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Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

Modulating Mcm Levels Causes Differential Loading At Origins Of Replication And Changes Replication Timing, Livio Dukaj Dec 2019

Modulating Mcm Levels Causes Differential Loading At Origins Of Replication And Changes Replication Timing, Livio Dukaj

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

DNA replication is a highly complex part of cell metabolism that ensures safe propagation of the genome through tight regulation of the expression, localization, and activity of a large number of factors. Replication starts from distinct sites in the genome and initiation events are temporally ordered in a manner that is, on average, highly reproducible across cell populations. The specific order with which different parts of the genome are replicated has been proposed to be important to processes such as gene expression, cell differentiation, development, and genome evolution. Nevertheless, the fundamental mechanisms that are responsible for establishing these timing programs ...


Extraction, Purification And Evaluation Of Prmt5-Inhibitory Phytochemical Compounds For The Treatment Of Prostate Adenocarcinoma, Oliver H. Richmond Iii May 2019

Extraction, Purification And Evaluation Of Prmt5-Inhibitory Phytochemical Compounds For The Treatment Of Prostate Adenocarcinoma, Oliver H. Richmond Iii

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

The development and advancement of prostate cancer is supported by a plethora of genetic and proteomic abnormalities, including events of post-translational modifications. The protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) enzyme regulates epigenetic events of histone modifications and protein post-translational modifications within protein signaling pathways. PRMT5 functions by catalyzing the symmetric dimethylation of terminal arginine residues on target protein substrates. Under abnormal conditions of overexpression and upregulation, PRMT5 methyltransferase activity constitutively drives the growth and proliferation of dysregulated cells. Overexpression or upregulation of PRMT5 correlates with disease progression as observed among numerous cancer types, including breast, colorectal, leukemia, lung, melanoma and prostate ...


Cellular Localization Of Rad51d Mutant Proteins And The Application Of Art To Increase Scientific Literacy In America, Claire L. Chabot May 2019

Cellular Localization Of Rad51d Mutant Proteins And The Application Of Art To Increase Scientific Literacy In America, Claire L. Chabot

Senior Theses

Ovarian cancers are the leading cause of death from cancer of the female reproductive system. Approximately 50% of ovarian cancers have defects in the homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair pathway that is required for the repair of DNA double-stranded breaks. The status of HR genes, such as BRCA1, BRCA2, and the RAD51 family, contributes to ovarian cancer development as well as treatment decisions regarding chemotherapy, radiation, and immunotherapy. The overarching goal of this project is to identify new insights into HR that can integrate with Precision Medicine Initiatives and align with the goals of the Cancer Moonshot 2020 Program. I ...


Paraoxonase 2 Is Critical For Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Proliferation., Aaron Whitt May 2019

Paraoxonase 2 Is Critical For Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Proliferation., Aaron Whitt

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) comprises 85% of lung cancer diagnoses and is plagued by drug resistance. Thus, elucidating the underlying mechanisms of NSCLC is paramount to expand future treatment options. Paraoxonase 2 (PON2), an intracellular enzyme with arylesterase and lactonase functions, has well-established anti-atherosclerotic activity. Recent studies show PON2 is overexpressed in a variety of tumors and confers drug resistance, although these interactions have not been thoroughly examined in NSCLC. Thus, we sought to investigate the role of PON2 in cellular proliferation using PON2-knockout mice, primary mouse cells, and NSCLC cell lines. Using these approaches, we demonstrate that PON2 ...


Mechanisms Of Oriented Cell Division And Their Roles In Tissue Development, Evan Blake Dewey Apr 2019

Mechanisms Of Oriented Cell Division And Their Roles In Tissue Development, Evan Blake Dewey

Biology ETDs

Properly executed cell division is crucial to development, maintenance, and longevity of multicellular organisms. Defects in both symmetric and asymmetric divisions can lead to improper developmental patterning, as well as genomic instability, disruption of tissue homeostasis, and cancer. Our research focuses on how regulators orchestrate proper cell divisions. Mushroom Body Defect (Mud) is one such regulator, and here we describe how Mud is regulated via the Hippo signaling pathway kinase Warts (Wts), showing Wts phosphorylates Mud to enhance interaction with the polarity protein Partner of Inscuteable, promoting spindle orientation activity. We next focus on another regulator, Shortstop (Shot), describing a ...


