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Articles 1 - 16 of 16

Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

Three-Dimensional Confocal Microscopy Indentation Method For Hydrogel Elasticity Measurement, Donghee Lee, Md Mahmudur Rahman, You Zhou, Sangjin Ryu Aug 2015

Three-Dimensional Confocal Microscopy Indentation Method For Hydrogel Elasticity Measurement, Donghee Lee, Md Mahmudur Rahman, You Zhou, Sangjin Ryu

Md Mahmudur Rahman

No abstract provided.


Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Breast Cell Carcinogenesis Enhanced By Multiple Carcinogens And Intervened By Dietary Ergosterol And Mimosine, Lenora Pluchino, Amethyst Liu, Hwa-Chain Robert Wang Dec 2014

Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Breast Cell Carcinogenesis Enhanced By Multiple Carcinogens And Intervened By Dietary Ergosterol And Mimosine, Lenora Pluchino, Amethyst Liu, Hwa-Chain Robert Wang

Lenora A. Pluchino, Ph.D.

Most breast cancers occur sporadically due to long-term exposure to low-dose carcinogens in the diet and the environment. Specifically, smoke, polluted air, and high temperature-cooked meats comprise multiple carcinogens, such as 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), benzo[α]pyrene (B[α]P), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5–b]pyridine (PhIP). We sought to determine if these carcinogens act together to induce breast cell carcinogenesis, and if so, whether non-cytotoxic dietary agents could intervene. We demonstrated that co-exposure to physiologically-achievable doses of NNK, B[α]P, and PhIP (NBP) holistically enhanced initiation and progression of breast cell carcinogenesis. Reactive oxygen species ...


Genotoxic Stress-Induced Expression Of P53 And Restoration Of Apoptosis In Leukemic Clam Hemocytes With Cytoplasmically Sequestered P53, Stefanie Boettger, Emily Jerszyk, Ben Low, Charles Walker Oct 2014

Genotoxic Stress-Induced Expression Of P53 And Restoration Of Apoptosis In Leukemic Clam Hemocytes With Cytoplasmically Sequestered P53, Stefanie Boettger, Emily Jerszyk, Ben Low, Charles Walker

S. Anne Boettger

No abstract provided.


Cytoplasmic Sequestration Of The Tumor Suppressor P53 By A Heat Shock Protein 70 Family Member, Mortalin, In Human Colorectal Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines, Erin Gestl, S. Boettger Oct 2014

Cytoplasmic Sequestration Of The Tumor Suppressor P53 By A Heat Shock Protein 70 Family Member, Mortalin, In Human Colorectal Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines, Erin Gestl, S. Boettger

S. Anne Boettger

No abstract provided.


Another Armed Cd4(+) T Cell Ready To Battle Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Roniel Cabrera, Gyongyi Szabo Sep 2014

Another Armed Cd4(+) T Cell Ready To Battle Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Roniel Cabrera, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

No abstract provided.


Chronic Induction Of Breast Cell Carcinogenesis By Multiple Environmental And Dietary Carcinogens, Lenora Pluchino, Hwa-Chain Robert Wang Apr 2014

Chronic Induction Of Breast Cell Carcinogenesis By Multiple Environmental And Dietary Carcinogens, Lenora Pluchino, Hwa-Chain Robert Wang

Lenora A. Pluchino, Ph.D.

Breast cancer, the most common type of cancer among North American and European women, is mostly sporadic and attributable to long-term exposure to small quantities of multiple carcinogens. To understand how multiple carcinogens act together to induce breast cell carcinogenesis, we investigated the activity of the tobacco carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), the environmental carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and the dietary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6- phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Non-cancerous human breast epithelial MCF10A cells were exposed to NNK, B[a]P, and PhIP sequentially or in combination and then analyzed for the acquisition of cancerous ...


