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Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

9th Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium, University Of Texas Md Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association Sep 2019

9th Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium, University Of Texas Md Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association

MD Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium Abstracts

The mission of the Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium (APSS) is to provide a platform for talented postdoctoral fellows throughout the Texas Medical Center to present their work to a wider audience. The MD Anderson Postdoctoral Association convened its inaugural Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium (APSS) on August 4, 2011.

The APSS provides a professional venue for postdoctoral scientists to develop, clarify, and refine their research as a result of formal reviews and critiques of faculty and other postdoctoral scientists. Additionally, attendees discuss current research on a broad range of subjects while promoting academic interactions and enrichment and developing new collaborations.


The Signaling Pathways Of Metallothionein-Mediated Chemotaxis In Breast Cancer, Jennifer Messina May 2019

The Signaling Pathways Of Metallothionein-Mediated Chemotaxis In Breast Cancer, Jennifer Messina

University Scholar Projects

Metallothionein (MT) is a small, thiol rich protein released into the extracellular environment in response to stress. Elevated expression of MT has been linked to many inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases, diabetes, and cancer. In breast cancer, high expression of MT has been associated with poor patient prognosis. Previous studies have shown that MT acts as a chemoattractant in lymphocytes, and that UC1MT, a monoclonal anti-MT antibody, can block this chemotactic response. In addition, it has been shown that both Cholera toxin and Pertussis toxin, which are known antagonists of G-protein coupled receptors, can inhibit MT-mediated chemotaxis. Here, I ...


The Signaling Pathways Of Metallothionein-Mediated Chemotaxis In Breast Cancer, Jennifer Messina May 2019

The Signaling Pathways Of Metallothionein-Mediated Chemotaxis In Breast Cancer, Jennifer Messina

Honors Scholar Theses

Metallothionein (MT) is a small, thiol rich protein released into the extracellular environment in response to stress. Elevated expression of MT has been linked to many inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases, diabetes, and cancer. In breast cancer, high expression of MT has been associated with poor patient prognosis. Previous studies have shown that MT acts as a chemoattractant in lymphocytes, and that UC1MT, a monoclonal anti-MT antibody, can block this chemotactic response. In addition, it has been shown that both Cholera toxin and Pertussis toxin, which are known antagonists of G-protein coupled receptors, can inhibit MT-mediated chemotaxis. Here, I ...


The Immune Checkpoint Molecules Pd-1, Pd-L1, Tim-3 And Lag-3 In Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma, Benjamin J. Chen, Ravi Dashnamoorthy, Pallavi Galera, Vladislav Makarenko, Hong Chang, Srimoyee Ghosh, Andrew M. Evens Mar 2019

The Immune Checkpoint Molecules Pd-1, Pd-L1, Tim-3 And Lag-3 In Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma, Benjamin J. Chen, Ravi Dashnamoorthy, Pallavi Galera, Vladislav Makarenko, Hong Chang, Srimoyee Ghosh, Andrew M. Evens

Open Access Articles

Signaling through immune checkpoint receptors may lead to T-cell exhaustion and function as immune escape mechanisms in cancer. For diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the mechanistic and prognostic importance of these markers on tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment remains unclear. We determined the immunohistochemical expression of PD-1, PD-L1, TIM-3, and LAG-3 on tumor cells and on tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) among 123 DLBCL patients. TIM-3 showed positive staining on tumor cells in 39% of DLBCL cases and PD-L1 expression was noted in 15% of cases. Both PD-1 and LAG-3 were positive on tumor cells in a minority of DLBCL ...


Development Of A Pd-L1 Pet Imaging Biomarker, Caleb Jack Bridgwater Nov 2018

Development Of A Pd-L1 Pet Imaging Biomarker, Caleb Jack Bridgwater

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Immunotherapy strategies are very promising treatments for cancer patients. Specifically, Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy focusing on the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway shows long-lasting positive results in many cancer patients. Unfortunately, not all the patients can benefit from this highly effective treatment. Hence, there is a great need for predictive biomarkers. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining has been used as a way of predicting patient response, yet shows many problems. For example, IHC utilizes an invasive biopsy and sample fixing, which creates an incomplete and delayed picture of the patient’s biochemistry and the tumor microenvironment, consequently ignoring metastases.

The purpose of this study ...


