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Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library, The George Washington University

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Articles 1 - 27 of 27

Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

The Role Of Estradiol Metabolism In Urogenital Schistosomiasis-Induced Bladder Cancer, Nuno Vale, Maria Gouveia, Gabriel Rinaldi, Julio Santos, Lucio Lara Santos, Paul J. Brindley, Jose Correia Da Costa Mar 2017

The Role Of Estradiol Metabolism In Urogenital Schistosomiasis-Induced Bladder Cancer, Nuno Vale, Maria Gouveia, Gabriel Rinaldi, Julio Santos, Lucio Lara Santos, Paul J. Brindley, Jose Correia Da Costa

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Urogenital schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease that can lead to bladder cancer. How urogenital schistosomiasis induces carcinogenesis remains unclear, although there is evidence that the human blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium, the infectious agent of urogenital schistosomiasis, releases estradiol-like metabolites. These kind of compounds have been implicated in other cancers. Aiming for enhanced understanding of the pathogenesis of the urogenital schistosomiasisinduced bladder cancer, here we review, interpret, and discuss findings of estradiol-like metabolites detected in both the parasite and in the human urine during urogenital schistosomiasis. Moreover, we predict pathways and enzymes that are involved in the production of these ...


Press-Pulse: A Novel Therapeutic Strategy For The Metabolic Management Of Cancer, Thomas Seyfried, George Yu, Joseph Maroon, Dominic D'Agostino Jan 2017

Press-Pulse: A Novel Therapeutic Strategy For The Metabolic Management Of Cancer, Thomas Seyfried, George Yu, Joseph Maroon, Dominic D'Agostino

Urology Faculty Publications

Background

A shift from respiration to fermentation is a common metabolic hallmark of cancer cells. As a result, glucose and glutamine become the prime fuels for driving the dysregulated growth of tumors. The simultaneous occurrence of “Press-Pulse” disturbances was considered the mechanism responsible for reduction of organic populations during prior evolutionary epochs. Press disturbances produce chronic stress, while pulse disturbances produce acute stress on populations. It was only when both disturbances coincide that population reduction occurred.

Methods

This general concept can be applied to the management of cancer by creating chronic metabolic stresses on tumor cell energy metabolism (press disturbance ...


Biomuta And Bioxpress: Mutation And Expression Knowledgebases For Cancer Biomarker Discovery, Hayley Dingerdissen, John Torcivia-Rodriguez, Yu Hu, Ting-Chia Chang, Raja Mazumder, Robel Kashay Jan 2017

Biomuta And Bioxpress: Mutation And Expression Knowledgebases For Cancer Biomarker Discovery, Hayley Dingerdissen, John Torcivia-Rodriguez, Yu Hu, Ting-Chia Chang, Raja Mazumder, Robel Kashay

Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine Faculty Publications

Single-nucleotide variation and gene expression of disease samples represent important resources for biomarker discovery. Many databases have been built to host and make available such data to the community, but these databases are frequently limited in scope and/or content. BioMuta, a database of cancer-associated single-nucleotide variations, and BioXpress, a database of cancer-associated differentially expressed genes and microRNAs, differ from other disease-associated variation and expression databases primarily through the aggregation of data across many studies into a single source with a unified representation and annotation of functional attributes. Early versions of these resources were initiated by pilot funding for specific ...


Brd4 Binds To Active Enhancers To Control Cell Identity Gene Induction In Adipogenesis And Myogenesis, Ji-Eun Lee, Young-Kwon Park, Sarah Park, Younghoon Jang, Nicholas Waring, Anup Dey, Keiko Ozato, Binbin Lai, Weiqun Peng, Kai Ge Jan 2017

Brd4 Binds To Active Enhancers To Control Cell Identity Gene Induction In Adipogenesis And Myogenesis, Ji-Eun Lee, Young-Kwon Park, Sarah Park, Younghoon Jang, Nicholas Waring, Anup Dey, Keiko Ozato, Binbin Lai, Weiqun Peng, Kai Ge

Anatomy and Regenerative Biology Faculty Publications

The epigenomic reader Brd4 is an important drug target for cancers. However, its role in cell differentiation and animal development remains largely unclear. Using two conditional knockout mouse strains and derived cells, we demonstrate that Brd4 controls cell identity gene induction and is essential for adipogenesis and myogenesis. Brd4 co-localizes with lineage-determining transcription factors (LDTFs) on active enhancers during differentiation. LDTFs coordinate with H3K4 mono-methyltransferases MLL3/MLL4 (KMT2C/KMT2D) and H3K27 acetyltransferases CBP/p300 to recruit Brd4 to enhancers activated during differentiation. Brd4 deletion prevents the enrichment of Mediator and RNA polymerase II transcription machinery, but not that of LDTFs ...


