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University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

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Articles 1 - 21 of 21

Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

Targeting Sec61Α By Ipomoeassin F Leads To Highly Cytotoxic Effect, Zhijian Hu May 2019

Targeting Sec61Α By Ipomoeassin F Leads To Highly Cytotoxic Effect, Zhijian Hu

Theses and Dissertations

Ipomoeassin F is a flagship congener of a resin glycoside family that inhibits growth of many tumor cell lines with only single-digital nanomolar IC50 values. However, biological and pharmacological mechanisms of ipomoeassin F have been undefined. To facilitate exploration of the biological and pharmacological properties, we performed sophisticate SAR (Structure–activity relationship) studies of ipomoeassin F to understand its pharmacophore and structure properties so that we can design favorable probes for further biological investigation. By applying appropriate deviates that possess fluorescent groups and similar bio-activity, the target protein was found to be localized in endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Through biotin affinity ...


Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy To Quantify In Vivo Tissue Optical Properties: Applications In Human Epithelium And Subcutaneous Murine Colon Cancer, Gage Joseph Greening May 2019

Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy To Quantify In Vivo Tissue Optical Properties: Applications In Human Epithelium And Subcutaneous Murine Colon Cancer, Gage Joseph Greening

Theses and Dissertations

Colorectal cancer is the 4th most common and 2nd deadliest cancer. Problems exist with predicting which patients will respond best to certain therapy regimens. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has been suggested as a candidate to optically monitor a patient’s early response to therapy and has been received favorably in experimentally managing other cancers such as breast and skin. In this dissertation, two diffuse reflectance spectroscopy probes were designed: one with a combined high-resolution microendoscopy modality, and one that was optimized for acquiring data from subcutaneous murine tumors. For both probes, percent errors for estimating tissue optical properties (reduced scattering coefficient ...


Comparative Plasma Proteomics In Muscle Atrophy Induced By Cancer Cachexia And Hindlimb Unloading, Kirsten Rene Dunlap May 2019

Comparative Plasma Proteomics In Muscle Atrophy Induced By Cancer Cachexia And Hindlimb Unloading, Kirsten Rene Dunlap

Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: Muscle atrophy results from a dysfunction in protein turnover that leads to loss of mass and function and occurs concurrently with multiple pathologies such as cancer and extended bed rest. Atrophy reduces overall quality of life while increasing morbidity and mortality. Currently, efficacious therapeutic interventions to treat and prevent muscle wasting in all its forms are lacking, however if conserved mechanisms can be identified between wasting conditions, this would aid in the development of multipurpose therapeutics to ameliorate this pathology. Purpose: To examine circulating factors present across atrophic pathologies. Methods: 35 male C57BL/6J mice were assigned to hindlimb ...


Conformationally-Controlled Late-Stage Modifications For Sar Studies Of The C-3-Glcp Moiety Of Ipomoeassin F, Lucas Whisenhunt Aug 2018

Conformationally-Controlled Late-Stage Modifications For Sar Studies Of The C-3-Glcp Moiety Of Ipomoeassin F, Lucas Whisenhunt

Theses and Dissertations

The resin glycoside, ipomoeassin F has been shown to be extremely potent against multiple cancer lines (IC50 = 4.2-36 nM). However, the mechanism of action of this potent and complex natural product is still not fully understood. The α,β-unsaturated esters of the glucosyl moiety have been shown to be vital for the overall cytotoxicity of ipomoeassin F. Nevertheless, the importance of the tigloyl ester of the glucosyl moiety is still largely unknown. This work aimed to study the pharmacophore importance of the tigloyl ester by creating, an efficient, scalable, and flexible synthesis route for various analogs. The 18-linear step ...


Cancer-Induced Muscle Wasting, Jacob Levi Brown May 2018

Cancer-Induced Muscle Wasting, Jacob Levi Brown

Theses and Dissertations

Cancer-induced muscle wasting, otherwise known as cancer-cachexia, is a wasting syndrome that occurs in approximately 80% of cancer patients that is the primary cause of death for 22%-30% of cancer cases. Cancer-cachexia may be metabolically induced; therefore, the central hypothesis of this dissertation is mitochondrial degeneration occurs before cancer-cachexia, and increased oxidative stress because of mitochondrial degeneration in muscle may instigate cancer-cachexia. Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells (LLC) or PBS (control) were injected into the hind-flank of C57Bl6/J mice at 8 wks age, and tumor allowed to develop for 1, 2, 3 or 4 wks. Mitochondrial quality, function, ROS ...