Generation And Characterization Of Monoclonal Antibodies That Recognize Human And Murine Supervillin Protein Isoforms, Tara C. Smith, Richard G. Saul, Elisabeth R. Barton, Elizabeth J. Luna Oct 2018

Generation And Characterization Of Monoclonal Antibodies That Recognize Human And Murine Supervillin Protein Isoforms, Tara C. Smith, Richard G. Saul, Elisabeth R. Barton, Elizabeth J. Luna

Open Access Articles

Supervillin isoforms have been implicated in cell proliferation, actin filament-based motile processes, vesicle trafficking, and signal transduction. However, an understanding of the roles of these proteins in cancer metastasis and physiological processes has been limited by the difficulty of obtaining specific antibodies against these highly conserved membrane-associated proteins. To facilitate research into the biological functions of supervillin, monoclonal antibodies were generated against the bacterially expressed human supervillin N-terminus. Two chimeric monoclonal antibodies with rabbit Fc domains (clones 1E2/CPTC-SVIL-1; 4A8/CPTC-SVIL-2) and two mouse monoclonal antibodies (clones 5A8/CPTC-SVIL-3; 5G3/CPTC-SVIL-4) were characterized with respect to their binding sites, affinities ...


8th Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium, University Of Texas Md Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association Oct 2018

8th Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium, University Of Texas Md Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association

MD Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium Abstracts

The mission of the Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium (APSS) is to provide a platform for talented postdoctoral fellows throughout the Texas Medical Center to present their work to a wider audience. The MD Anderson Postdoctoral Association convened its inaugural Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium (APSS) on August 4, 2011.

The APSS provides a professional venue for postdoctoral scientists to develop, clarify, and refine their research as a result of formal reviews and critiques of faculty and other postdoctoral scientists. Additionally, attendees discuss current research on a broad range of subjects while promoting academic interactions and enrichment and developing new collaborations.


Strategies Involving The Food-Derived Agent Curcumin To Eliminate Brain Cancer, Sumit Mukherjee Sep 2018

Strategies Involving The Food-Derived Agent Curcumin To Eliminate Brain Cancer, Sumit Mukherjee

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most deadly forms of cancer with a mean 5-year survival rate of ≤5%. We have used the non-invasive strategy of long-term intranasal (IN) delivery of a glioblastoma-directed adduct of curcumin (CC), CC-CD68Ab, into the brain of murine GBM cell line GL261-implanted mice to study the therapeutic effect of CC on GBM remission. The treatment caused GBM tumor remission in 50% of GL261-implanted GBM mice. A similar rescue rate (60%) was also achieved through long-term intraperitoneal (i.p) infusion of a highly bioavailable phosphotidylcholine (PC)-encapsulated formulation of CC, Curcumin Phytosome Meriva (CCP), into the ...


The Rational Design, Synthesis, Characterization, And Biological Evaluation Of Cancer-Targeting Immunostimulatory Peptide-Protein Conjugates And Tripeptides, Keith Smith Aug 2018

The Rational Design, Synthesis, Characterization, And Biological Evaluation Of Cancer-Targeting Immunostimulatory Peptide-Protein Conjugates And Tripeptides, Keith Smith

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

With the advent of cancer immunotherapy and the rise in applications of synthetic biologics, there has been a steady decline in the incidence of cancer. Despite this trend, there is an anticipated 1.7 million new cancer cases with an estimated 610,000 deaths expected by the end of 2018.2 Therefore, the call for continued efforts in creating more effective treatment options are still in high demand. In this thesis, the rational design of a semi-synthetic cancer-targeting immunostimulatory peptide-protein bioconjugate—using N-succinimidyl carbamate chemistry is described. This bio-orthogonal chemistry approach was used to conjugate the synthetic Pep42, cancer-targeting peptide ...


Cip2a Facilitates The G1/S Cell Cycle Transition Via B-Myb In Human Papillomavirus 16 Oncoprotein E6-Expressing Cells, Yonghao Tian, Hanxiang Chen, Lijun Qiao, Wenhao Zhang, Jingyi Zheng, Weiming Zhao, Jason J. Chen, Weifang Zhang Jun 2018

Cip2a Facilitates The G1/S Cell Cycle Transition Via B-Myb In Human Papillomavirus 16 Oncoprotein E6-Expressing Cells, Yonghao Tian, Hanxiang Chen, Lijun Qiao, Wenhao Zhang, Jingyi Zheng, Weiming Zhao, Jason J. Chen, Weifang Zhang

Open Access Articles

Infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs, including HPV-16, HPV-18, HPV-31) plays a central aetiologic role in the development of cervical carcinoma. The transforming properties of HR-HPVs mainly reside in viral oncoproteins E6 and E7. E6 protein degrades the tumour suppressor p53 and abrogates cell cycle checkpoints. Cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) is an oncoprotein that is involved in the carcinogenesis of many human malignancies. Our previous data showed that CIP2A was overexpressed in cervical cancer. However, the regulation of CIP2A by HPV-16E6 remains to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that HPV-16E6 significantly up-regulated CIP2A mRNA and ...


