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University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

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Articles 1 - 13 of 13

Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

Comparative Plasma Proteomics In Muscle Atrophy Induced By Cancer Cachexia And Hindlimb Unloading, Kirsten Rene Dunlap May 2019

Comparative Plasma Proteomics In Muscle Atrophy Induced By Cancer Cachexia And Hindlimb Unloading, Kirsten Rene Dunlap

Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: Muscle atrophy results from a dysfunction in protein turnover that leads to loss of mass and function and occurs concurrently with multiple pathologies such as cancer and extended bed rest. Atrophy reduces overall quality of life while increasing morbidity and mortality. Currently, efficacious therapeutic interventions to treat and prevent muscle wasting in all its forms are lacking, however if conserved mechanisms can be identified between wasting conditions, this would aid in the development of multipurpose therapeutics to ameliorate this pathology. Purpose: To examine circulating factors present across atrophic pathologies. Methods: 35 male C57BL/6J mice were assigned to hindlimb ...


Targeting Sec61Α By Ipomoeassin F Leads To Highly Cytotoxic Effect, Zhijian Hu May 2019

Targeting Sec61Α By Ipomoeassin F Leads To Highly Cytotoxic Effect, Zhijian Hu

Theses and Dissertations

Ipomoeassin F is a flagship congener of a resin glycoside family that inhibits growth of many tumor cell lines with only single-digital nanomolar IC50 values. However, biological and pharmacological mechanisms of ipomoeassin F have been undefined. To facilitate exploration of the biological and pharmacological properties, we performed sophisticate SAR (Structure–activity relationship) studies of ipomoeassin F to understand its pharmacophore and structure properties so that we can design favorable probes for further biological investigation. By applying appropriate deviates that possess fluorescent groups and similar bio-activity, the target protein was found to be localized in endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Through biotin affinity ...


Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy To Quantify In Vivo Tissue Optical Properties: Applications In Human Epithelium And Subcutaneous Murine Colon Cancer, Gage Joseph Greening May 2019

Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy To Quantify In Vivo Tissue Optical Properties: Applications In Human Epithelium And Subcutaneous Murine Colon Cancer, Gage Joseph Greening

Theses and Dissertations

Colorectal cancer is the 4th most common and 2nd deadliest cancer. Problems exist with predicting which patients will respond best to certain therapy regimens. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has been suggested as a candidate to optically monitor a patient’s early response to therapy and has been received favorably in experimentally managing other cancers such as breast and skin. In this dissertation, two diffuse reflectance spectroscopy probes were designed: one with a combined high-resolution microendoscopy modality, and one that was optimized for acquiring data from subcutaneous murine tumors. For both probes, percent errors for estimating tissue optical properties (reduced scattering coefficient ...


Conformationally-Controlled Late-Stage Modifications For Sar Studies Of The C-3-Glcp Moiety Of Ipomoeassin F, Lucas Whisenhunt Aug 2018

Conformationally-Controlled Late-Stage Modifications For Sar Studies Of The C-3-Glcp Moiety Of Ipomoeassin F, Lucas Whisenhunt

Theses and Dissertations

The resin glycoside, ipomoeassin F has been shown to be extremely potent against multiple cancer lines (IC50 = 4.2-36 nM). However, the mechanism of action of this potent and complex natural product is still not fully understood. The α,β-unsaturated esters of the glucosyl moiety have been shown to be vital for the overall cytotoxicity of ipomoeassin F. Nevertheless, the importance of the tigloyl ester of the glucosyl moiety is still largely unknown. This work aimed to study the pharmacophore importance of the tigloyl ester by creating, an efficient, scalable, and flexible synthesis route for various analogs. The 18-linear step ...


Cancer-Induced Muscle Wasting, Jacob Levi Brown May 2018

Cancer-Induced Muscle Wasting, Jacob Levi Brown

Theses and Dissertations

Cancer-induced muscle wasting, otherwise known as cancer-cachexia, is a wasting syndrome that occurs in approximately 80% of cancer patients that is the primary cause of death for 22%-30% of cancer cases. Cancer-cachexia may be metabolically induced; therefore, the central hypothesis of this dissertation is mitochondrial degeneration occurs before cancer-cachexia, and increased oxidative stress because of mitochondrial degeneration in muscle may instigate cancer-cachexia. Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells (LLC) or PBS (control) were injected into the hind-flank of C57Bl6/J mice at 8 wks age, and tumor allowed to develop for 1, 2, 3 or 4 wks. Mitochondrial quality, function, ROS ...


Molecular And Biochemical Studies Of Several Novel Estrogen Receptor Alpha-Interacting Proteins In Breast Cancer Cells, Ahmed Edan Dhamad Aug 2017

Molecular And Biochemical Studies Of Several Novel Estrogen Receptor Alpha-Interacting Proteins In Breast Cancer Cells, Ahmed Edan Dhamad

Theses and Dissertations

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women, and approximately 70% of incidences are estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. ERα and its interacting proteins play a key role in the development and progression of breast cancer. However, how ERα regulates its target gene expression and hence cell proliferation is not fully understood. To enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanism by which ERα regulates gene expression, we used a quantitative proteomic method to identify cellular proteins that interact with ERα. The first group of proteins that were identified to associate with ERα are heat shock ...