Combining Fk228 And Cisplatin Synergistically Induces Cancer Cell Death And Reduces Clonogenic Survival, Shambhunath Choudhary, Shilpa Sood, Lenora Pluchino, Hwa-Chain Robert Wang Apr 2014

Combining Fk228 And Cisplatin Synergistically Induces Cancer Cell Death And Reduces Clonogenic Survival, Shambhunath Choudhary, Shilpa Sood, Lenora Pluchino, Hwa-Chain Robert Wang

Lenora A. Pluchino, Ph.D.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of FK228 (romidepsin) to increase cisplatin’s ability to induce cell death and reduce clonogenic survival of human urinary bladder cancer cells. Human urinary bladder cancer is the fifth most common cancer in the United States, but long-term, disease-free survival in patients is still suboptimal. Therefore, it is crucial to develop effective chemotherapeutic regimens to decrease the morbidity and mortality of this cancer. FK228, a depsipeptide and histone deacetylase inhibitor, is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treatment of T cell lymphoma. However, its therapeutic value ...


Brca1 Dna-Binding Activity Is Stimulated By Bard1, Amanda Simons, Andrew Horwitz, Lea Starita, Karen Griffin, R Williams, J.N. Glover, Jeffrey Parvin Feb 2013

Brca1 Dna-Binding Activity Is Stimulated By Bard1, Amanda Simons, Andrew Horwitz, Lea Starita, Karen Griffin, R Williams, J.N. Glover, Jeffrey Parvin

Amanda Simons

The breast- and ovarian-specific tumor suppressor BRCA1 has been implicated in numerous cellular processes, including transcription, ubiquitination, and DNA repair. Its tumor suppression activity is tightly linked to that of BARD1, a protein that heterodimerizes with BRCA1. It has been previously shown that BRCA1 binds to DNA, an interesting functional observation in light of the genetic data linking BRCA1 to DNA repair pathways. In this work, we reexamine the DNA-binding properties of BRCA1, comparing them with the DNA-binding properties of the BRCA1/BARD1 heterodimer. Because nuclear BRCA1 exists as a heterodimer with BARD1, it is likely that in vitro studies ...


A Historical Perspective On Cancer, Rafael Sorkin Oct 2011

A Historical Perspective On Cancer, Rafael Sorkin

Rafael D. Sorkin

It is proposed that cancer results from the breakdown of universal control mechanisms which developed in mutual association as part of the historical process that brought individual cells together into multi-cellular communities. By systematically comparing the genomes of uni-celled with multi-celled organisms, one might be able to identify the most promising sites for intervention aimed at restoring the damaged control mechanisms and thereby arresting the cancer.


Micrornas Are Independent Predictors Of Outcome In Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Patients Treated With R-Chop, Goldi Kozloski Apr 2011

Micrornas Are Independent Predictors Of Outcome In Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Patients Treated With R-Chop, Goldi Kozloski

Goldi A Kozloski

PURPOSE:
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) heterogeneity has prompted investigations for new biomarkers that can accurately predict survival. A previously reported 6-gene model combined with the International Prognostic Index (IPI) could predict patients' outcome. However, even these predictors are not capable of unambiguously identifying outcome, suggesting that additional biomarkers might improve their predictive power.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:
We studied expression of 11 microRNAs (miRNA) that had previously been reported to have variable expression in DLBCL tumors. We measured the expression of each miRNA by quantitative real-time PCR analyses in 176 samples from uniformly treated DLBCL patients and correlated the results to ...


Sfrp1 Reduction Results In An Increased Sensitivity To Tgf-Β Signaling, Sallie Smith Schneider, Kelly Gauger, Kerry Chenausky, Molly Murray Feb 2011

Sfrp1 Reduction Results In An Increased Sensitivity To Tgf-Β Signaling, Sallie Smith Schneider, Kelly Gauger, Kerry Chenausky, Molly Murray

Sallie W Smith Schneider

Background Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β plays a dual role during mammary gland development and tumorigenesis and has been shown to stimulate epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as well as cellular migration. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is also implicated in EMT and inappropriate activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway leads to the development of several human cancers, including breast cancer. Secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1) antagonizes this pathway and loss of SFRP1 expression is frequently observed in breast tumors and breast cancer cell lines. We previously showed that when SFRP1 is knocked down in immortalized non-malignant mammary epithelial cells, the cells ...


