, B. Mark Evers, Peixuan Guo

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Nanotechnology offers many benefits, and here we report an advantage of applying RNA nanotechnology for directional control. The orientation of arrow-shaped RNA was altered to control ligand display on extracellular vesicle membranes for specific cell targeting, or to regulate intracellular trafficking of small interfering RNA (siRNA) or microRNA (miRNA). Placing membrane-anchoring cholesterol at the tail of the arrow results in display of RNA aptamer or folate on the outer surface of the extracellular vesicle. In contrast, placing the cholesterol at the arrowhead results in partial loading of RNA nanoparticles into the extracellular vesicles. Taking advantage of the RNA ligand for ...


Nuclear Spindles Pave The Way To Metastasis, Patrick J. Hensley, Natasha Kyprianou Dec 2017

Nuclear Spindles Pave The Way To Metastasis, Patrick J. Hensley, Natasha Kyprianou

Urology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Metabolic Dysregulation And Cancer Mortality In A National Cohort Of Blacks And Whites, Tomi Akinyemiju, Justin Xavier Moore, Suzanne Judd, Susan Lakoski, Michael Goodman, Monika M. Safford, Maria Pisu Dec 2017

Metabolic Dysregulation And Cancer Mortality In A National Cohort Of Blacks And Whites, Tomi Akinyemiju, Justin Xavier Moore, Suzanne Judd, Susan Lakoski, Michael Goodman, Monika M. Safford, Maria Pisu

Epidemiology Faculty Publications

Background: We examined the association between metabolic dysregulation and cancer mortality in a prospective cohort of Black and White adults.

Methods: A total of 25,038 Black and White adults were included in the analysis. Metabolic dysregulation was defined in two ways: 1) using the joint harmonized criteria for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and 2) based on factor analysis of 15 variables characterizing metabolic dysregulation. We estimated hazards ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of MetS and metabolic dysregulation with cancer mortality during follow-up using Cox proportional hazards models.

Results: About 46% of Black and 39% of ...


Ecog-Acrin (E4805) Randomized Phase Ii Study To Determine The Effect Of 2 Different Doses Of Aflibercept In Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma, Roberto Pili, Opeyemi Jegede, Michael A. Carducci, Judith Manola, David L. Groteluschen, Leonard L. Appleman, Glenn Liu, James C. Shanks, Shaker R. Dakhil, Janice Dutcher, Robert S. Dipaola Dec 2017

Ecog-Acrin (E4805) Randomized Phase Ii Study To Determine The Effect Of 2 Different Doses Of Aflibercept In Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma, Roberto Pili, Opeyemi Jegede, Michael A. Carducci, Judith Manola, David L. Groteluschen, Leonard L. Appleman, Glenn Liu, James C. Shanks, Shaker R. Dakhil, Janice Dutcher, Robert S. Dipaola

Internal Medicine Faculty Publications

Background—Aflibercept is a recombinantly-produced fusion protein that has potent anti-VEGF activity. We tested whether aflibercept has clinical activity in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). The recommended Phase 2 dose was 4 mg/kg but several patients treated at 1 mg/kg demonstrated prolonged progression-free survival (PFS). We therefore tested both doses in a parallel group randomized trial.

Methods—Eligible patients (pts) had histologically confirmed advanced or metastatic ccRCC and previous treatments including prior exposure to a VEGF RTKI. Patients received aflibercept (either 1 mg/kg or 4 mg/kg) day 1 of a 14-day cycle until progression. Patients ...


The Role Of Talin2 In Breast Cancer Tumorigenesis And Metastasis, Liqing Li, Xiang Li, Lei Qi, Piotr G. Rychahou, Naser Jafari, Cai Huang Nov 2017

The Role Of Talin2 In Breast Cancer Tumorigenesis And Metastasis, Liqing Li, Xiang Li, Lei Qi, Piotr G. Rychahou, Naser Jafari, Cai Huang

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Recent studies show that talin2 has a higher affinity to β-integrin tails and is indispensable for traction force generation and cell invasion. However, its roles in cell migration, cancer cell metastasis and tumorigenesis remain to be determined. Here, we used MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells as a model to define the roles of talin2 in cell migration, invasion, metastasis and tumorigenesis. We show here that talin2 knockdown (KD) inhibited cell migration and focal adhesion dynamics, a key step in cell migration, and that talin2 knockout (KO) inhibited cell invasion and traction force generation, the latter is crucial for cell invasion ...