Pd-L1 Is Expressed On Human Platelets And Is Affected By Immune Checkpoint Therapy, Verena Rolfes, Christian Idel, Ralph Pries, Kirstin Plotze-Martin, Jens Habermann, Timo Gemoll, Sabine Bohnet, Eicke Latz, Julika Ribbat-Idel, Bernardo S. Franklin, Barbara Wollenberg Jun 2018

Pd-L1 Is Expressed On Human Platelets And Is Affected By Immune Checkpoint Therapy, Verena Rolfes, Christian Idel, Ralph Pries, Kirstin Plotze-Martin, Jens Habermann, Timo Gemoll, Sabine Bohnet, Eicke Latz, Julika Ribbat-Idel, Bernardo S. Franklin, Barbara Wollenberg

Open Access Articles

Cancer immunotherapy has been revolutionised by drugs that enhance the ability of the immune system to detect and fight tumors. Immune checkpoint therapies that target the programmed death-1 receptor (PD-1), or its ligand (PD-L1) have shown unprecedented rates of durable clinical responses in patients with various cancer types. However, there is still a large fraction of patients that do not respond to checkpoint inhibitors, and the challenge remains to find cellular and molecular cues that could predict which patients would benefit from these therapies. Using a series of qualitative and quantitative methods we show here that PBMCs and platelets from ...


Immunohistochemical Expression And Prognostic Value Of Pd-L1 In Extrapulmonary Small Cell Carcinoma: A Single Institution Experience, Mohammed Salhab, Yazan Migdady, Melanie Donahue, Yiqin Xiong, Karen A. Dresser, William Walsh, Benjamin J. Chen, James Liebmann May 2018

Immunohistochemical Expression And Prognostic Value Of Pd-L1 In Extrapulmonary Small Cell Carcinoma: A Single Institution Experience, Mohammed Salhab, Yazan Migdady, Melanie Donahue, Yiqin Xiong, Karen A. Dresser, William Walsh, Benjamin J. Chen, James Liebmann

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Extrapulmonary small cell carcinomas (ESCC) are rare but aggressive tumors. Relapses are common despite treatment with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Prospective data for treatment of ESCC are lacking; treatment of these cancers usually incorporates lung small cell carcinoma treatment recommendations. Cancer staging remains the most important prognostic factor. Cancer immunotherapy targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway has shown efficacy in multiple tumor types, and could be an appealing treatment strategy for these rare tumors.

METHODS: We investigated PD-L1 expression by immunochemistry (IHC) in ESCCs diagnosed at University of Massachusetts Medical Center, from 1999 to 2016. 34 cases with sufficient material ...


Humanized Mice In Studying Efficacy And Mechanisms Of Pd-1-Targeted Cancer Immunotherapy, Minan Wang, Michael A. Brehm, Dale L. Greiner Mar 2018

Humanized Mice In Studying Efficacy And Mechanisms Of Pd-1-Targeted Cancer Immunotherapy, Minan Wang, Michael A. Brehm, Dale L. Greiner

Open Access Articles

Establishment of an in vivo small animal model of human tumor and human immune system interaction would enable preclinical investigations into the mechanisms underlying cancer immunotherapy. To this end, nonobese diabetic (NOD).Cg- Prkdc(scid)IL2rg(tm1Wjl)/Sz (null; NSG) mice were transplanted with human (h)CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells, which leads to the development of human hematopoietic and immune systems [humanized NSG (HuNSG)]. HuNSG mice received human leukocyte antigen partially matched tumor implants from patient-derived xenografts [PDX; non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), sarcoma, bladder cancer, and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC)] or from a TNBC cell line-derived xenograft ...


Alcohol And Cancer: Mechanisms And Therapies, Anuradha Ratna, Pranoti Mandrekar Aug 2017

Alcohol And Cancer: Mechanisms And Therapies, Anuradha Ratna, Pranoti Mandrekar

Open Access Articles

Several scientific and clinical studies have shown an association between chronic alcohol consumption and the occurrence of cancer in humans. The mechanism for alcohol-induced carcinogenesis has not been fully understood, although plausible events include genotoxic effects of acetaldehyde, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1)-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species, aberrant metabolism of folate and retinoids, increased estrogen, and genetic polymorphisms. Here, we summarize the impact of alcohol drinking on the risk of cancer development and potential underlying molecular mechanisms. The interactions between alcohol abuse, anti-tumor immune response, tumor growth, and metastasis are complex. However, multiple studies have linked the immunosuppressive effects ...