Regulation Of The Long Non-Coding Rna Fam83h-As1 By Human Papillomavirus In Cervical Cancer, Jamie Ann Barr Ph.D. Jan 2019

Regulation Of The Long Non-Coding Rna Fam83h-As1 By Human Papillomavirus In Cervical Cancer, Jamie Ann Barr Ph.D.

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Non-coding RNAs (NcRNAs), such as long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), have been found to be involved in a variety of critical biological processes, and dysregulation of ncRNAs have been involved with several human diseases including cancer.

High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the first events in the process of carcinogenesis in cervical and a subset of head and neck cancers. The expression of the viral oncoproteins E6 and E7 is essential in this process by inactivating the tumor suppressor proteins p53 and Rb, respectively, in addition to their interactions with other host proteins and regulation of ...


The Functional Role Of Rna Binding Protein Rbms3 As A Tumor Promoter In Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells, Yuting Zhou Jan 2019

The Functional Role Of Rna Binding Protein Rbms3 As A Tumor Promoter In Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells, Yuting Zhou

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

RBMS3 belongs to the family of c-myc gene single-strand binding proteins (MSSPs) that play important roles in transcriptional regulation. Here, we show that RBMS3 functions as a tumor promoter in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), a highly aggressive BC subtype. Analysis of RBMS3 expression shows that RBMS3 is upregulated at both mRNA and protein levels in TNBC cells. Functionally, overexpression of RBMS3 increases cell migration, invasion and cancer stem cell (CSC) behaviors. Moreover, RBMS3 induces expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and CSC markers. Conversely, loss of RBMS3 in TNBC BT549 cells inhibits cell proliferation, migration and mesenchymal phenotype. Correlation analysis shows ...


Eralpha Isoforms Modulate The Tumorigenicity Of 24r,25(Oh)2d3 In Estrogen-Responsive Cancer, Anjali Verma Jan 2019

Eralpha Isoforms Modulate The Tumorigenicity Of 24r,25(Oh)2d3 In Estrogen-Responsive Cancer, Anjali Verma

Theses and Dissertations

Over 200,000 cases of breast cancer are diagnosed every year. Nearly 20% of these patients supplement their diets with some form of vitamin D. This high frequency of vitamin D supplement use may be due in part to research suggesting that cancer patients with higher serum vitamin D3 levels have better prognoses than patients with low serum vitamin D3. However, double-blind clinical trials on the efficacy of vitamin D3 supplementation in breast cancer have been inconclusive. A recent meta-analysis showed evidence of reduced cancer recurrence in patients taking vitamin D3 supplements who had ‘estrogen receptor ...


Role Of P300 Zz Domain In Chromatin Association And Histone Acetylation, Yongming Xue Dec 2018

Role Of P300 Zz Domain In Chromatin Association And Histone Acetylation, Yongming Xue

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Transcription is strictly regulated by numerous factors including transcription coactivators. The p300 protein and its close paralogue CREB-binding protein (CREBBP, aka CBP) are well-known transcriptional coactivators that have intrinsic lysine acetyltransferase activity. The functions of p300/CBP largely rely on their capabilities to bind to chromatin and to acetylate the histone substrates. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of these processes are not fully understood.

Through combination of various biochemical, biophysical and molecular approaches, we show that the ZZ-type zinc finger (ZZ) domain of p300 functions as a histone reader that specifically binds the N-terminal tail of histone H3 ...


Direct Quantification Of Deubiquitinating Enzyme Activity In Single Intact Cells, Nora Safabakhsh Aug 2018

Direct Quantification Of Deubiquitinating Enzyme Activity In Single Intact Cells, Nora Safabakhsh

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Challenges in drug efficacy occur during the treatment of most types of cancer due to the heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment. This has led to the development of personalized medicine. Due to the clinical success of the proteasome inhibitors Bortezomib and Carfilzomib in treatment of multiple myeloma, interest has shifted towards molecularly-targeted chemotherapeutics for ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) are an essential part of this pathway which have been found to promote Bortezomib resistance in multiple myeloma patients. Unfortunately, there is a lack of specific, high throughput biochemical assays to characterize DUB activity in patient samples before and after ...