Mtor Kinase Inhibition Effectively Decreases Progression Of A Subset Of Neuroendocrine Tumors That Progress On Rapalog Therapy And Delays Cardiac Impairment, Melissa A. Orr-Asman, Zhengtao Chu, Min Jiang, Mariah Worley, Kathleen Lesance, Sheryl E. Koch, Vinicius S. Carreira, Hanan M. Dahche, David R. Plas, Kakajan Komurov, Xiaoyang Qi, Carol A. Mercer, Lowell B. Anthony, Jack Rubinstein, Hala E. Thomas Nov 2017

Mtor Kinase Inhibition Effectively Decreases Progression Of A Subset Of Neuroendocrine Tumors That Progress On Rapalog Therapy And Delays Cardiac Impairment, Melissa A. Orr-Asman, Zhengtao Chu, Min Jiang, Mariah Worley, Kathleen Lesance, Sheryl E. Koch, Vinicius S. Carreira, Hanan M. Dahche, David R. Plas, Kakajan Komurov, Xiaoyang Qi, Carol A. Mercer, Lowell B. Anthony, Jack Rubinstein, Hala E. Thomas

Internal Medicine Faculty Publications

Inhibition of mTOR signaling using the rapalog everolimus is an FDA-approved targeted therapy for patients with lung and gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NET). However, patients eventually progress on treatment, highlighting the need for additional therapies. We focused on pancreatic NETs (pNET) and reasoned that treatment of these tumors upon progression on rapalog therapy, with an mTOR kinase inhibitor (mTORKi), such as CC-223, could overcome a number of resistance mechanisms in tumors and delay cardiac carcinoid disease. We performed preclinical studies using human pNET cells in vitro and injected them subcutaneously or orthotopically to determine tumor progression and cardiac function in mice ...


Tox Regulates Growth, Dna Repair, And Genomic Instability In T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Riadh Lobbardi, Jordan Pinder, Barbara Martinez-Pastor, Marina Theodorou, Jessica S. Blackburn, Brian J. Abraham, Yuka Namiki, Marc Mansour, Nouran S. Abdelfattah, Aleksey Molodtsov, Gabriela Alexe, Debra Toiber, Manon De Waard, Esha Jain, Myriam Boukhali, Mattia Lion, Deepak Bhere, Khalid Shah, Alejandro Gutierrez, Kimberly Stegmaier, Lewis B. Silverman, Ruslan I. Sadreyev, John M. Asara, Marjorie A. Oettinger, Wilhelm Haas, A. Thomas Look, Richard A. Young, Raul Mostoslavsky, Graham Dellaire, David M. Langenau Nov 2017

Tox Regulates Growth, Dna Repair, And Genomic Instability In T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Riadh Lobbardi, Jordan Pinder, Barbara Martinez-Pastor, Marina Theodorou, Jessica S. Blackburn, Brian J. Abraham, Yuka Namiki, Marc Mansour, Nouran S. Abdelfattah, Aleksey Molodtsov, Gabriela Alexe, Debra Toiber, Manon De Waard, Esha Jain, Myriam Boukhali, Mattia Lion, Deepak Bhere, Khalid Shah, Alejandro Gutierrez, Kimberly Stegmaier, Lewis B. Silverman, Ruslan I. Sadreyev, John M. Asara, Marjorie A. Oettinger, Wilhelm Haas, A. Thomas Look, Richard A. Young, Raul Mostoslavsky, Graham Dellaire, David M. Langenau

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive malignancy of thymocytes. Using a transgenic screen in zebrafish, thymocyte selection–associated high mobility group box protein (TOX) was uncovered as a collaborating oncogenic driver that accelerated T-ALL onset by expanding the initiating pool of transformed clones and elevating genomic instability. TOX is highly expressed in a majority of human T-ALL and is required for proliferation and continued xenograft growth in mice. Using a wide array of functional analyses, we uncovered that TOX binds directly to KU70/80 and suppresses recruitment of this complex to DNA breaks to inhibit nonhomologous end joining ...


Development Of Halofluorochromic Polymer Nanoassemblies For The Potential Detection Of Liver Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Tumors Using Experimental And Computational Approaches, Derek Alexander Reichel, Louis T. Curtis, Elizabeth Ehlman, B. Mark Evers, Piotr G. Rychahou, Hermann B. Frieboes, Younsoo Bae Nov 2017

Development Of Halofluorochromic Polymer Nanoassemblies For The Potential Detection Of Liver Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Tumors Using Experimental And Computational Approaches, Derek Alexander Reichel, Louis T. Curtis, Elizabeth Ehlman, B. Mark Evers, Piotr G. Rychahou, Hermann B. Frieboes, Younsoo Bae

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

Purpose—To develop polymer nanoassemblies (PNAs) modified with halofluorochromic dyes to allow for the detection of liver metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) to improve therapeutic outcomes.

Methods—We combine experimental and computational approaches to evaluate macroscopic and microscopic PNA distributions in patient-derived xenograft primary and orthotropic liver metastatic CRC tumors. Halofluorochromic and non-halofluorochromic PNAs (hfPNAs and n-hfPNAs) were prepared from poly(ethylene glycol), fluorescent dyes (Nile blue, Alexa546, and IR820), and hydrophobic groups (palmitate), all of which were covalently tethered to a cationic polymer scaffold [poly(ethylene imine) or poly(lysine)] forming particles with an average diameter < 30 nm.