Stromal Fibroblasts Restrain The Rate Of Colon Cancer Progression And Metastasis By Suppressing Regulatory T Cells And Colon Cancer Stem Cells, Changsoo Kwak May 2017

Stromal Fibroblasts Restrain The Rate Of Colon Cancer Progression And Metastasis By Suppressing Regulatory T Cells And Colon Cancer Stem Cells, Changsoo Kwak

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The initiation, progression, and metastasis of tumors involve not only cancer cells, but also the tumor microenvironment, which consists of immune or inflammatory cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and extracellular matrix components (ECM). Fibroblasts are ubiquitous stromal cells that can influence other neighboring cell types through the secretion of chemokines, cytokines, ECM, ECM remodeling enzymes, and other metabolites. Myofibroblasts are a distinct subtype of fibroblasts characterized by expression α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA). These cells are a dominant component of the microenvironment, and a FSP1 and FAP could be a different clone of fibroblasts. Myofibroblasts also have been known to contribute to ...


Hepatocyte-Specific Deletion Of Tristetraprolin Family Of Rna Binding Proteins Result In The Development Of Hepatocellular Carcinomas, Sonika Patial Jan 2017

Hepatocyte-Specific Deletion Of Tristetraprolin Family Of Rna Binding Proteins Result In The Development Of Hepatocellular Carcinomas, Sonika Patial

Hepatobiliary Cancers: Pathobiology and Translational Advances

No abstract provided.


Novel Role Of Prostate Apoptosis Response-4 Tumor Suppressor In B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Mary Kathryn Mckenna Jan 2017

Novel Role Of Prostate Apoptosis Response-4 Tumor Suppressor In B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Mary Kathryn Mckenna

Theses and Dissertations--Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) is defined by the accumulation of clonally expanded CD5+ and CD19+ B lymphocytes in blood and secondary lymphoid organs with impaired apoptotic mechanisms. CLL represents one third of all leukemia cases with an average age of 72 years at diagnosis making it the most common adult leukemia. The Eµ-Tcl1 mouse serves as an excellent model to study the development of CLL as they progress to a CLL like disease by 9-14 months of age, due to overexpression of an oncogene, T cell Leukemia 1(Tcl1), specifically in B cells through the Ig VH promoter and Eµ ...


Can Pancreatic Cancer Be Controlled By Cellular Immunity?, Kirby Robbins, John Harms, Lawrence Mylin Jan 2017

Can Pancreatic Cancer Be Controlled By Cellular Immunity?, Kirby Robbins, John Harms, Lawrence Mylin

Honors Projects and Presentations: Undergraduate

Pancreatic cancer is aggressive and poorly understood with a five-year survival rate of only 9% because most cases are diagnosed at a late stage. Because of ambiguous symptoms, pancreatic cancer is very difficult to detect early, and often when it is finally diagnosed, the cancer has already metastasized or has become too robust to cure. Current treatments are largely ineffective, so there is a great need for a novel approach to targeting this debilitating disease. To determine whether an intracellular peptide target expressed only in pancreatic cancer cells can be utilized to control or eradicate pancreatic cancer tumors by T ...


Effects Of Chromium On Mouse Splenic T Lymphocytes And Effects Of Ethanol Exposure During Early Neurodevelopment On Behaviors In Mice, Lu Dai Jan 2017

Effects Of Chromium On Mouse Splenic T Lymphocytes And Effects Of Ethanol Exposure During Early Neurodevelopment On Behaviors In Mice, Lu Dai

Theses and Dissertations--Toxicology and Cancer Biology

The dissertation consists of three major projects with the focus on the immunotoxicity of chromium and the behavior disorders caused by early ETOH exposure respectively.

Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is widely used in various industrial processes and has been recognized as a carcinogen. As the first line of host defense system, the immune system can be a primary target of Cr(VI). T cell population represents a major arm of the immune system that plays a critical role in host anti-tumor immunity. Dysfunction of T cells compromises host anti-tumor immunity resulting in oncogenesis. Using mouse splenic T cells as an ...


