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City University of New York (CUNY)

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Articles 1 - 24 of 24

Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

Anti-Cancer Effects Of Oleocanthal And Extra Virgin Olive Oil, Limor Goren Sep 2019

Anti-Cancer Effects Of Oleocanthal And Extra Virgin Olive Oil, Limor Goren

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Oleocanthal is a phenolic compound found in varying concentrations in extra virgin olive oil. Oleocanthal has been shown to be active physiologically, benefiting several diseased states by conferring anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective benefits. Recently, we and other groups have demonstrated its specific and selective toxicity toward cancer cells; however, the mechanism leading to cancer cell death is still disputed. The current study demonstrates that oleocanthal induced damage to cancer cells’ lysosomes leading to cellular toxicity in vitro. Non-cancer cells were significantly less affected. Lysosomal membrane permeabilization following oleocanthal treatment in various cell lines was assayed via three complementary methods. Additionally, we ...


Context Dependent Roles Of Mdmx (Mdm4) And Mdm2 In Breast Cancer Proliferation And Circulating Tumor Cells, Chong Gao May 2019

Context Dependent Roles Of Mdmx (Mdm4) And Mdm2 In Breast Cancer Proliferation And Circulating Tumor Cells, Chong Gao

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Many human breast cancers overexpress the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 and its homolog MDMX. Expression of MDM2 and MDMX occurs in both estrogen receptor α positive (ER+) and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). We and others have reported that estrogen activated MDM2 strongly promotes proliferation in ER+ T47D breast cancer cells in a p53-independent manner. Whether MDM2 elicits in vivo p53-independent proliferative functions in T47D breast cancer cells has not been determined. Furthermore it has been shown that ectopic expression of MDM2 targets E-Cadherin for degradation thus leading to increased cell migration and invasion. Therefore we assessed the in vivo ...


The Molecular Mechanisms Underlying The Cancer Killing Effect Of Interleukin-24, Leah Eshanie Persaud May 2019

The Molecular Mechanisms Underlying The Cancer Killing Effect Of Interleukin-24, Leah Eshanie Persaud

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Interleukin-24 (IL-24) is an immunomodulatory cytokine that also displays specific anti-tumor effects across many cancer cell types. The tumor suppressor activities of IL-24 include inhibition of angiogenesis, metastasis, toxic autophagy, cancer-specific apoptosis, and sensitization to traditional cancer treatments like chemotherapy and radiation. Overexpression of IL-24 can selectively induce apoptosis in various cancer cells while having no adverse effects on normal cells. Due to this favorable killing effect, IL-24 is currently in phase II clinical trials. There is accumulating evidence that IL-24’s anti-cancer activity is primarily through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway but other pathways leading to cell death ...


Pyronaridine Exerts Potent Cytotoxicity On Human Breast And Hematological Cancer Cells Through Induction Of Apoptosis, Alberto Martinez, Paulina J. Villanueva, Sarah T. Baca, Rebecca E. Dejesus, Manuel Larragoity, Lisett Contreras, Denisse A. Gutierrez, Armando Varela-Ramirez, Renato J. Aguilera Nov 2018

Pyronaridine Exerts Potent Cytotoxicity On Human Breast And Hematological Cancer Cells Through Induction Of Apoptosis, Alberto Martinez, Paulina J. Villanueva, Sarah T. Baca, Rebecca E. Dejesus, Manuel Larragoity, Lisett Contreras, Denisse A. Gutierrez, Armando Varela-Ramirez, Renato J. Aguilera

Publications and Research

The potent antimalarial drug pyronaridine (PND) was tested for its potential as an anticancer drug. After exposing cancerous (17) and non-cancerous (2) cells to PND for 72 hr, PND was found to exhibit consistent and potent cytotoxic activity at low micromolar (μM) concentrations that ranged from 1.6 μM to 9.4 μM. Moreover, PND exerted a significant selective cytotoxicity index (SCI) on five out of seven breast cancer cell lines tested, with favorable values of 2.5 to 4.4, as compared with the non-cancerous breast MCF-10A cell line. By using the same comparison, PND exhibited a significant SCI ...


Phospholipase D-Dependent Mtorc1 Activation By Glutamine, Elyssa Bernfeld Sep 2018

Phospholipase D-Dependent Mtorc1 Activation By Glutamine, Elyssa Bernfeld

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Glutamine, the conditionally essential amino acid and most abundant amino acid in human sera, is a key nutrient required for sustaining cell proliferation. Glutamine is essential for nucleotide, protein, and lipid synthesis, all of which are essential for cell proliferation. The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a highly conserved protein complex that acts as a sensor of nutrients, relaying signals for the shift from catabolic to anabolic metabolism. While glutamine plays an important role in activating mTORC1, the mechanism is not completely clear. Here we describe a Rag-independent mechanism of mTORC1 activation by glutamine that is dependent ...