Noncanonical Sqstm1/P62-Nrf2 Pathway Activation Mediates Proteasome Inhibitor Resistance In Multiple Myeloma Cells Via Redox, Metabolic And Translational Reprogramming., Irene Riz, Teresa S Hawley, Jeffrey W Marsal, Robert G Hawley Oct 2016

Noncanonical Sqstm1/P62-Nrf2 Pathway Activation Mediates Proteasome Inhibitor Resistance In Multiple Myeloma Cells Via Redox, Metabolic And Translational Reprogramming., Irene Riz, Teresa S Hawley, Jeffrey W Marsal, Robert G Hawley

Anatomy and Regenerative Biology Faculty Publications

Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a B-cell malignancy characterized by the accumulation of clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow, with drug resistance being a major cause of therapeutic failure. We established a carfilzomib-resistant derivative of the LP-1 MM cell line (LP-1/Cfz) and found that the transcription factor NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2; gene symbol NFE2L2) contributes to carfilzomib resistance. The mechanism of Nrf2 activation involved enhanced translation of Nrf2 as well as its positive regulator, the autophagy receptor sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1)/p62. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor gene EIF4E3 was among the Nrf2 target genes upregulated in LP-1/Cfz ...


Sulfatase 2 Facilitates Lymphangiogenesis In Breast Cancer By Regulating Vegf-D., Chenfang Zhu, Xiaoliang Qi, Xin Zhou, Xin Nie, Yan Gu Oct 2016

Sulfatase 2 Facilitates Lymphangiogenesis In Breast Cancer By Regulating Vegf-D., Chenfang Zhu, Xiaoliang Qi, Xin Zhou, Xin Nie, Yan Gu

Surgery Faculty Publications

In our previous studies, sulfatase 2 (Sulf2) was found to upregulate vascular endothelial growth factor-D (VEGF-D) expression in breast cancer. As VEGF-D plays an important role in lymphangiogenesis, we hypothesized that Sulf2 facilitates lymphangiogenesis in breast cancer by regulating VEGF-D. To evaluate the functions of Sulf2 on lymphangiogenesis in breast cancer, proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, cell mobility and tube-formation of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) were measured in vitro. Lymphangiogenesis in nude mouse ears and breast cancer xenografts were examined in vivo. Furthermore, the expression levels of related signaling pathway genes were screened and verified in LECs. We found that Sulf2 ...


Inhibition Of Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Enhances The Tumor Growth Of Ovarian Cancer Cell Line Derived From A Low-Grade Papillary Serous Carcinoma In P53-Independent Pathway, Xue Xiao, Gong Yang, Peng Bai, Shunping Gui, Tri M. Bui Nguyen, +8 Additional Authors Aug 2016

Inhibition Of Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Enhances The Tumor Growth Of Ovarian Cancer Cell Line Derived From A Low-Grade Papillary Serous Carcinoma In P53-Independent Pathway, Xue Xiao, Gong Yang, Peng Bai, Shunping Gui, Tri M. Bui Nguyen, +8 Additional Authors

Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine Faculty Publications

Background: NF-kB can function as an oncogene or tumor suppressor depending on cancer types. The role of NF-kB in low-grade serous ovarian cancer, however, has never been tested. We sought to elucidate the function of NF-kB in the low-grade serous ovarian cancer.

Methods: The ovarian cancer cell line, HOC-7, derived from a low-grade papillary serous carcinoma. Introduction of a dominant negative mutant, IkBαM, which resulted in decrease of NF-kB function in ovarian cancer cell lines. The transcription ability, tumorigenesis, cell proliferation and apoptosis were observed in derivative cell lines in comparison with parental cells.

Results: Western blot analysis indicated increased ...


Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Colorectal Cancer And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Links., Abdo Jurjus, Assad Eid, Sahar Al Kattar, Marie Noel Zeenny, Alice Gerges-Geagea, Rosalyn A. Jurjus, +10 Additional Authors Jun 2016

Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Colorectal Cancer And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Links., Abdo Jurjus, Assad Eid, Sahar Al Kattar, Marie Noel Zeenny, Alice Gerges-Geagea, Rosalyn A. Jurjus, +10 Additional Authors

Anatomy and Regenerative Biology Faculty Publications

The co-occurrence of the three disease entities, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), colorectal cancer (CRC), type 2diabetes mellitus (T2DM) along with inflammation and dismicrobism has been frequently reported. Some authors have even suggested that dysbiosis could be the link through a molecular crosstalk of multiple inflammatory loops including TGFβ, NFKB, TNFα and ROS among others. This review focuses on the inflammatory process along with the role of microbiota in the pathophysiology of the three diseases. The etiology of IBD is multifactorial, and like CRC and T2DM, it is associated with a widespread and sustained GI inflammation and dismicrobism, whereby an array ...


Identification Of Genes That Are Essential To Restrict Genome Duplication To Once Per Cell Division., Alex Vassilev, Chrissie Y. Lee, Boris Vassilev, Wenge Zhu, Pinar Ormanoglu, Scott E. Martin, Melvin L. Depamphilis Jun 2016

Identification Of Genes That Are Essential To Restrict Genome Duplication To Once Per Cell Division., Alex Vassilev, Chrissie Y. Lee, Boris Vassilev, Wenge Zhu, Pinar Ormanoglu, Scott E. Martin, Melvin L. Depamphilis

Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine Faculty Publications

Nuclear genome duplication is normally restricted to once per cell division, but aberrant events that allow excess DNA replication (EDR) promote genomic instability and aneuploidy, both of which are characteristics of cancer development. Here we provide the first comprehensive identification of genes that are essential to restrict genome duplication to once per cell division. An siRNA library of 21,584 human genes was screened for those that prevent EDR in cancer cells with undetectable chromosomal instability. Candidates were validated by testing multiple siRNAs and chemical inhibitors on both TP53+ and TP53- cells to reveal the relevance of this ubiquitous tumor ...


Mir-671-5p Inhibits Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition By Downregulating Foxm1 Expression In Breast Cancer., Xiaohui Tan, Yebo Fu, Liang Chen, Woojin Lee, Yinglei Lai, M. Katayoon Rezaei, Sana Tabbara, Patricia Latham, Christine B Teal, Yan-Gao Man, Robert S. Siegel, Rachel F. Brem, Sidney W. Fu Jan 2016

Mir-671-5p Inhibits Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition By Downregulating Foxm1 Expression In Breast Cancer., Xiaohui Tan, Yebo Fu, Liang Chen, Woojin Lee, Yinglei Lai, M. Katayoon Rezaei, Sana Tabbara, Patricia Latham, Christine B Teal, Yan-Gao Man, Robert S. Siegel, Rachel F. Brem, Sidney W. Fu

Medicine Faculty Publications

MicroRNA (miRNA) dysfunction is associated with a variety of human diseases, including cancer. Our previous study showed that miR-671-5p was deregulated throughout breast cancer progression. Here, we report for the first time that miR-671-5p is a tumor-suppressor miRNA in breast tumorigenesis. We found that expression of miR-671-5p was decreased significantly in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) compared to normal in microdissected formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Forkhead Box M1 (FOXM1), an oncogenic transcription factor, was predicted as one of the direct targets of miR-671-5p, which was subsequently confirmed by luciferase assays. Forced expression of miR-671-5p in breast cancer cell lines downregulated FOXM1 ...