Rna Sequencing In The Development Of Cancer-Cachexia, Thomas Allen Blackwell Aug 2017

Rna Sequencing In The Development Of Cancer-Cachexia, Thomas Allen Blackwell

Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: Cancer is a major public health problem in the U.S. and the world. In 2013 there were an estimated 1,660,290 new cases of cancer in the U.S. Cancer-Cachexia (CC) is a common effect of many cancers, and is directly responsible for 20-40% of cancer-related deaths. The mechanisms that control the development of CC are not well understood. Most investigations of CC focus on the post-cachectic state and do not examine the progression of the condition. The purpose of this study was to utilize RNA sequencing to analyze transcriptomic alterations throughout the progression of CC. Methods ...


Optimizing A Standard Fasting Time For 2-Nbdg Uptake Studies In Murine Breast Cancers, Andrew C. Briley May 2017

Optimizing A Standard Fasting Time For 2-Nbdg Uptake Studies In Murine Breast Cancers, Andrew C. Briley

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Recently, there has been a larger use of 2-NBDG, a fluorescent glucose analog, to study glucose uptake in different cell types. These cell types have ranged anywhere from bacteria to human cancer cells. However, there has yet to be a standard procedure and practice for using 2-NBDG. In this study, our goal is to create a standard fasting time for the cells before introducing 2-NBDG to them. This study uses 4T07 cells, a murine breast cancer cell line, to help optimize this fasting time. These cells were fasted at different time points in order to find the ideal fasting time ...


Immunomodulation Of Breast Cancer Cells For Whole Tumor Vaccination, Kristina G. Maxwell May 2016

Immunomodulation Of Breast Cancer Cells For Whole Tumor Vaccination, Kristina G. Maxwell

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Hematogenous metastasis causes 90% of breast cancer-related deaths.Current therapies include chemotherapy and irradiation following surgery. These therapies are very harmful to the human body and do not elicit an anti-tumor immune response. To create a novel therapeutic, an autologous vaccine increasing the immunogenicity of non immunogenic breast cancer cell lines has been proposed.

To create this vaccine, 4T1 mouse mammary breast cancer cells have been selected as the desired cell line to treat. They are non immunogenic and highly invasive. In order to increase their immunogenicity, first projected, was the addition of cytokines to 4T1 cells to increase the ...


Numerical Simulation Of Terahertz Wave Interaction With Breast Cancer Tumor Tissue Sections, Abayomi Omotola Omolewu Jul 2015

Numerical Simulation Of Terahertz Wave Interaction With Breast Cancer Tumor Tissue Sections, Abayomi Omotola Omolewu

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis presents numerical simulation of terahertz (THz) wave interaction with breast cancer tumor tissue sections. The obtained results are expressed in THz images of heterogeneous material that mimics the excised breast cancer tissue sections. The finite-element software package ANSYS High Frequency Structural Simulator (HFSS) was used in this work. HFSS is a full wave frequency domain three-dimensional (3D) electromagnetic simulation package. In this work, four breast cancer tissue models based on pathology images were simulated and images of the models were obtained at 1 THz. An incident Gaussian beam was raster scanned over tissue model configurations and the reflected ...


Growth Of Breast Tumors In Vitro To Characterize A Terahertz Imaging Platform, Scarlett-Marie Acklin May 2015

Growth Of Breast Tumors In Vitro To Characterize A Terahertz Imaging Platform, Scarlett-Marie Acklin

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

In this research, different methods were investigated to grow in-vitro breast cancer tumors embedded in gel using the 4T1 cell line. The goal of this research was to test a new medical imaging modality available at the University of Arkansas using terahertz (THz) waves. The THz imaging and spectroscopy system has shown capability of high-resolution imaging and characterization of human breast tumors fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin. In order to further examine this new imaging system in a laboratory environment, attempts to grow breast tumors in-vitro were conducted. Results were produced in two different environments, flat-bottomed plates and ...


Proteomic And Biochemical Studies Of Estrogen-Mediated Signaling And Novel Estrogen Receptor-Interacting Proteins In Breast Cancer Cells, Zhenqi Zhou Aug 2013

Proteomic And Biochemical Studies Of Estrogen-Mediated Signaling And Novel Estrogen Receptor-Interacting Proteins In Breast Cancer Cells, Zhenqi Zhou

Theses and Dissertations

Estrogen plays essential roles in the growth, development, and homeostasis of a number of tissues, and can also be linked to the growth of breast cancer. The biological activities of estrogen are mediated by estrogen receptors (ERs) ERá and ERâ, and also orphan G-protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30). In order to identify novel proteins that are involved in ER-mediated actions of estrogen, we used mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomic methods to systematically profile global protein expression in responses to E2 (17â-estradiol) stimulation in human breast cancer cell, and identify and characterize cellular novel proteins that are associated with ERs in breast cancer ...


Peptoid Based Slide Coatings For Disease Detection Via Elisa Microarray Analysis, Melissa Lea Hebert Aug 2012

Peptoid Based Slide Coatings For Disease Detection Via Elisa Microarray Analysis, Melissa Lea Hebert

Theses and Dissertations

Poly-N-substituted glycines (peptoids) are a very versatile family of synthetic molecules that can be customized for any number of applications. In this study, we chose to use peptoids as a foundation for sandwich ELISA microarray analysis with a long term goal of creating an early detection device for complex diseases such as cancer. The peptoids were designed to self-assemble into microspheres to be used in coatings on the surface of the microarray substrates to increase the surface area available for antibody attachment. This increased antibody density would lead to an increase in the microarray analysis sensitivity and dynamic range. Studies ...