Strategies Involving The Food-Derived Agent Curcumin To Eliminate Brain Cancer, Sumit Mukherjee Sep 2018

Strategies Involving The Food-Derived Agent Curcumin To Eliminate Brain Cancer, Sumit Mukherjee

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most deadly forms of cancer with a mean 5-year survival rate of ≤5%. We have used the non-invasive strategy of long-term intranasal (IN) delivery of a glioblastoma-directed adduct of curcumin (CC), CC-CD68Ab, into the brain of murine GBM cell line GL261-implanted mice to study the therapeutic effect of CC on GBM remission. The treatment caused GBM tumor remission in 50% of GL261-implanted GBM mice. A similar rescue rate (60%) was also achieved through long-term intraperitoneal (i.p) infusion of a highly bioavailable phosphotidylcholine (PC)-encapsulated formulation of CC, Curcumin Phytosome Meriva (CCP), into the ...


Molecular Interactions Between Pvt1 Transcripts And C-Myc, Onayemi Titilayo Onagoruwa Aug 2018

Molecular Interactions Between Pvt1 Transcripts And C-Myc, Onayemi Titilayo Onagoruwa

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

This study focused on the molecular relationships between PVT1 exons 4A, 4B, 9 and c-Myc in prostate cancer. Data showed significant regulatory interactions between these exons and c-Myc which is strongest between PVT1 exon 9 and c-Myc. This will likely have implications for PCa where PVT1 and c-Myc are dysregulated.


Mechanisms For Survival And Drug Resistance In Cancer Cells, Matthew B. Utter Feb 2018

Mechanisms For Survival And Drug Resistance In Cancer Cells, Matthew B. Utter

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

PART I

Prostate cells are hormonally driven to grow and divide. Typical treatments for prostate cancer involve blocking the hormone androgen from activating the androgen receptor (AR) and thus inhibit growth and proliferation of the cancer. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) can lead to the selection of cancer cells that grow and divide independently of androgen receptor activation. Prostate cancer cells that are insensitive to androgens commonly display metastatic phenotypes and reduced long-term survival of patients. In this study, we provide evidence that androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cells have elevated phospholipase D (PLD) activity relative to the androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells. PLD ...


Target Engagement Imaging Of Parp Inhibitors In Small-Cell Lung Cancer, Brandon Carney, Susanne Kossatz, Benjamin H. Lok, Valentina Schneeberger, Kishore K. Gangangari, Naga Vara Kishore Pillarsetty, Wolfgang A. Weber, Charles M. Rudin, John T. Poirier, Thomas Reiner Jan 2018

Target Engagement Imaging Of Parp Inhibitors In Small-Cell Lung Cancer, Brandon Carney, Susanne Kossatz, Benjamin H. Lok, Valentina Schneeberger, Kishore K. Gangangari, Naga Vara Kishore Pillarsetty, Wolfgang A. Weber, Charles M. Rudin, John T. Poirier, Thomas Reiner

Publications and Research

Insufficient chemotherapy response and rapid disease progression remain concerns for smallcell lung cancer (SCLC). Oncologists rely on serial CT scanning to guide treatment decisions, but this cannot assess in vivo target engagement of therapeutic agents. Biomarker assessments in biopsy material do not assess contemporaneous target expression, intratumoral drug exposure, or drug-target engagement. Here, we report the use of PARP1/2-targeted imaging to measure target engagement of PARP inhibitors in vivo. Using a panel of clinical PARP inhibitors, we show that PARP imaging can quantify target engagement of chemically diverse small molecule inhibitors in vitro and in vivo. We measure PARP1 ...


The Role Of Mdm2 In Dna Damage Signaling, Stanley Tam Jan 2018

The Role Of Mdm2 In Dna Damage Signaling, Stanley Tam

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

The overexpression of the oncogene MDM2 is common in a variety of human cancers. MDM2 overexpression is known to increase genome instability in cells by delaying DNA double strand break repair and γH2AX levels. This study explores the knockdown of MDM2 and how it may affect DNA damage signaling.


