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Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

Detection Of Sporadic Genetic Mutations Using An Endov/Ligase Scanning Assay, Jillian Bybee Apr 2006

Detection Of Sporadic Genetic Mutations Using An Endov/Ligase Scanning Assay, Jillian Bybee

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

The identification of sporadic point mutations in tumor-suppressor genes, which are responsible for regulating cell growth, has been linked to the early detection of cancer, as well as with identifying those individuals with a genetic predisposition to developing cancer. My research investigates the use of a single-step endonuclease V/ligase scanning assay in the detection of unknown point mutations in genomic DNA. Specifically, the research focuses on the K-Ras gene, which has been linked to several different types of cancer, including colorectal cancer. A universal PCR strategy using fluorescently labeled universal primers and unlabeled gene specific primers allowed for amplification ...


Identification Of Key Binding Partners Of Elongin C, Allie Maffit Apr 2006

Identification Of Key Binding Partners Of Elongin C, Allie Maffit

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Prostate cancer affects one in seven men in the United States. Thus, prostate cancer provides a very serious healthy threat to men in the United States. Unfortunately, not much is known as to how normal prostate cells are transformed into a cancerous state, or how once transformed remain in the cancerous state. A study preformed by Porkka et. al in 2002 revealed that Elongin C is over expressed in prostate cancer cell lines. I hypothesize that over expression of Elongin C could inappropriately stabilize or destabilize key proteins ...


Detection Of K-Ras Colorectal Point Mutations Using Endonuclease V/Ak16dligase And Ligase Detection Reaction Assays, Laura Mirch Apr 2005

Detection Of K-Ras Colorectal Point Mutations Using Endonuclease V/Ak16dligase And Ligase Detection Reaction Assays, Laura Mirch

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

This research investigates the benefits of utilizing PCR/Ligase Detection Reaction multiplexing coupled with endonuclease V/AK16D ligase treatment in the detection of known and unknown point mutations within DNA. The research focused specifically on the K-ras gene, implicated in the development of certain cancers including colorectal cancer. Identification of point mutations within this gene could lead to early detection of cancer, as well as identify those with a predisposition to develop cancer. An LDR technique was utilized to identify specific, known mutations within the gene sequence, while the endonuclease/ligase treatment identified unknown mutations within the gene sequence. Capillary ...


Rb Inhibition Of Cellular Proliferation During S-Phase And Origin Density Determination Through Alterations In Nucleotide Pools, Aubrey Smartt Apr 2004

Rb Inhibition Of Cellular Proliferation During S-Phase And Origin Density Determination Through Alterations In Nucleotide Pools, Aubrey Smartt

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein, RB, is a negative regulator of the cell cycle that functions to prevent cells from entering S-phase when conditions are not appropriate for proliferation. It is thought that RB works to inhibit cellular proliferation in late Gi phase of the cell cycle. Several recent discoveries indicate that RB may actually inhibit proliferation in S-phase rather than Gi. One of the biggest of these discoveries is that Cyclin E, an initiator of DNA replication, is produced in the presence of active RB. Cyclin E is responsible for the binding of cyclin dependent kinases at the end ...


The Effect Of Pkc 5 Inhibitors On Pma-Induced Apoptosis In Xenopus Laevis Splenocytes, Annie Crater Apr 2003

The Effect Of Pkc 5 Inhibitors On Pma-Induced Apoptosis In Xenopus Laevis Splenocytes, Annie Crater

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Protein kinase C (PKC) controls apoptosis in amphibian systems such as that of the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. The effects of cancer inducing agents like phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) when combined with Ca2+ independent PKC inhibitors on programmed cell death were studied in A laevis splenocytes. Regulation of PMA-activated cells was observed via Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide assays, flow cytometry, and Western blot analysis. Results indicate the PKC inhibitors reduced both apoptosis and cell growth in PMA-stimulated X. laevis splenocytes compared to PMA alone. These results are valuable to future mammalian cancer research. By identifying the various ...