Deciphering The Role Of Human Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase 1 (Nat1) In Breast Cancer Cell Metabolism Using A Systems Biology Approach., Samantha Marie Carlisle Aug 2018

Deciphering The Role Of Human Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase 1 (Nat1) In Breast Cancer Cell Metabolism Using A Systems Biology Approach., Samantha Marie Carlisle

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) is a phase II xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme found in almost all tissues. NAT1 can additionally hydrolyze acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) in the absence of an arylamine substrate. NAT1 expression varies inter-individually and is elevated in several cancers including estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancers. Additionally, multiple studies have shown the knockdown of NAT1, by both small molecule inhibition and siRNA methods, in breast cancer cells leads to decreased invasive ability and proliferation and decreased anchorage-independent colony formation. However, the exact mechanism by which NAT1 expression affects cancer risk and progression remains unclear. Additionally, consequences ...


Computational Analysis Of Genomic Variants Affecting Predicted Microrna:Target Interactions In Prostate Cancer., Angélica Paola Hernández Pérez Jul 2018

Computational Analysis Of Genomic Variants Affecting Predicted Microrna:Target Interactions In Prostate Cancer., Angélica Paola Hernández Pérez

KGI Theses and Dissertations

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer of men in the United States and is third only to lung and colon as a cause of cancer death. Clinical behavior of the disease is variable and the combination of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening and Gleason score staging are currently the best available molecular and pathology tools to predict outcomes. Cancer biology research establishes microRNAs (miRNAs) as key molecular components in both normal and pathological states. Thus, elucidating miRNAs perturbed by genomic alterations will expand our understanding of the molecular taxonomy of PCa with the aim to complement current practices in ...


Characterizing The Recognition Motif And Novel Substrates Of Carm1, Sitaram Gayatri Jul 2018

Characterizing The Recognition Motif And Novel Substrates Of Carm1, Sitaram Gayatri

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

A limited pool of proteins attains vast functional repertoire due to posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Arginine methylation is a common posttranslational modification, which is catalyzed by a family of nine protein arginine methyltransferases or PRMTs. These enzymes deposit one or two methyl groups to the nitrogen atoms of arginine side-chains. Elucidating the substrate specificity of each PRMT will promote a better understanding of which signaling networks these enzymes contribute to. Although many PRMT substrates have been identified, and their methylation sites mapped, the optimal target motif for each of the nine PRMTs has not been systematically addressed. Here we describe the ...


Regulation Of The Pi3-Kinase/Pten Signaling Pathway By Tgf-Β In Prostate Cancer Cells, Mawiyah Kimbrough-Allah May 2018

Regulation Of The Pi3-Kinase/Pten Signaling Pathway By Tgf-Β In Prostate Cancer Cells, Mawiyah Kimbrough-Allah

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

Transforming growth factor -β (TGF-β) plays an important role in the progression of prostate cancer. It acts as a tumor suppressor in normal epithelial cells but as a tumor promoter in advanced prostate cancer cells. The PI3-kinase pathway has been shown to play integral roles in many cellular processes including cell proliferation, survival, and cell migration in many cell types. PI3-kinase pathway mediates TGF-β effects on prostate cancer cell migration and invasion. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a tumor suppressor gene, inhibits PI3-kinase pathway and is frequently mutated in prostate cancers. In this present study, we investigated possible roles of ...


Mechanisms Of Age-Related Prostate Growth And Tumorigenesis, Deon O'Bryant May 2018

Mechanisms Of Age-Related Prostate Growth And Tumorigenesis, Deon O'Bryant

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy among men, but few genetic factors that drive prostate cancer initiation have been identified. The WD repeat domain 77 (Wdr77) protein is essential for cellular proliferation when it localizes in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells at the early stage of prostate development. In the adult prostate, it is transported into the nucleus and functions as a co-regulator of the androgen receptor to promote cellular differentiation and prostate function. This developmental process is reversed during prostate tumorigenesis i.e., Wdr77 is translocated from the nucleus into the cytoplasm to drive proliferation of prostate ...