Rna Sequencing In The Development Of Cancer-Cachexia, Thomas Allen Blackwell Aug 2017

Rna Sequencing In The Development Of Cancer-Cachexia, Thomas Allen Blackwell

Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: Cancer is a major public health problem in the U.S. and the world. In 2013 there were an estimated 1,660,290 new cases of cancer in the U.S. Cancer-Cachexia (CC) is a common effect of many cancers, and is directly responsible for 20-40% of cancer-related deaths. The mechanisms that control the development of CC are not well understood. Most investigations of CC focus on the post-cachectic state and do not examine the progression of the condition. The purpose of this study was to utilize RNA sequencing to analyze transcriptomic alterations throughout the progression of CC. Methods ...


Molecular And Biochemical Studies Of Several Novel Estrogen Receptor Alpha-Interacting Proteins In Breast Cancer Cells, Ahmed Edan Dhamad Aug 2017

Molecular And Biochemical Studies Of Several Novel Estrogen Receptor Alpha-Interacting Proteins In Breast Cancer Cells, Ahmed Edan Dhamad

Theses and Dissertations

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women, and approximately 70% of incidences are estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. ERα and its interacting proteins play a key role in the development and progression of breast cancer. However, how ERα regulates its target gene expression and hence cell proliferation is not fully understood. To enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanism by which ERα regulates gene expression, we used a quantitative proteomic method to identify cellular proteins that interact with ERα. The first group of proteins that were identified to associate with ERα are heat shock ...


Optimizing A Standard Fasting Time For 2-Nbdg Uptake Studies In Murine Breast Cancers, Andrew C. Briley May 2017

Optimizing A Standard Fasting Time For 2-Nbdg Uptake Studies In Murine Breast Cancers, Andrew C. Briley

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Recently, there has been a larger use of 2-NBDG, a fluorescent glucose analog, to study glucose uptake in different cell types. These cell types have ranged anywhere from bacteria to human cancer cells. However, there has yet to be a standard procedure and practice for using 2-NBDG. In this study, our goal is to create a standard fasting time for the cells before introducing 2-NBDG to them. This study uses 4T07 cells, a murine breast cancer cell line, to help optimize this fasting time. These cells were fasted at different time points in order to find the ideal fasting time ...


Anti-Cancer And Bioavailabilty Of Arachidin-1 And Arachidin-3 In Colon Cancer Cells, Macy R. Shirley, Cindi Brownmiller, Wing Shun Lam, Sun-Ok Lee Jan 2017

Anti-Cancer And Bioavailabilty Of Arachidin-1 And Arachidin-3 In Colon Cancer Cells, Macy R. Shirley, Cindi Brownmiller, Wing Shun Lam, Sun-Ok Lee

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

Cancer is a common cause of death in the United States and locally in the state of Arkansas. Modifiable factors such as tobacco use, physical activity, and diet lead to reduced incidence of colon cancer diagnosis. Plant-based foods may contain phytochemicals that confer health promoting properties. Specifically, peanuts contain phytochemicals known as resveratrol, arachidin-1, and arachidin-3 that have been linked to anticancer activities. However, few research studies have been done on arachidin-1 and arachidin-3 that could develop understanding of their health promoting properties or nutraceutical applications. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the most effective concentration of ...


Immunomodulation Of Breast Cancer Cells For Whole Tumor Vaccination, Kristina G. Maxwell May 2016

Immunomodulation Of Breast Cancer Cells For Whole Tumor Vaccination, Kristina G. Maxwell

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Hematogenous metastasis causes 90% of breast cancer-related deaths.Current therapies include chemotherapy and irradiation following surgery. These therapies are very harmful to the human body and do not elicit an anti-tumor immune response. To create a novel therapeutic, an autologous vaccine increasing the immunogenicity of non immunogenic breast cancer cell lines has been proposed.

To create this vaccine, 4T1 mouse mammary breast cancer cells have been selected as the desired cell line to treat. They are non immunogenic and highly invasive. In order to increase their immunogenicity, first projected, was the addition of cytokines to 4T1 cells to increase the ...