Isolation Of Resident Mammary Macrophages And Their Possible Role In Breast Cancer, Scott Smith Apr 1996

Isolation Of Resident Mammary Macrophages And Their Possible Role In Breast Cancer, Scott Smith

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

A novel tissue digestion and culture technique was used to enrich for macrophages and isolate cells from reduction mammoplasty and non-cancerous mastectomy tissue obtained from pre- and postmenopausal women. The effectiveness of the isolation procedure was tested with immunohistochemical techniques which characterized cells for the following proteins: CD 68 and Ham 56 (known markers of macrophage cells); keratin; and smooth muscle actin. The results of the immunohistochemistry verified the presence of macrophages in the cultures. Cell cultures were also tested for macrophage biological activity which was measured by the release of oxygen free radicals. Also studied was whether this response ...


The Effect Of Retinoic Acid On Normal Human Foreskin Epithelial Cells And Hpv-Immortalized Cells Grown In Organotypic Raft Cultures, Kristin Whittenburg Apr 1992

The Effect Of Retinoic Acid On Normal Human Foreskin Epithelial Cells And Hpv-Immortalized Cells Grown In Organotypic Raft Cultures, Kristin Whittenburg

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Previous studies have shown that epithelial cells immortalized by human papillomaviruses (HPVs) at late passages were more resistant to the effects of retinoic acid than late passage normal keratinocytes. Some of these late passage HPV-immortalized cells, however, lose the ability to form a cornified envelope with continued culturing. For this reason, early passage normal keratinocytes and early passage HPV-immortalized cells were studied to see if they also showed this resistance to retinoic acid. Normal epithelial cells and cells immortalized by HPVs were grown in organotypic raft cultures and treated with varying amounts of retinoic acid, which normally blocks terminal differentiation ...


Characterization By Flow Cytometry And Fluorescence Microscopy Of A Novel P34 Kd Proliferation-Associated Antigen On The Surface Membrane Of Normal And Leukemic Human Leukocytes, Kerrie Barrett Apr 1991

Characterization By Flow Cytometry And Fluorescence Microscopy Of A Novel P34 Kd Proliferation-Associated Antigen On The Surface Membrane Of Normal And Leukemic Human Leukocytes, Kerrie Barrett

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) that recognize different surface membrane antigens have proven useful in classifying human leukocytes as different subsets. A recently developed murine MoAb 53.6 (IgG2a), raised against the HEL human erythroleukemia cell line has been shown to identify a p34 kDa surface membrane antigen that is associated with cell proliferation. The p34 kDa antigen is a non-glycosylated acid polypeptide whose structural gene is encoded on human chromosome 11. Moreover, the p34 kDa antigen is expressed on different human hematopoietic cell lines that represent leukemic leukocyte subsets of T cells, B cells, and myelomonocytic cells that are in different ...


Reversal Of Multidrug Resistance Using Cyclosporin A, Sara Manley Apr 1989

Reversal Of Multidrug Resistance Using Cyclosporin A, Sara Manley

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Multidrug resistance is a phenomenon which occurs in cancer cells. These cells become resistant to the drug of treatment as well as resistant to other unrelated chemotherapeutic drugs. Previous studies have shown that calmodulin inhibitors and calcium channel blockers are able to reverse resistance in these cells when used in conjunction with the chemotherapeutic drug. In this study, the ability of the immunosuppressive drug, cyclosporin A to overcome cellular resistance to the chemotherapeutic drug vincristine was analyzed. The Chinese hamster cell line, DC-3F and its multidrug resistant variant, DC-3F/VCRd-5L were used. Analysis revealed that cyclosporin A caused complete reversal ...


Effects Of Implanted Phechromocytoma On T4/T8 Ratio Of T-Lymphocytes In New England Deaconess Hospital Rat, Christine Drivdahl Apr 1988

Effects Of Implanted Phechromocytoma On T4/T8 Ratio Of T-Lymphocytes In New England Deaconess Hospital Rat, Christine Drivdahl

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

The effect of implanted pheochromocytoma on (1) blood pressure, (2) catecholamine concentration, and (3) T4 and T8 lymphocyte subsets in the rat (New England Deaconess Hospital strain) was studied. Blood pressure increased significantly. Catecholamine concentrations rose greatly after tumor implant, with dopamine showing the greatest increase. T4 percentages decreased slightly as compared to pre-implant percentages. T8 results could be divided into two subsets based on a definite increase or a definite decrease from pre-implant percentages. Finally, rats that showed an increase of T8 cells had significantly greater concentrations of dopamine (and, to a lesser extent, epinephrine and norepinephrine) than those ...