The Regulation Of Dna Methylation In Mammalian Development And Cancer, Nicolas Veland May 2018

The Regulation Of Dna Methylation In Mammalian Development And Cancer, Nicolas Veland

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic modification in mammals, as it plays important regulatory roles in multiple biological processes, such as gene transcription, maintenance of chromosomal structure and genomic stability, genomic imprinting, retrotransposon silencing, and X-chromosome inactivation. Dysregulation of DNA methylation is associated with various human diseases. For example, cancer cells usually show global hypomethylation and regional hypermenthylation, which have been implicated in genomic instability and tumor suppressor silencing, respectively. Although great progress has been made in elucidating the biological functions of DNA methylation over the last several decades, how DNA methylation patterns and levels are regulated and dysregulated is ...


Ketone Bodies And Signaling In Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines, Kyla B. Buettner, Pankaj K. Singh, Surendra K. Shukla May 2018

Ketone Bodies And Signaling In Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines, Kyla B. Buettner, Pankaj K. Singh, Surendra K. Shukla

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and 95% of these cases are caused by PDAC (pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma). Ketone bodies have previously been shown to decrease cell proliferation and cancer-induced cachexia. The molecular mechanism of ketone body-mediated growth inhibition of pancreatic cancer cells is not well understood. Research conducted thus far has not explored which molecular pathways are affected by ketone body treatment in pancreatic cancer cells. In the current study, the effect of the ketone body sodium hydroxybutyrate on the JAK-STAT and mTOR pathways and cell migration was explored. A decrease ...


Deciphering The Roles Of Δnp63 In Regulating Epithelial To Mesenchymal Transition, Cancer Progression And Metastasis, Ngoc Bui May 2018

Deciphering The Roles Of Δnp63 In Regulating Epithelial To Mesenchymal Transition, Cancer Progression And Metastasis, Ngoc Bui

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

p63 is a member of the p53 family, a well-known tumor suppressor which is considered the guardian of the genome. The TP63 gene encodes multiple isoforms that can be categorized into two main isoforms, TAp63 and ΔNp63, which are expressed in different cellular compartments and have distinct functions in many biological processes. While the Flores laboratory identified TAp63 as a tumor and metastasis suppressor, the precise roles of ΔNp63 isoforms in tumorigenesis and metastasis remain elusive. ΔNp63 is the predominant p63 isoform expressed in the epidermis and plays essential roles in regulating epidermal development and homeostasis. Utilizing a ΔNp63-conditional ...


Mechanisms For Survival And Drug Resistance In Cancer Cells, Matthew B. Utter Feb 2018

Mechanisms For Survival And Drug Resistance In Cancer Cells, Matthew B. Utter

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

PART I

Prostate cells are hormonally driven to grow and divide. Typical treatments for prostate cancer involve blocking the hormone androgen from activating the androgen receptor (AR) and thus inhibit growth and proliferation of the cancer. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) can lead to the selection of cancer cells that grow and divide independently of androgen receptor activation. Prostate cancer cells that are insensitive to androgens commonly display metastatic phenotypes and reduced long-term survival of patients. In this study, we provide evidence that androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cells have elevated phospholipase D (PLD) activity relative to the androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells. PLD ...


Characterizing The Role Of Thymine Dna Glycosylase In Transcriptional Regulation And Cancer In Vivo, Mohammad Haider Hassan Jan 2018

Characterizing The Role Of Thymine Dna Glycosylase In Transcriptional Regulation And Cancer In Vivo, Mohammad Haider Hassan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cytosine methylation (5mC) is essential for transcriptional control and genomic stability and is often used as a prognostic marker in cancer. Although 5mC has long been considered a relatively stable epigenetic mark, recent studies have demonstrated that it can be reversed enzymatically by TET proteins which oxidize 5mC into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), and then to 5-formylcytosine (5-fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). This mechanism is known as active DNA demethylation and the base excision repair enzyme Thymine DNA Glycosylase (TDG) plays an essential role in this process by removing 5-fC and 5-caC which are subsequently replaced by the unmethylated cytosine. Importantly, homozygous loss ...