The Effect Of Stress Induced Premature Senescence On The Expression Of Heterogeneous Ribonucleoieoprotein, Yuriy Pechenyy Jan 2018

The Effect Of Stress Induced Premature Senescence On The Expression Of Heterogeneous Ribonucleoieoprotein, Yuriy Pechenyy

Dissertations and Theses

The role of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNP) in cellular senescence is yet to be defined. Cellular senescence is a terminal growth arrest in somatic cells. It is thought to be the consequence of telomeric shortening that acts as a DNA damage signal. Conversely, cells induced into premature senescence (SIPS) by oxidative stress, is independent of telomere attrition. Premature senescence has been proposed to be physiologically relevant as it can be induced by treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. In particular, we are studying the roles of hnRNP A1 and A2 in the maintenance of the senescence phenotype. hnRNPs are a family of ...


Unseen Science: Modern Discoveries Too Far Away Or Tiny For Human Eyes, Lucy Huang Dec 2017

Unseen Science: Modern Discoveries Too Far Away Or Tiny For Human Eyes, Lucy Huang

Capstones

As science has progressed, scientists have realized that evidence goes beyond the realms of physical sight. Whether it is too small or difficult to find, scientists have developed different ways to get around this problem. We see this in cancer genomics and in extrasolar planetary research. Scientists use what they know and what they measure to validate their work.

https://lucy-huang-9tge.squarespace.com/


Lim Protein Ajuba Directly Interacts With Replication Protein A To Prevent Atr Dna Damage Response, Sandy Wan Shan Fowler Sep 2017

Lim Protein Ajuba Directly Interacts With Replication Protein A To Prevent Atr Dna Damage Response, Sandy Wan Shan Fowler

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Integrity of the human genome is essential for viability and proliferation of human cells. Intrinsic (endogenous replication stress) or extrinsic (UV, chemotherapy drugs) agents threaten the stability of the genome by generation of single stranded (ss) DNA or double stranded (ds) DNA breaks. The DNA damage response (DDR) pathways are conserved in evolution and constitute systems that perform the surveillance, signaling, and repair of the damage in the nucleus. Unchecked and accumulation of DNA damage can lead to deleterious effects such as replication fork collapse, chromosome fusion and breakage. The dysregulations of DNA damage response pathways are hallmarks of tumorigenesis ...


The Role Of T-Box Proteins In Vertebrate Germ Layer Formation And Patterning, Sushma Teegala Sep 2017

The Role Of T-Box Proteins In Vertebrate Germ Layer Formation And Patterning, Sushma Teegala

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

All of the tissues in triploblastic organisms, with the exception of the germ cells, arise from the three germ layers, ectoderm, mesoderm and the endoderm. The identification of the genes that underlie the differentiation of these layers is crucial to our understanding of development. T-box family proteins are DNA-binding transcriptional regulators that play important roles during germ layer formation in the early vertebrate embryo. Well-characterized members of this family, including the transcriptional activators Brachyury and VegT, are essential for the proper formation of mesoderm and endoderm, respectively. To date, T-box proteins have not been shown to play a role in ...


The P53 Independent Functions Of Estrogen-Activated Mdm2 In Cell Signaling And Mammary Architecture, Nandini Kundu Jun 2017

The P53 Independent Functions Of Estrogen-Activated Mdm2 In Cell Signaling And Mammary Architecture, Nandini Kundu

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancers often have MDM2 overexpression indicating a critical role for MDM2 in breast cancer tumorigenesis. The cancer genome atlas (TCGA) found that increased MDM2 expression is one of the four pathways that correlate with all breast cancer subtypes. MDM2 is mainly known as the negative regulator of wild type p53. However, aggressive breast cancers often have MDM2 overexpression and mutant p53 (mtp53). We previously reported that MDM2 provides an estrogen-mediated proliferative advantage to MCF-7 breast cancer cells (ER+, MDM2 overexpression, wild type p53), independent of wild type p53 in both 2D and 3D culture conditions ...


Lipid Sensing By Mammalian Target Of Rapamycin, Deepak Menon Feb 2017

Lipid Sensing By Mammalian Target Of Rapamycin, Deepak Menon

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) is a protein kinase that integrates nutrient and growth factor signals to promote cellular growth and proliferation. mTOR exists in two complexes - mTORC1 and mTORC2 that are distinguished by their binding partners and signaling inputs. mTORC1 is responsive to growth factors, amino acids and glucose and is associated with Raptor; whereas, mTORC2 is responsive primarily to growth factors and is associated with Rictor. Raptor and Rictor confer substrate specificity to mTORC1 and mTORC2 respectively. Phosphatidic acid (PA), a lipid second messenger and a central metabolite for membrane phospholipid biosynthesis, is required for the stability and ...