The Incidence Of Three Splenic Lesions (Sarcomas, Hematomas, Emh) In Chronically Irradiated Beagle Dogs, Robert Mcgreevy Apr 1987

The Incidence Of Three Splenic Lesions (Sarcomas, Hematomas, Emh) In Chronically Irradiated Beagle Dogs, Robert Mcgreevy

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Data gathered on beagle dogs who received terminated exposures to protracted whole-body gamma irradiation was reviewed in order to make an evaluation of the incidence of splenic lesions. Three splenic lesions (sarcomas, hematomas, and EMH) were evaluated in terms of the total accumulated dose and dose rate received by the beagle dogs. The incidence of all three lesions, in the irradiated dogs, was found to be significantly greater than the incidence of the same lesions in the control dogs. The irradiated male dogs differed significantly from the control male dogs in the proportion of both splenic sarcomas and splenic hematomas ...


The Use Of Pap To Demonstrate The S100 Antigen In Neoplastic Spleens From Beagle Dogs That Have Been Exposed To Terminated Protracted Whole-Body Gamma Irradiation, Michael Gallagher Apr 1986

The Use Of Pap To Demonstrate The S100 Antigen In Neoplastic Spleens From Beagle Dogs That Have Been Exposed To Terminated Protracted Whole-Body Gamma Irradiation, Michael Gallagher

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Thirteen sections of primary splenic sarcomas manifested by eight beagle dogs exposed to protracted ^°Co gamma irradiation were characterized by the use of staining methods. Gomori’s Reticulum stain, Masson’s Trichrorae stain, and PAP (peroxidase-antiperoxidase), an immunohistochemical staining method specific for localization of the S100 antigen, were employed in an attempt to reconcile and unify conflicting histological and ultrastructural evaluations of these tumors. The S100 antigen is thought to be indicative of a neurogenic cytogenealogy. All three staining methods were utilized because of their inclusion in a protocol developed to arrive at a differential diagnosis concerning these primary soft ...


In Vitro Expression Of Radiation-Induced Stem Cell Damage In Macrophage Differentiation, Robert Shillingstad Apr 1986

In Vitro Expression Of Radiation-Induced Stem Cell Damage In Macrophage Differentiation, Robert Shillingstad

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

An in vitro assay using murine bone marrow cells was used to determine radiation-induced stem cell damage on subsequent in vitro macrophage differentiation. The assay system consisted of cultures of macrophage progenitor cells stimulated by the addition of L-cell conditioned medium high in CSF-1. Experimental animals were exposed to 400 rads of radiation using a Cobalt-60 source. It was found that residual stem cell damage was exhibited in vitro with a reduction of up to 63.9% on day-1 after exposure in the number of macrophage colonies arising in vitro. Proliferative compensation yielded slightly above normal levels of CFU-m by ...


Borderline Ovarian Cancer: A Case Study Of Fifteen Patients Treated At Mountain States Tumor Institute In Boise, Idaho, Andrew Malany Apr 1985

Borderline Ovarian Cancer: A Case Study Of Fifteen Patients Treated At Mountain States Tumor Institute In Boise, Idaho, Andrew Malany

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Over a fourteen-year period, 1970-1984, 213 patients with malignant ovarian tumors were seen at Mountain States Tumor Institute in Boise, Idaho. Of these, fifteen (7%) were pathologically diagnosed with ovarian tumors of borderline malignancy. Seven of the cases were Stage I, two were Stage II, six were Stage III, and no Stage IV patients were diagnosed. Ten patients were diagnosed as serous cystadenocarcinomas of borderline malignancy and five were diagnosed as borderline mucinous tumors. A varied regimen of both chemotherapy and radiation treatment was administered to the patients. Twelve patients received adjuvant therapy following surgery, six received chemotherapy. Of these ...