Results—Dye-conjugated PNAs showed ...


Nanoparticle Delivery Of Mir-34a Eradicates Long-Term-Cultured Breast Cancer Stem Cells Via Targeting C22orf28 Directly, Xiaoti Lin, Weiyu Chen, Fengqin Wei, Binhua P. Zhou, Mien-Chie Hung, Xiaoming Xie Oct 2017

Nanoparticle Delivery Of Mir-34a Eradicates Long-Term-Cultured Breast Cancer Stem Cells Via Targeting C22orf28 Directly, Xiaoti Lin, Weiyu Chen, Fengqin Wei, Binhua P. Zhou, Mien-Chie Hung, Xiaoming Xie

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Rationale: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been implicated as the seeds of therapeutic resistance and metastasis, due to their unique abilities of self-renew, wide differentiation potentials and resistance to most conventional therapies. It is a proactive strategy for cancer therapy to eradicate CSCs. Methods: Tumor tissue-derived breast CSCs (BCSC), including XM322 and XM607, were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS); while cell line-derived BCSC, including MDA-MB-231.SC and MCF-7.SC, were purified by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS). Analyses of microRNA and mRNA expression array profiles were performed in multiple breast cell lines. The mentioned nanoparticles were constructed following the standard ...


Diverse Amide Analogs Of Sulindac For Cancer Treatment And Prevention, Bini Mathew, Judith V. Hobrath, Michele C. Connelly, R. Kiplin Guy, Robert C. Reynolds Oct 2017

Diverse Amide Analogs Of Sulindac For Cancer Treatment And Prevention, Bini Mathew, Judith V. Hobrath, Michele C. Connelly, R. Kiplin Guy, Robert C. Reynolds

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

Sulindac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that has shown significant anticancer activity. Sulindac sulfide amide (1) possessing greatly reduced COX-related inhibition relative to sulindac displayed in vivoantitumor activity that was comparable to sulindac in a human colon tumorxenograft model. Inspired by these observations, a panel of diverse sulindac amide derivatives have been synthesized and their activity probed against three cancer cell lines (prostate, colon and breast). A neutral analog, compound 79 was identified with comparable potency relative to lead 1 and activity against a panel of lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines. Several new series also show good activity relative ...


Glycolytic Reprogramming Through Pck2 Regulates Tumor Initiation Of Prostate Cancer Cells, Jiangsha Zhao, Jieran Li, Teresa W.M. Fan, Steven X. Hou Oct 2017

Glycolytic Reprogramming Through Pck2 Regulates Tumor Initiation Of Prostate Cancer Cells, Jiangsha Zhao, Jieran Li, Teresa W.M. Fan, Steven X. Hou

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Tumor-initiating cells (TICs) play important roles in tumor progression and metastasis. Identifying the factors regulating TICs may open new avenues in cancer therapy. Here, we show that TIC-enriched prostate cancer cell clones use more glucose and secrete more lactate than TIC-low clones. We determined that elevated levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase isoform 2 (PCK2) are critical for the metabolic switch and the maintenance of TICs in prostate cancer. Information from prostate cancer patient databases revealed that higher PCK2 levels correlated with more aggressive tumors and lower survival rates. PCK2 knockdown resulted in low TIC numbers, increased cytosolic acetyl-CoA and cellular protein ...


Loss Of Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatase Induces Glycolysis And Promotes Apoptosis Resistance Of Cancer Stem-Like Cells: An Important Role In Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Carcinogenesis, Jin Dai, Yanli Ji, Wei Wang, Donghern Kim, Leonard Yenwong Fai, Lei Wang, Jia Luo, Zhuo Zhang Sep 2017

Loss Of Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatase Induces Glycolysis And Promotes Apoptosis Resistance Of Cancer Stem-Like Cells: An Important Role In Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Carcinogenesis, Jin Dai, Yanli Ji, Wei Wang, Donghern Kim, Leonard Yenwong Fai, Lei Wang, Jia Luo, Zhuo Zhang

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds are confirmed human carcinogens for lung cancer. Our previous studies has demonstrated that chronic exposure of human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells to low dose of Cr(VI) causes malignant cell transformation. The acquisition of cancer stem cell-like properties is involved in the initiation of cancers. The present study has observed that a small population of cancer stem-like cells (BEAS-2B-Cr-CSC) exists in the Cr(VI)-transformed cells (BEAS-2B-Cr). Those BEAS-2B-Cr-CSC exhibit extremely reduced capability of generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis resistance. BEAS-2B-Cr-CSC are metabolic inactive as evidenced by reductions in oxygen consumption, glucose uptake ...