A Pretargeted Approach For The Multimodal Pet/Nirf Imaging Of Colorectal Cancer, Pierre Adumeau, Kathryn E. Carnazza, Christian Brand, Sean D. Carlin, Thomas Reiner, Brian J. Agnew, Jason S. Lewis, Brian M. Zeglis Sep 2016

A Pretargeted Approach For The Multimodal Pet/Nirf Imaging Of Colorectal Cancer, Pierre Adumeau, Kathryn E. Carnazza, Christian Brand, Sean D. Carlin, Thomas Reiner, Brian J. Agnew, Jason S. Lewis, Brian M. Zeglis

Publications and Research

The complementary nature of positron emission tomography (PET) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging makes the development of strategies for the multimodal PET/NIRF imaging of cancer a very enticing prospect. Indeed, in the context of colorectal cancer, a single multimodal PET/NIRF imaging agent could be used to stage the disease, identify candidates for surgical intervention, and facilitate the image-guided resection of the disease. While antibodies have proven to be highly effective vectors for the delivery of radioisotopes and fluorophores to malignant tissues, the use of radioimmunoconjugates labeled with long-lived nuclides such as 89Zr poses two important clinical complications: high ...


Tricurin, A Novel Formulation Of Curcumin, Epicatechin Gallate, And Resveratrol, Inhibits The Tumorigenicity Of Human Papillomaviruspositive Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Longzhu Piao, Sumit Mukherjee, Qing Chang, Xiujie Xie, Hong Li, Mario R. Castellanos, Probal Banerjee, Hassan Iqbal, Ryan Ivancic, Xueqian Wang, Theodoros N. Teknos, Quintin Pan Jul 2016

Tricurin, A Novel Formulation Of Curcumin, Epicatechin Gallate, And Resveratrol, Inhibits The Tumorigenicity Of Human Papillomaviruspositive Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Longzhu Piao, Sumit Mukherjee, Qing Chang, Xiujie Xie, Hong Li, Mario R. Castellanos, Probal Banerjee, Hassan Iqbal, Ryan Ivancic, Xueqian Wang, Theodoros N. Teknos, Quintin Pan

Publications and Research

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most prevalent cancer worldwide with about 600,000 new cases diagnosed in the last year. The incidence of human papillomavirus-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HPV-positive HNSCC) has rapidly increased over the past 30 years prompting the suggestion that an epidemic may be on the horizon. Therefore, there is a clinical need to develop alternate therapeutic strategies to manage the growing number of HPV-positive HNSCC patients. TriCurin is a composition of three food-derived polyphenols in unique stoichiometric proportions consisting of curcumin from the spice turmeric, resveratrol from red grapes ...


Toward Repurposing Metformin As A Precision Anti-Cancer Therapy Using Structural Systems Pharmacology, Thomas Hart, Shihab Dider, Weiwei Han, Hua Xu, Zhongming Zhao, Lei Xie Feb 2016

Toward Repurposing Metformin As A Precision Anti-Cancer Therapy Using Structural Systems Pharmacology, Thomas Hart, Shihab Dider, Weiwei Han, Hua Xu, Zhongming Zhao, Lei Xie

Publications and Research

Metformin, a drug prescribed to treat type-2 diabetes, exhibits anti-cancer effects in a portion of patients, but the direct molecular and genetic interactions leading to this pleiotropic effect have not yet been fully explored. To repurpose metformin as a precision anti-cancer therapy, we have developed a novel structural systems pharmacology approach to elucidate metformin’s molecular basis and genetic biomarkers of action. We integrated structural proteome-scale drug target identification with network biology analysis by combining structural genomic, functional genomic, and interactomic data. Through searching the human structural proteome, we identified twenty putative metformin binding targets and their interaction models. We ...


Lim Protein Ajuba Participates In The Repression Of Atr-Mediated Dna Damage Response In Human Cells, Sampada Kalan Feb 2016

Lim Protein Ajuba Participates In The Repression Of Atr-Mediated Dna Damage Response In Human Cells, Sampada Kalan

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

LIM proteins constitute a superfamily characterized by the presence of specialized domains called LIM. LIM domain is a unique double-zinc finger motif found in a variety of proteins and is mainly involved in protein-protein interactions. Previous work has implicated that members of the Zyxin subfamily of LIM proteins, namely TRIP6 and LPP are involved in the repression of the DNA damage response (DDR) at telomeres. We further explore if another member from this family has an influence on DDR prevention in the cells. Here, we describe a novel role for Ajuba, a Zyxin family LIM protein, in repressing inappropriate activation ...