A Point Mutation In Dna Polymerase Β (Polb) Gene Is Associated With Increased Progesterone Receptor (Pr) Expression And Intraperitoneal Metastasis In Gastric Cancer, Xiaohui Tan, Xiaoling Wu, Shuyang Ren, Hongyi Wang, Weaam Alshenawy, Wenmei Li, Jiantao Cui, Guangbin Luo, Robert S. Siegel, Sidney W. Fu, Youyong Lu Jan 2016

A Point Mutation In Dna Polymerase Β (Polb) Gene Is Associated With Increased Progesterone Receptor (Pr) Expression And Intraperitoneal Metastasis In Gastric Cancer, Xiaohui Tan, Xiaoling Wu, Shuyang Ren, Hongyi Wang, Weaam Alshenawy, Wenmei Li, Jiantao Cui, Guangbin Luo, Robert S. Siegel, Sidney W. Fu, Youyong Lu

Medicine Faculty Publications

Increased expression of progesterone receptor (PR) has been reported in gastric cancer (GC). We have previously identified a functional T889C point mutation in DNA polymerase beta (POLB), a DNA repair gene in GC. To provide a detailed analysis of molecular changes associated with the mutation, human cDNA microarrays focusing on 18 signal transduction pathways were used to analyze differential gene expression profiles between GC tissues with T889C mutant in POLB gene and those with wild type. Among the differentially expressed genes, notably, PR was one of the significantly up-regulated genes in T889C mutant POLB tissues, which were subsequently confirmed in ...


The Role Of The Pleckstrin Homology Domain-Containing Protein Ckip-1 In Activation Of P21-Activated Kinase 1 (Pak1), Yong-Bae Kim, Yong Jae Shin, Adhiraj Roy, Jeong-Ho Kim Jul 2015

The Role Of The Pleckstrin Homology Domain-Containing Protein Ckip-1 In Activation Of P21-Activated Kinase 1 (Pak1), Yong-Bae Kim, Yong Jae Shin, Adhiraj Roy, Jeong-Ho Kim

Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine Faculty Publications

Upon growth factor stimulation, PAK1 is recruited to the plasma membrane and activated by a mechanism that requires its phosphorylation at S223 by the protein kinase CK2. However, the upstream signaling molecules that regulate this phosphorylation event are not clearly defined. Here, we demonstrate a major role of the CK2α-interacting protein CKIP-1 in activation of PAK1. CK2α, CKIP-1 and PAK1 are translocated to membrane ruffles in response to the epidermal growth factor (EGF), where CKIP-1 mediates the interaction between CK2α, and PAK1 in a PI3K-dependent manner. Consistently, we observe that PAK1 mediates phosphorylation and modulation of the activity of p41-Arc ...


Targeting Il13ralpha2 Activates Stat6-Tp63 Pathway To Suppress Breast Cancer Lung Metastasis, Panagiotis Papageorgis, Sait Ozturk, Arthur W. Lambert, Christiana M. Neophytou, Alexandros Tzatsos, Chen K. Wong, Sam Thiagalingam, Andreas I. Constantinou Jul 2015

Targeting Il13ralpha2 Activates Stat6-Tp63 Pathway To Suppress Breast Cancer Lung Metastasis, Panagiotis Papageorgis, Sait Ozturk, Arthur W. Lambert, Christiana M. Neophytou, Alexandros Tzatsos, Chen K. Wong, Sam Thiagalingam, Andreas I. Constantinou

Anatomy and Regenerative Biology Faculty Publications

Introduction

Basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) is an aggressive subtype often characterized by distant metastasis, poor patient prognosis, and limited treatment options. Therefore, the discovery of alternative targets to restrain its metastatic potential is urgently needed. In this study, we aimed to identify novel genes that drive metastasis of BLBC and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of action.

Methods

An unbiased approach using gene expression profiling of a BLBC progression model and in silicoleveraging of pre-existing tumor transcriptomes were used to uncover metastasis-promoting genes. Lentiviral-mediated knockdown of interleukin-13 receptor alpha 2 (IL13Ralpha2) coupled with whole-body in vivo bioluminescence imaging was ...


Klf4-Sqstm1/P62-Associated Prosurvival Autophagy Contributes To Carfilzomib Resistance In Multiple Myeloma Models., Irene Riz, Teresa S. Hawley, Robert G. Hawley Jun 2015

Klf4-Sqstm1/P62-Associated Prosurvival Autophagy Contributes To Carfilzomib Resistance In Multiple Myeloma Models., Irene Riz, Teresa S. Hawley, Robert G. Hawley

Anatomy and Regenerative Biology Faculty Publications

Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable clonal plasma cell malignancy. Because of a high rate of immunoglobulin synthesis, the endoplasmic reticulum of MM cells is subjected to elevated basal levels of stress. Consequently, proteasome inhibitors, which exacerbate this stress by inhibiting ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated protein degradation, are an important new class of chemotherapeutic agents being used to combat this disease. However, MM cells still develop resistance to proteasome inhibitors such as carfilzomib. Toward this end, we have established carfilzomib-resistant derivatives of MM cell lines. We found that resistance to carfilzomib was associated with elevated levels of prosurvival autophagy, and Kruppel-like factor 4 ...