The Cytotoxic And Kinetic Effects Of Asynchronous Cells Following The Administration Of Vincristine, Meri Firpo Apr 1984

The Cytotoxic And Kinetic Effects Of Asynchronous Cells Following The Administration Of Vincristine, Meri Firpo

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

A growth curve was constructed for SCCVII-SF, a mouse squamous cell carcinoma cell line, in a culture of modified q-crle's medium. A toxicity curve was constructed for vincristine ,nd SCCVII-SF cells in the exponential phase of growth. Cells in mid-exponential phase were treated with a subtoxic level of vincristine for four hours. A count of mitotic cells was taken at intervals to determine whether vincristine caused a buildup of cells in mitosis after its removal. Results showed that cells continued to collect in mitosis for four hours after the removal of vincristine.


The Late Effects Of Terminated Protracted Whole-Body 60 Co Gamma Irradiation On Beagle Dogs, Mark Elliott Apr 1984

The Late Effects Of Terminated Protracted Whole-Body 60 Co Gamma Irradiation On Beagle Dogs, Mark Elliott

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Beagle dogs exposed to protracted Co gamma irradiation were observed for late effects, particularly life shortening ® and fatal tumor incidence. A total of 86 controls and 136 irradiated beagles entered the study, with 60% of these dead as of October 1, 1983. A nearly equal number of beagles of both sexes began If-ray exposure at 400 days of age. The 6 0 Co ¥-rays were given to predetermined total exposures of 600, 1400, 2000, and 4000 R at rates of 5, 10, 17, and 35 R/ day (22 hours/day, 7 days/week), with a few exceptions. Although 40% of ...


Quantification Of Carinoembryonic Antigen By A Radioimmunoassay Of Human Plasma Samples In The Clinical Sheridan, Wyoming Area, Mary Hochhaus Apr 1983

Quantification Of Carinoembryonic Antigen By A Radioimmunoassay Of Human Plasma Samples In The Clinical Sheridan, Wyoming Area, Mary Hochhaus

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Hurnan plasma samples were randomly acquired from clinics in the Sheridan, Wyoming area. These plasma samples were tested for the amount of Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) present using a radioimmunoassay. The amount of CEA present TM in the samples was quantified using the CEA-ROCHE test kit with Clinetics Corporation gel acrylamide columns. The levels of CEA in comparison with national levels of healthy individuals were found to be slightly lower. The effects of inflammatory disorders found characteristically in patients visiting doctors' offices seemed to have a slight effect on the amount of CEA present. Particular areas also seem to have an ...


Immunological And Immunohistochemical Methods Used To Study Chromatin Neoantigens Of Novikoff Hepatoma, Steven Binette, Timothy O'Connor Apr 1980

Immunological And Immunohistochemical Methods Used To Study Chromatin Neoantigens Of Novikoff Hepatoma, Steven Binette, Timothy O'Connor

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

The micro-complement fixation test was used to assay the potency and specificity of rabbit antisera to chromosomal antigens from Novikoff hepatoma and normal rat liver. The complement fixation titration patterns suggest the presence of only a few species of molecules bearing neochromatin antigens. A immunofluorescent technique was adapted to Novikoff hepatoma cells and resulted in the positive staining of Novikoff chromatin and negligible staining in normal rat liver cells.


Effects Of High Dose Ascorbate On Tumor Growth In Guinea Pigs, Brian O'Hollaren Apr 1979

Effects Of High Dose Ascorbate On Tumor Growth In Guinea Pigs, Brian O'Hollaren

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Recent studies indicate that a host's susceptibility to cancer is determined to a large extent by the natural resistance of the host to the disease (1). Consequently, there has developed a wave of interest concerning the theory that measures designed to enhance host resistance will result in an inhibition of malignant invasive growth. One important factor in host resistance is the availability of ascorbic acid (2-4). It has been shown that ascorbate can be used to inhibit in-vivo formation of highly carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds (5, 11). In tumorigenesis experiments, ascorbate inhibited lung adenoma induction in A strain mice by ...