Pvt1 Exon 9: A Potential Biomarker Of Aggressive Prostate Cancer?, Adeodat Ilboudo, Jyoti Chouhan, Brian K. Mcneil, Joseph R. Osborne, Olorunseun O. Ogunwobi Dec 2015

Pvt1 Exon 9: A Potential Biomarker Of Aggressive Prostate Cancer?, Adeodat Ilboudo, Jyoti Chouhan, Brian K. Mcneil, Joseph R. Osborne, Olorunseun O. Ogunwobi

Publications and Research

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer as well as the greatest source of cancer-related mortality in males of African ancestry (MoAA). Interestingly, this has been shown to be associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms around regions 2 and 3 of the 8q24 human chromosomal region. The non-protein coding gene locus Plasmacytoma Variant Translocation 1 (PVT1) is located at 8q24 and is overexpressed in PCa and, therefore, is also a candidate biomarker to explain the well-known disparity in this group. PVT1 has at least 12 exons that make separate transcripts which may have different functions, all of which are ...


Impedimetric Detection Of Mutant P53 Biomarker-Driven Metastatic Breast Cancers Under Hyposmotic Pressure, Menglu Shi, Nataly Shtraizent, Alla Polotskaia, Jill Bargonetti, Hiroshi Matsui Jun 2014

Impedimetric Detection Of Mutant P53 Biomarker-Driven Metastatic Breast Cancers Under Hyposmotic Pressure, Menglu Shi, Nataly Shtraizent, Alla Polotskaia, Jill Bargonetti, Hiroshi Matsui

Publications and Research

In cancer cells, the oncogenic mutant p53 (mtp53) protein is present at high levels and gain-of-function (GOF) activities with more expression of mtp53 proteins contribute to tumor growth and metastasis. Robust analytical approaches that probe the degree of metastasis of cancer cells in connection with the mtp53 activity will be extremely useful not only for establishing a better cancer prognosis but also understanding the fundamental mechanism of mtp53 oncogenic action. Here we assessed the influence of mtp53 in breast cancers to the mechanical property of breast cancer cells. Recently, ovarian and kidney cancer cell lines have been shown to have ...


Endogenous Human Mdm2-C Is Highly Expressed In Human Cancers And Functions As A P53-Independent Growth Activator, Danielle R. Okoro, Nicoleta Arva, Chong Gao, Alla Polotskaia, Cindy Puente, Melissa Rosso, Jill Bargonetti Oct 2013

Endogenous Human Mdm2-C Is Highly Expressed In Human Cancers And Functions As A P53-Independent Growth Activator, Danielle R. Okoro, Nicoleta Arva, Chong Gao, Alla Polotskaia, Cindy Puente, Melissa Rosso, Jill Bargonetti

Publications and Research

Human cancers over-expressing mdm2, through a T to G variation at a single nucleotide polymorphism at position 309 (mdm2 SNP309), have functionally inactivated p53 that is not effectively degraded. They also have high expression of the alternatively spliced transcript, mdm2-C. Alternatively spliced mdm2 transcripts are expressed in many forms of human cancer and when they are exogenously expressed they transform human cells. However no study to date has detected endogenous MDM2 protein isoforms. Studies with exogenous expression of splice variants have been carried out with mdm2-A and mdm2-B, but the mdm2-C isoform has remained virtually unexplored. We addressed the cellular ...


The Correlation Between Rates Of Cancer And Autism: An Exploratory Ecological Investigation, Hung-Teh Kao, Stephen L. Buka, Karl T. Kelsey, David F. Gruber, Barbara Porton Feb 2010

The Correlation Between Rates Of Cancer And Autism: An Exploratory Ecological Investigation, Hung-Teh Kao, Stephen L. Buka, Karl T. Kelsey, David F. Gruber, Barbara Porton

Publications and Research

Background: Autism is associated with high rates of genomic aberrations, including chromosomal rearrangements and de novo copy-number variations. These observations are reminiscent of cancer, a disease where genomic rearrangements also play a role. We undertook a correlative epidemiological study to explore the possibility that shared risk factors might exist for autism and specific types of cancer.

Methodology/Principal Findings: To determine if significant correlations exist between the prevalence of autism and the incidence of cancer, we obtained and analyzed state-wide data reported by age and gender throughout the United States. Autism data were obtained from the U.S. Department of ...