Radium-223 For The Treatment Of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer, Joelle El-Amm, Jeanny B. Aragon-Ching May 2015

Radium-223 For The Treatment Of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer, Joelle El-Amm, Jeanny B. Aragon-Ching

Medicine Faculty Publications

The vast majority of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) develop bone metastases. Bone metastases are a source of significant morbidity and affect quality of life in these patients. Several bone-targeting agents are approved for the treatment of bone metastases in prostate cancer, including bisphosphonates, denosumab, and radiopharmaceuticals. Radium-223 is a novel first-in-class alpha-emitting radiopharmaceutical that has been approved for treatment of patients with mCRPC with bone metastases. Radium-223 delivers cytotoxic radiation to the sites of bone metastases and offers the advantage of minimal myelosuppression. The landmark Phase III ALSYMPCA trial demonstrated that, in addition to providing bone-related palliation ...


Translation Initiation Complex Eif4f Is A Therapeutic Target For Dual Mtor Kinase Inhibitors In Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma., Christos Demosthenous, Jing Jing Han, Mary J Stenson, Matthew J Maurer, Linda E Wellik, Brian Link, Kristen Hege, Ahmet Dogan, Eduardo Sotomayor, Thomas Witzig, Mamta Gupta Apr 2015

Translation Initiation Complex Eif4f Is A Therapeutic Target For Dual Mtor Kinase Inhibitors In Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma., Christos Demosthenous, Jing Jing Han, Mary J Stenson, Matthew J Maurer, Linda E Wellik, Brian Link, Kristen Hege, Ahmet Dogan, Eduardo Sotomayor, Thomas Witzig, Mamta Gupta

Medicine Faculty Publications

Deregulated mRNA translation has been implicated in disease development and in part is controlled by a eukaryotic initiation complex eIF4F (composed of eIF4E, eIF4G and eIF4A). We demonstrate here that the cap bound fraction from lymphoma cells was enriched with eIF4G and eIF4E indicating that lymphoma cells exist in an activated translational state. Moreover, 77% (110/142) of diffuse large B cell lymphoma tumors expressed eIF4E and this was associated with an inferior event free survival. Over-expression of wild-type eIF4E (eIF4E(WT)) but not cap-mutant eIF4E (eIF4E(cap mutant)) increased the activation of the eIF4F complex. Treatment with the active-site ...


Clinical Significance Of A Point Mutation In Dna Polymerase Beta (Polb) Gene In Gastric Cancer., Xiaohui Tan, Hongyi Wang, Guangbin Luo, Shuyang Ren, Wenmei Li, Jiantao Cui, Harindarpal S. Gill, Sidney W. Fu, Youyong Lu Jan 2015

Clinical Significance Of A Point Mutation In Dna Polymerase Beta (Polb) Gene In Gastric Cancer., Xiaohui Tan, Hongyi Wang, Guangbin Luo, Shuyang Ren, Wenmei Li, Jiantao Cui, Harindarpal S. Gill, Sidney W. Fu, Youyong Lu

Medicine Faculty Publications

Gastric cancer (GC) is a major cause of global cancer mortality. Genetic variations in DNA repair genes can modulate DNA repair capability and, consequently, have been associated with risk of developing cancer. We have previously identified a T to C point mutation at nucleotide 889 (T889C) in DNA polymerase beta (POLB) gene, a key enzyme involved in base excision repair in primary GCs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mutation and expression of POLB in a larger cohort and to identify possible prognostic roles of the POLB alterations in GC. Primary GC specimens and their matched normal ...