Numerical Simulation Of Terahertz Wave Interaction With Breast Cancer Tumor Tissue Sections, Abayomi Omotola Omolewu Jul 2015

Numerical Simulation Of Terahertz Wave Interaction With Breast Cancer Tumor Tissue Sections, Abayomi Omotola Omolewu

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis presents numerical simulation of terahertz (THz) wave interaction with breast cancer tumor tissue sections. The obtained results are expressed in THz images of heterogeneous material that mimics the excised breast cancer tissue sections. The finite-element software package ANSYS High Frequency Structural Simulator (HFSS) was used in this work. HFSS is a full wave frequency domain three-dimensional (3D) electromagnetic simulation package. In this work, four breast cancer tissue models based on pathology images were simulated and images of the models were obtained at 1 THz. An incident Gaussian beam was raster scanned over tissue model configurations and the reflected ...


Growth Of Breast Tumors In Vitro To Characterize A Terahertz Imaging Platform, Scarlett-Marie Acklin May 2015

Growth Of Breast Tumors In Vitro To Characterize A Terahertz Imaging Platform, Scarlett-Marie Acklin

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

In this research, different methods were investigated to grow in-vitro breast cancer tumors embedded in gel using the 4T1 cell line. The goal of this research was to test a new medical imaging modality available at the University of Arkansas using terahertz (THz) waves. The THz imaging and spectroscopy system has shown capability of high-resolution imaging and characterization of human breast tumors fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin. In order to further examine this new imaging system in a laboratory environment, attempts to grow breast tumors in-vitro were conducted. Results were produced in two different environments, flat-bottomed plates and ...


Terahertz Imaging Platform To Characterize The Growth Of In-Vitro Breast Tumors, Scarlett-Marie Acklin Jan 2015

Terahertz Imaging Platform To Characterize The Growth Of In-Vitro Breast Tumors, Scarlett-Marie Acklin

Inquiry: The University of Arkansas Undergraduate Research Journal

This study aimed at evaluating the ideal plating method and density for imaging with the terahertz (THz) spectrometer. In this study, different methods were used to grow in-vitro tumors using the 4T1 cell line. Here, attempts to grow breast tumors in-vitro were conducted. Results were produced in two environments, flat-bottomed plates and round-bottomed multiwell plates. The second method allowed for faster clumping and increased cell aggregation, producing tumors up to 7mm. Terahertz spectroscopy produced images that correlated well to photomicrographs taken of the in-vitro tumors. This methodology shows great promise for providing a reliable, parameter-controlled source of in-vitro breast tumors ...


Proteomic And Biochemical Studies Of Estrogen-Mediated Signaling And Novel Estrogen Receptor-Interacting Proteins In Breast Cancer Cells, Zhenqi Zhou Aug 2013

Proteomic And Biochemical Studies Of Estrogen-Mediated Signaling And Novel Estrogen Receptor-Interacting Proteins In Breast Cancer Cells, Zhenqi Zhou

Theses and Dissertations

Estrogen plays essential roles in the growth, development, and homeostasis of a number of tissues, and can also be linked to the growth of breast cancer. The biological activities of estrogen are mediated by estrogen receptors (ERs) ERá and ERâ, and also orphan G-protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30). In order to identify novel proteins that are involved in ER-mediated actions of estrogen, we used mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomic methods to systematically profile global protein expression in responses to E2 (17â-estradiol) stimulation in human breast cancer cell, and identify and characterize cellular novel proteins that are associated with ERs in breast cancer ...


Peptoid Based Slide Coatings For Disease Detection Via Elisa Microarray Analysis, Melissa Lea Hebert Aug 2012

Peptoid Based Slide Coatings For Disease Detection Via Elisa Microarray Analysis, Melissa Lea Hebert

Theses and Dissertations

Poly-N-substituted glycines (peptoids) are a very versatile family of synthetic molecules that can be customized for any number of applications. In this study, we chose to use peptoids as a foundation for sandwich ELISA microarray analysis with a long term goal of creating an early detection device for complex diseases such as cancer. The peptoids were designed to self-assemble into microspheres to be used in coatings on the surface of the microarray substrates to increase the surface area available for antibody attachment. This increased antibody density would lead to an increase in the microarray analysis sensitivity and dynamic range. Studies ...


Analysis Of Human Tacc3 In Cellular Responses To Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Ivan H. Still, B. Lauffart Jan 2012

Analysis Of Human Tacc3 In Cellular Responses To Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Ivan H. Still, B. Lauffart

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Very little is known about the etiology of ovarian cancer. However, studies have shown that occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tobacco smoking can increase ovarian cancer risk. Previously, we have determined that 100% of ovarian tumors show loss or aberrant subcellular localization of TACC3 (transforming acidic coiled coil 3) relative to the normal ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). In mice, a role for TACC3 in the cellular response to PAH has been defined. However, comparable studies for human TACC3 has not been performed. In this report, we show that specific knockdown of TACC3 in human ovarian cancer cells ...