Studies Of Norspermidine Uptake In Drosophila Suggest The Existence Of Multiple Polyamine Transport Pathways, Michael Dieffenbach Jan 2018

Studies Of Norspermidine Uptake In Drosophila Suggest The Existence Of Multiple Polyamine Transport Pathways, Michael Dieffenbach

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Polyamines are a class of essential nutrients involved in many basic cellular processes such as gene expression, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Without polyamines, cell growth is delayed or halted. Cancerous cells require an abundance of polyamines through a combination of synthesis and transport from the extracellular environment. An FDA-approved drug, D,L-α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), blocks polyamine synthesis but is ineffective at inhibiting cell growth due to polyamine transport. Thus, there is a need to develop drugs that inhibit polyamine transport to use in combination with DFMO. Surprisingly, little is known about the polyamine transport system in humans and other eukaryotes. Understanding ...


Altering Oligomerization Of Epha2 Via Mutations In The Intracellular Domain, Ryan W. Lingerak Jan 2018

Altering Oligomerization Of Epha2 Via Mutations In The Intracellular Domain, Ryan W. Lingerak

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Eph receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are activated by membrane-bound ligands called ephrins. Eph RTKs are divided into two subclasses, each activated by a specific classes of the ligand ephrin. The overexpression of Eph receptors is correlated to cancer cell metastasis in several different types of cancers. Studies with the EphA2 extracellular domain (ECD) and ephrinA1 ligand have shown that upon binding of ephrin to the receptor, EphA2 undergoes increased oligomerization and activation. This indicates that oligomerization is intimately connected to kinase activity. High resolution crystal structures of the EphA2 ECD have revealed some details of these ligand bound oligomers, as ...


Determination Of The Sivmac Vif-Human Apobec3b Interaction, Oumar Sanogo Jan 2018

Determination Of The Sivmac Vif-Human Apobec3b Interaction, Oumar Sanogo

All Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects

The APOBEC3 family of enzymes are DNA cytosine deaminases, some of which restrict replication of HIV-­‐1. This viral restriction is caused by deamination of cytosines to uracils in the viral cDNA, resulting in lethal mutation. HIV-­‐1 counteracts this deamination by producing the protein Vif, which targets the restricting APOBEC3 enzymes for proteosomal degradation. Previous studies have demonstrated that HIV-­‐1 Vif mediates degradation of APOBEC3D (A3D), APOBEC3F (A3F), APOBEC3G (A3G), and APOBEC3H (A3H). Other lentiviruses may also encode a Vif protein, however not all Vif proteins can degrade the same APOBEC3 proteins. For example, SIVmac (simian immunodeficiency virus ...


Metabolic Reprogramming Of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Cells In Response To Chronic Low Ph Stress, Jaime Abrego Dec 2017

Metabolic Reprogramming Of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Cells In Response To Chronic Low Ph Stress, Jaime Abrego

Theses & Dissertations

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is among the most lethal of all cancers with a 5-year survival rate of only 8.2%. This is because PDAC is diagnosed in its advanced stages and is characterized by radio and chemotherapy resistance. Aggressiveness of PDAC tumors is attributed to its high metabolic phenotype, which is characterized by increased glycolysis rate and lactate secretion, while oxidative metabolism is reduced. These metabolic features are required to fulfill the biosynthetic demands of proliferating PDAC cells. However, this increase in metabolic activity results in acidification of the extracellular space because the dense fibrotic stroma of PDAC tumors ...


Characterization Of Notch1 And Pi3k-Pten-Akt/Mtor Pathway Interaction In Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Kyriante' Henry Dec 2017

Characterization Of Notch1 And Pi3k-Pten-Akt/Mtor Pathway Interaction In Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Kyriante' Henry

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) affects various mucosal sites of the upper aerodigestive tract, including the nasal and oral cavities, the nasopharynx, and the oropharynx. More than five hundred thousand new cases of HNSCC occurred in 2011 alone, with 50,000 reported cases in the United States. This trend made HNSCC the seventh most common non-skin cancer worldwide (Ferlay et al., 2015). Although significant epidemiological and pathological advancements have been made, survival rates have not improved much over the last 40 years, leaving a mortality rate that remains at approximately 50%. An unbiased drug screen demonstrated that HNSCC ...