May Circulating Micrornas Be Gastric Cancer Diagnostic Biomarkers?, Xiaoling Wu, Xiaohui (Jane) Tan, Sidney W. Fu Jan 2015

May Circulating Micrornas Be Gastric Cancer Diagnostic Biomarkers?, Xiaoling Wu, Xiaohui (Jane) Tan, Sidney W. Fu

Medicine Faculty Publications

Gastric cancer (GC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths. More than 80% of the diagnosis was made at the advanced stages of the disease, highlighting the urgent demand for novel biomarkers that can be used for early detection. Recently, a number of studies suggest that circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) could be potential biomarkers for GC diagnosis. Cancer-related circulating miRNAs, as well as tissue miRNAs, provide a hopeful prospect of detecting GC at early stages, and the prospective participation of miRNAs in biomarker development will enhance the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests for GC. As miRNAs in blood are ...


The Evolution Of Prostate Cancer Therapy: Targeting The Androgen Receptor (Ar), Jeanny B. Aragon-Ching Oct 2014

The Evolution Of Prostate Cancer Therapy: Targeting The Androgen Receptor (Ar), Jeanny B. Aragon-Ching

Medicine Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


A Melanin-Independent Interaction Between Mc1r And Met Signalling Pathways Is Required For Hgf-Dependent Melanoma, Agnieszka Wolnicka-Głubisz, Faith M. Strickland, Albert Wielgus, Miriam Anver, Glenn Merlino, Edward C. De Fabo, Frances P. Noonan Feb 2014

A Melanin-Independent Interaction Between Mc1r And Met Signalling Pathways Is Required For Hgf-Dependent Melanoma, Agnieszka Wolnicka-Głubisz, Faith M. Strickland, Albert Wielgus, Miriam Anver, Glenn Merlino, Edward C. De Fabo, Frances P. Noonan

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) signaling stimulates black eumelanin production through a cAMP-dependent pathway. MC1R polymorphisms can impair this process, resulting in a predominance of red phaeomelanin. The red hair, fair skin and UV sensitive phenotype is a well-described melanoma risk factor. MC1R polymorphisms also confer melanoma risk independent of pigment. We investigated the effect of Mc1r deficiency in a mouse model of UV-induced melanoma. C57BL/6-Mc1r+/+-HGF transgenic mice have a characteristic hyperpigmented black phenotype with extra-follicular dermal melanocytes located at the dermal/epidermal junction. UVB induces melanoma, independent of melanin pigmentation, but UVA-induced and spontaneous melanomas are dependent on ...


Advanced Prostate Cancer - Patient Survival And Potential Impact Of Enzalutamide And Other Emerging Therapies, Nihar K. Patel, Antoine Finianos, Kirsten D. Whitaker, Jeanny B. Aragon-Ching Jan 2014

Advanced Prostate Cancer - Patient Survival And Potential Impact Of Enzalutamide And Other Emerging Therapies, Nihar K. Patel, Antoine Finianos, Kirsten D. Whitaker, Jeanny B. Aragon-Ching

Medicine Faculty Publications

The advent of exponential growth of novel agents tested and approved for the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) has brought about a need for understanding of the mechanism of action, side-effects, and clinical efficacy of these drugs as they relate to these patients. This review will provide a synopsis of the treatment landscape in mCRPC as varying agents such as abiraterone acetate, cabazitaxel, sipuleucel-T, radium, and selected emerging agents are presented. A distinct focus on the utilization of enzalutamide, its mechanism of action, key pivotal trials that brought about its US Food and Drug Administration approval ...


Protein Kinase Ck2 Phosphorylates And Activates P21-Activated Kinase 1, Yong Jae Shin, Yong-Bae Kim, Jeong-Ho Kim Sep 2013

Protein Kinase Ck2 Phosphorylates And Activates P21-Activated Kinase 1, Yong Jae Shin, Yong-Bae Kim, Jeong-Ho Kim

Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine Faculty Publications

Activation of the p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) is achieved through a conformational change that converts an inactive PAK1 dimer to an active monomer. In this paper, we show that this change is necessary but not sufficient to activate PAK1 and that it is, rather, required for CK2-dependent PAK1S223 phosphorylation that converts a monomeric PAK1 into a catalytically active form. This phosphorylation appears to be essential for autophosphorylation at specific residues and overall activity of PAK1. A phosphomimetic mutation (S223E) bypasses the requirement for GTPases in PAK1 activation, whereas the constitutive activity of the PAK1 mutant (PAK1H83,86L), postulated to mimic ...


Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Critical Review Of Enzalutamide, Joelle El-Amm, Nihar Patel, Ashley Freeman, Jeanny B. Aragon-Ching Aug 2013

Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Critical Review Of Enzalutamide, Joelle El-Amm, Nihar Patel, Ashley Freeman, Jeanny B. Aragon-Ching

Medicine Faculty Publications

Enzalutamide, previously known as MDV300, is an oral, second-generation androgen receptor (AR) signaling inhibitor or antagonist that was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2012 for the treatment of metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) postdocetaxel. Preclinical studies have demonstrated impressive affinity to the AR compared to the first-generation AR inhibitors. The landmark Phase III AFFIRM trial demonstrated improved overall survival benefit compared to placebo in addition to improvement in all tested parameters. Enzalutamide is currently being studied in several trials prechemotherapy and in earlier settings of prostate cancer. This review will discuss the mechanism of action of enzalutamide ...


Bone-Targeted Therapies In Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Evolving Paradigms, Joelle El-Amm, Ashley Freeman, Nihar Patel, Jeanny B. Aragon-Ching Jan 2013

Bone-Targeted Therapies In Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Evolving Paradigms, Joelle El-Amm, Ashley Freeman, Nihar Patel, Jeanny B. Aragon-Ching

Medicine Faculty Publications

Majority of patients with metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) develop bone metastases which results in significant morbidity and mortality as a result of skeletal-related events (SREs). Several bone-targeted agents are either in clinical use or in development for prevention of SREs. Bisphosphonates were the first class of drugs investigated for prevention of SREs and zoledronic acid is the only bisphosphonate that is FDA-approved for this indication. Another bone-targeted agent is denosumab which is a fully humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the RANK-L thereby inhibiting RANK-L mediated bone resorption. While several radiopharmaceuticals were approved for pain palliation in mCRPC ...


The Cancer Stem Cell Conundrum In Multiple Myeloma, Robert G. Hawley Oct 2012

The Cancer Stem Cell Conundrum In Multiple Myeloma, Robert G. Hawley

Anatomy and Regenerative Biology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Melanoma Induction By Ultraviolet A But Not Ultraviolet B Radiation Requires Melanin Pigment, Frances P. Noonan, M. Raza Zaidi, Agnieszka Wolnicka-Glubisz, Miriam R. Anver, Jesse Bahn, Anastas Popratiloff, +9 Additional Authors Jun 2012

Melanoma Induction By Ultraviolet A But Not Ultraviolet B Radiation Requires Melanin Pigment, Frances P. Noonan, M. Raza Zaidi, Agnieszka Wolnicka-Glubisz, Miriam R. Anver, Jesse Bahn, Anastas Popratiloff, +9 Additional Authors

Anatomy and Regenerative Biology Faculty Publications

Malignant melanoma of the skin (CMM) is associated with ultraviolet radiation exposure, but the mechanisms and even the wavelengths responsible are unclear. Here we use a mammalian model to investigate melanoma formed in response to precise spectrally defined ultraviolet wavelengths and biologically relevant doses. We show that melanoma induction by ultraviolet A (320–400 nm) requires the presence of melanin pigment and is associated with oxidative DNA damage within melanocytes. In contrast, ultraviolet B radiation (280–320 nm) initiates melanoma in a pigment-independent manner associated with direct ultraviolet B DNA damage. Thus, we identified two ultraviolet wavelength-dependent pathways for the ...


Targeting The Cancer Cell Cycle By Cold Atmospheric Plasma, Olga Volotskova, Teresa S. Hawley, Mary Ann Stepp, Michael Keidar Jan 2012

Targeting The Cancer Cell Cycle By Cold Atmospheric Plasma, Olga Volotskova, Teresa S. Hawley, Mary Ann Stepp, Michael Keidar

Anatomy and Regenerative Biology Faculty Publications

Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP), a technology based on quasi-neutral ionized gas at low temperatures, is currently being evaluated as a new highly selective alternative addition to existing cancer therapies. Here, we present a first attempt to identify the mechanism of CAP action. CAP induced a robust ~2-fold G2/M increase in two different types of cancer cells with different degrees of tumorigenicity. We hypothesize that the increased sensitivity of cancer cells to CAP treatment is caused by differences in the distribution of cancer cells and normal cells within the cell cycle. The expression of γH2A.X (pSer139), an oxidative stress ...