Effect Of Chlorogenic Acid And Neochlorogenic Acid On Human Colon Cancer Cells, Taylor Thurow, Sun-Ok Lee Jan 2012

Effect Of Chlorogenic Acid And Neochlorogenic Acid On Human Colon Cancer Cells, Taylor Thurow, Sun-Ok Lee

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

Prune consumption has been associated with a decreased risk of colon cancer; yet there has been confusion as to which chemical component(s) of the prune are responsible for its anticarcinogenic properties. Previous studies have evaluated chlorogenic acid as a chemotherapeutic agent; however, only a limited amount of studies have investigated neochlorogenic acid, the predominant phenolic compound found in the prune. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects that chlorogenic acid and neochlorogenic acid have as anticarcinogenics on the human adenocarcinoma, Caco-2 cell line. The anti-colon cancer effects of chlorogenic acid and neochlorogenic acid were analyzed by ...


Organometallic Ruthenium Complexes Of Novel Thiosemicarbazones, Floyd A. Beckford, Amon T. Holt Jan 2006

Organometallic Ruthenium Complexes Of Novel Thiosemicarbazones, Floyd A. Beckford, Amon T. Holt

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

We present the preliminary results of a study of two novel thiosemicarbazones (TSCs) and theirruthenium complexes. The TSCs were prepared by refluxing thiosemicarbazide with 9-anthraldehyde or benzanthrone in ethanol for 3 hours. The metal complex of each ligand (complex I =[(r|6 -C6H6 )Ru(9-ant-TSC )(C1)]C1 and complex II= [(r|6 -C6H6 )Ru(benz-TSC)(Cl)]Cl) was prepared by refluxing the appropriate TSC with [(r|6 -C6H6 )RuCl 2 ] r The compounds were characterized using infrared, ultraviolet-visible, and NMRspectroscopy. Two different methods, the disk diffusion test and luminometry, were used to test the compounds against a variety of different ...


Preparation Of Novel Hydroxyethyl Amine Isosteres As Potential Cathepsin D Inhibitors, Rose M. Mcconnell, Walter E. Godwin, Amy Stefan, Crystal Newton, Nikki Herring, Crissy Goss Jan 2002

Preparation Of Novel Hydroxyethyl Amine Isosteres As Potential Cathepsin D Inhibitors, Rose M. Mcconnell, Walter E. Godwin, Amy Stefan, Crystal Newton, Nikki Herring, Crissy Goss

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Cathepsin D is a lysosomal aspartic protease found in all mammalian cells and is considered to be one of the main catabolic proteinases. Cathepsin D has been suggested to play a role in the metastatic potential of several types of cancer. A high activated cathepsin D level in breast tumor tissue has been associated with an increased incidence of relapse and metastasis. High levels of active cathepsin D have also been found in colon cancer, prostate cancer, uterine cancer, and ovarian cancer. Hydroxyethyl isosteres with cyclic tertiary amine have proven to be clinically useful as inhibitors of aspartyl proteases similar ...


Liver Lipids Profiles In Nude Mice Implanted Subcutaneously With Cells Of Human Prostate Adenocarcinoma Grade Iv, Lawrence M. Mwasi Jan 1994

Liver Lipids Profiles In Nude Mice Implanted Subcutaneously With Cells Of Human Prostate Adenocarcinoma Grade Iv, Lawrence M. Mwasi

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Liver lipid changes in male BALB-c nude mice due to subcutaneously implanted human prostate metastatic grade IV adenocarcinoma was studied. The prostate cancer cells were cultured in F12 plus 7.5% horse serum and 25% fetal calf serum medium. When they reached confluence, some of these cells were fixed with glutaraldehyde and thoroughly washed with buffer then 4 x107 cells were implanted into four mice. Four more mice were implanted with 4 x 106 viable, unfixed cells. Four uninjected mice served as controls. All the mice were sacrificed 18 days later. The total liver lipids (TLL) from each liver were ...


Development Of Tissue Culture Systems For The Evaluation Of Cancer Chemotherapeutic Agents, Clifton Orr, Joseph E. Stone, Maxine L. Polk Jan 1983

Development Of Tissue Culture Systems For The Evaluation Of Cancer Chemotherapeutic Agents, Clifton Orr, Joseph E. Stone, Maxine L. Polk

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

No abstract provided.