Exploring Biological Heterogeneity And Its Consequences At Tissue And Cellular Scales Through Mathematical And Computational Modeling, Romica Kerketta Sep 2017

Exploring Biological Heterogeneity And Its Consequences At Tissue And Cellular Scales Through Mathematical And Computational Modeling, Romica Kerketta

Biomedical Sciences ETDs

This dissertation explores the effects of heterogeneity across different biological scales in cancer as well as normal cells. At the tissue scale, we investigated the variability present in the tumor microenvironment and its effect on patient chemotherapeutic outcomes using a mathematical model of drug transport. We found that parameters such as tumor blood perfusion and radius of blood vessel had an impact on the tumor cytotoxicity. This indicated that the physical microenvironment of the tumor is an important regulator of the tumor response to chemotherapy. At the cellular scale, we investigated the heterogeneity present on the membrane landscape of ErbB2 ...


Preclinical Development Of Therapeutic Strategies Against Triple-Negative And Inflammatory Breast Cancer, Angie M. Torres-Adorno Aug 2017

Preclinical Development Of Therapeutic Strategies Against Triple-Negative And Inflammatory Breast Cancer, Angie M. Torres-Adorno

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Triple-negative (TNBC) and inflammatory (IBC) breast cancer are the most aggressive forms of breast cancer, accounting for 20% and 10% of cancer-related deaths, respectively. Among IBC cases, 30% are additionally classified with TNBC molecular pathology, a diagnosis that significantly worsens patient’s prognosis. The current lack of TNBC and IBC molecular understanding prevents the development of effective therapeutic strategies. To identify effective treatments, we explored aberrant apoptosis pathways and cell membrane fluidity as novel therapeutic targets.

We first identified an effective therapeutic strategy against TNBC and IBC by pro-apoptotic protein NOXA-mediated inhibition of the anti-apoptotic protein MCL1 following inhibition of ...


Investigating The Role Of Prmt1 And Arginine Methylation Of Hsp70 In Human Pancreatic Cancer, Liang Wang Aug 2017

Investigating The Role Of Prmt1 And Arginine Methylation Of Hsp70 In Human Pancreatic Cancer, Liang Wang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is the major arginine methyltransferase, which catalyzes the addition of one or two methyl groups to the arginine residues of its substrate proteins. The best-known substrate for PRMT1 is histone, while more and more non-histone proteins are now found to be methylated by PRMT1. Dysregulation of PRMT1 is reported in several human cancer types. However, its biological roles in human pancreatic cancer initiation and development are still unclear. In the first part of this study, I found that the expression level of PRMT1 was elevated in both human and mouse pancreatic cancer tissues in immunohistochemistry ...


Molecular And Biochemical Studies Of Several Novel Estrogen Receptor Alpha-Interacting Proteins In Breast Cancer Cells, Ahmed Edan Dhamad Aug 2017

Molecular And Biochemical Studies Of Several Novel Estrogen Receptor Alpha-Interacting Proteins In Breast Cancer Cells, Ahmed Edan Dhamad

Theses and Dissertations

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women, and approximately 70% of incidences are estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. ERα and its interacting proteins play a key role in the development and progression of breast cancer. However, how ERα regulates its target gene expression and hence cell proliferation is not fully understood. To enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanism by which ERα regulates gene expression, we used a quantitative proteomic method to identify cellular proteins that interact with ERα. The first group of proteins that were identified to associate with ERα are heat shock ...


The Dlk1-Meg3 Locus In Malignant Cells Of Proposed Primordial Germ Cell Origins., Zachariah Payne Sellers Aug 2017

The Dlk1-Meg3 Locus In Malignant Cells Of Proposed Primordial Germ Cell Origins., Zachariah Payne Sellers

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are hypothesized to deposit hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) along their migration route through the embryo during the early stages of embryogenesis. PGCs also undergo global chromatin remodeling, including the erasure and reestablishment of genomic imprints, during this migration. While PGCs do not spontaneously form teratomas, their malignant development into germ cell tumors (GCTs) in vivo is often accompanied by the retention of hypomethylation at the IGF2-H19 imprinting control differentially methylated region (DMR). Previous studies in bimaternal embryos determined that proper genomic imprinting at two paternally imprinted loci was necessary for their growth and development: Igf2-H19 and ...