A Study Of The Effects Of Hydrocortisone Acetate And Methotrexate Sodium On The Development And Progression Of Leukemia Induced By The Friend Leukemia Virus In Balb/C Mice, Arthur Conrad Jr., John Harshman Apr 1974

A Study Of The Effects Of Hydrocortisone Acetate And Methotrexate Sodium On The Development And Progression Of Leukemia Induced By The Friend Leukemia Virus In Balb/C Mice, Arthur Conrad Jr., John Harshman

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

The course of leukemia oroduceo by Friena leukemia virus (FLU) in male ano female BALB/c- mice was compared in hydrocortisone acetate-injected and methotrexate-injected mice. Statistic, hematologic, and pathologic studies showed that hydrocortisone acetate had a greater effect on slowing the leukemic growtn than did methotrexate sodium. Methotrexate had adverse effects on kidney morphology, whereas hydrocortisone caused no detectable disorders. Neither drug reversed the leukemic process. Application to the human problem of leukemia is discussed.


The Effects Of 3-Methylcholanthrene On Humoral Antibodies And On Antibody-Producing Cells In The Spleen, Chris Erickson Apr 1972

The Effects Of 3-Methylcholanthrene On Humoral Antibodies And On Antibody-Producing Cells In The Spleen, Chris Erickson

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

An increasing number of reports during the Dast decade have suggested a positive, though far from perfect, correlation between carcinogenicity and the ability of a side variety of carcinogens to impair the immune status of the host. In addition, those conditions resulting in the suppression of the immune reaction of the host, including the use of immunosuppressive drugs with transplant patients, seem to foster the incidence of cancer [St jernsward, 1969]. Burnet [1961] has suggested that the evolutionary significance of the immune response is that it enables the elimination of mutant somatic cells, which might otherwise form neoplasms. Then, possibly ...


Effect Of Penicillin On The Crown Gall Tumor-Inducing Principle In Helianthus Annuus, Kathleen Doyle Apr 1970

Effect Of Penicillin On The Crown Gall Tumor-Inducing Principle In Helianthus Annuus, Kathleen Doyle

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

The search to conquer cancer is a powerful goal, unifying people of all fields of endeavor. The cells of cancerous tissues have often been described as anarchists in a well organized state. ''Normal cells live in fixed relation to their neighbors, strictly obeying the laws of their society. They grow in an orderly way, under rigid control to a definite end (Braun 1952).” On the other hand, the growth of tumor cells is unorganized, independent, and without relation to the needs of the community. The tumorous growths referred to as crown gall in plants, is analogous on the cellular level ...


Immunizing And Enhancing Effects On Tumor Growth Of Humoral And Cellular Antibodies Against Tumor Specific Transplantation Antigens In Methylcholanthrene-Induced Tumors, Michael Barsotti Apr 1970

Immunizing And Enhancing Effects On Tumor Growth Of Humoral And Cellular Antibodies Against Tumor Specific Transplantation Antigens In Methylcholanthrene-Induced Tumors, Michael Barsotti

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

This paper is divided into three main chapters. The first chapter is a partial review of the vast amount of data that has been accumulated in the field of tumor immunology. To intelligibly interpret the results of my own experimental findings, a basic understanding of the principles involved in tumor immunology is of primary necessity. Those principles most related to my own assays and those, which I feel, present an adequate understanding for problems dealt with in this paper are presented. The genetic aspect of immunology is dealt with at length, but without a basic understanding of the genetics of ...


The Transmission Of Avian Visceral Lymphomatosis To Rats, Richard Buswell Apr 1966

The Transmission Of Avian Visceral Lymphomatosis To Rats, Richard Buswell

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Evidence has been steadily accumulating that cancers are perhaps more readily transmissable from one species to another than was previously thought. For example, in 1964 the National Cancer Institute published the notes from a symposium on malignant lymphoma. These notes disclosed the following findingst 1) Three monkeys who received an inoculum of human leukemia have developed leukemia. This is the first evidence of human to animal transmission of leukemia. 2) The Rouse cell sarcoma (RCS) virus has been successfully transmitted from chickens to both monkeys and hamsters. 3) Leukemias in the human may be related to the bites of dogs ...