Mechanistic And Signaling Analysis Of Muc4-Erbb2 Signaling Module: New Insights Into The Mechanism Of Ligand-Independent Erbb2 Activity, Goldi Kozloski Sep 2010

Mechanistic And Signaling Analysis Of Muc4-Erbb2 Signaling Module: New Insights Into The Mechanism Of Ligand-Independent Erbb2 Activity, Goldi Kozloski

Goldi A Kozloski

The membrane mucin Muc4 is aberrantly expressed in numerous epithelial carcinomas and is currently used as a cancer diagnostic and prognostic tool. Muc4 can also potentiate signal transduction by modulating differential ErbB2 phosphorylation in the absence and in the presence of the ErbB3 soluble ligand heregulin (HRG-beta1). These features of Muc4 suggest that Muc4 is not merely a cancer marker, but an oncogenic factor with a unique-binding/activation relationship with the receptor ErbB2. In the present study, we examined the signaling mechanisms that are associated with the Muc4-ErbB2 module by analyzing ErbB2 differential signaling in response to Muc4 expression. Our ...


Muc4/Muc4 Functions And Regulation In Cancer., Goldi Kozloski Dec 2009

Muc4/Muc4 Functions And Regulation In Cancer., Goldi Kozloski

Goldi A Kozloski

The membrane mucin MUC4 (human) is abundantly expressed in many epithelia, where it is proposed to play a protective role, and is overexpressed in some epithelial tumors. Studies on the rat homologue, Muc4, indicate that it acts through anti-adhesive or signaling mechanisms. In particular, Muc4/MUC4 can serve as a ligand/modulator of the receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB2, regulating its phosphorylation and the phosphorylation of its partner ErbB3, with or without the involvement of the ErbB3 ligand neuregulin. Muc4/MUC4 can also modulate cell apoptosis via multiple mechanisms, both ErbB2 dependent and independent. Muc4/MUC4 expression is regulated by multiple ...


Conformational Changes In Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling: An Erbb Garden Of Delights., Goldi Kozloski Sep 2009

Conformational Changes In Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling: An Erbb Garden Of Delights., Goldi Kozloski

Goldi A Kozloski

The ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases plays important roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Recent structural studies of these receptors have demonstrated dramatic conformational effects that are critical to their ligand binding and activation, and have shown that these receptors provide levels of control beyond the classic dimerization/activation mechanism. These results indicate that this class of receptors has evolved subtle regulatory mechanisms via genetic and protein structural changes to influence their effects on cell behaviors.



Oncogenesis And Cancer Stem Cells: Current Opinions And Future Directions., Xiaoyu Cheng, Helen O'Neill Dec 2008

Oncogenesis And Cancer Stem Cells: Current Opinions And Future Directions., Xiaoyu Cheng, Helen O'Neill

Helen O'Neill

There is increasing evidence to show that only a subset of cancer cells drives the growth and progression of a tumour. These cells share similar properties with normal stem cells and are termed 'cancer stem cells'. Cancer stem cells have been identified in acute myeloid leukaemia and in some solid tumours by their distinct expression of cell surface antigens. Their long-term, self-renewing capacity is thought to be a determining factor in the maintenance and regrowth of the tumour. Studies on haematopoietic cancers show that important signalling pathways and genes for normal haematopoiesis, such as Wnt, NF-kappaB, Notch, hedgehog (Hh) and ...


Characterization Of Microrna Expression Levels And Their Biological Correlates In Human Cancer Cell Lines., Caifu Chen, Arti Gaur, David Jewell, Yu Liang, Dana Ridzon, Jason Moore, Victor Ambros, Mark Israel Mar 2007

Characterization Of Microrna Expression Levels And Their Biological Correlates In Human Cancer Cell Lines., Caifu Chen, Arti Gaur, David Jewell, Yu Liang, Dana Ridzon, Jason Moore, Victor Ambros, Mark Israel

Victor R. Ambros

MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that function by regulating target gene expression posttranscriptionally. They play a critical role in developmental and physiologic processes and are implicated in the pathogenesis of several human diseases including cancer. We examined the expression profiles of 241 human microRNAs in normal tissues and the NCI-60 panel of human tumor-derived cell lines. To quantify microRNA expression, we employed a highly sensitive technique that uses stem-loop primers for reverse transcription followed by real-time PCR. Most microRNAs were expressed at lower levels in tumor-derived cell lines compared with the corresponding normal tissue. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering analysis of microRNA ...