Role Of Cbl-Family Ubiquitin Ligases As Critical Negative Regulators Of T Cell Activation And Functions, Benjamin Goetz Dec 2016

Role Of Cbl-Family Ubiquitin Ligases As Critical Negative Regulators Of T Cell Activation And Functions, Benjamin Goetz

Theses & Dissertations

Adaptive T cell immunity is essential for defense against foreign antigens and immune surveillance against cancer. Tight regulation of T cell activation is required to avoid autoimmunity to self-antigens or protracted inflammation after foreign antigens are cleared. Incomplete or inappropriate stimulation leads to an active shutdown of T cell activation called anergy. The Casitas B-lineage Lymphoma (CBL)-family of ubiquitin ligases (E3s) are essential negative regulators of T cell activation that impinge on thymic selection as well as anergy induction programs. Single gene studies show that CBL is critical during T cell development while CBL-B plays an essential role in ...


Developing A Cr281 Peptide Specific T Lymphocyte Immune Response To Target Pancreatic Cancer Cck2i4sv Receptor, Taylor Hook Dec 2016

Developing A Cr281 Peptide Specific T Lymphocyte Immune Response To Target Pancreatic Cancer Cck2i4sv Receptor, Taylor Hook

Honors Projects and Presentations: Undergraduate

Pancreatic cancer is a debilitating disease with a poor survival rate. There are no effective treatments for pancreatic cancer necessitating research to find new targets for treatment. The basis of this research is to determine whether a novel target located inside of pancreatic cancer cells can be utilized to control or eradicate pancreatic tumors by T cell-based immunity. Gastrin and Cholecystokinin (CCK) are hormones that regulate activity of the gastrointestinal tract.Each can signal via CCK-BR, which normally acts as an on/off switch for pancreatic cells to secrete enzymes and bicarbonate. An altered form of the CCK-B receptor, CCK2i4sv ...


Cd4+ T Cell Regulation Of Immune Responses To The Simian Virus 40 Large Tumor Antigen Is Complex And Involves Multiple Layers Of Coordination Dependent On Immune Conditions, Arielle Raugh, Lawrence Mylin Dec 2016

Cd4+ T Cell Regulation Of Immune Responses To The Simian Virus 40 Large Tumor Antigen Is Complex And Involves Multiple Layers Of Coordination Dependent On Immune Conditions, Arielle Raugh, Lawrence Mylin

Honors Projects and Presentations: Undergraduate

Cytotoxic (CD8+) and Helper (CD4+) T lymphocytes play an important role in the immune detection and destruction of tumors. The induction of Cytotoxic T cell responses by multiple CD8 epitopes located within the Simian Virus 40 Large Tumor Antigen (SV40 T ag) oncoprotein has been well characterized, and we have begun to characterize the role(s) of CD4+ Helper T cells in controlling cellular immune responses to the SV40 T ag. The goal of this study was to characterize the cytokines produced by activated SV40T ag-specific Helper T cells in order to identify subset(s) of Helper T cells that ...


Epstein-Barr Virus Infection Of Mammary Epithelial Cells Promotes Malignant Transformation, Hai Hu, Joyce D. Fingeroth, Gerburg M. Wulf Jul 2016

Epstein-Barr Virus Infection Of Mammary Epithelial Cells Promotes Malignant Transformation, Hai Hu, Joyce D. Fingeroth, Gerburg M. Wulf

Open Access Articles

Whether the human tumor virus, Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), promotes breast cancer remains controversial and a potential mechanism has remained elusive. Here we show that EBV can infect primary mammary epithelial cells (MECs) that express the receptor CD21. EBV infection leads to the expansion of early MEC progenitor cells with a stem cell phenotype, activates MET signaling and enforces a differentiation block. When MECs were implanted as xenografts, EBV infection cooperated with activated Ras and accelerated the formation of breast cancer. Infection in EBV-related tumors was of a latency type II pattern, similar to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). A human gene expression ...


Identification Of Gdf-6 Blocking Antibodies As Anti-Melanoma Therapeutics, Ejemel Monir, Danielle Wisheart, Alec Gramann, Arvind Venkatesan, Mark S. Klempner, Craig J. Ceol, Yang Wang May 2016

Identification Of Gdf-6 Blocking Antibodies As Anti-Melanoma Therapeutics, Ejemel Monir, Danielle Wisheart, Alec Gramann, Arvind Venkatesan, Mark S. Klempner, Craig J. Ceol, Yang Wang

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Through comparative oncogenomic studies and functional analyses, we have identified the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) factor GDF6 as a new melanoma oncogene. The secreted, carboxy-terminal portion of GDF6 is the active form that binds to cell-surface receptors to initiate BMP signaling. Targeted antibodies directed against secreted proteins are a proven therapeutic modality in several diseases.

To develop therapeutic antibodies against the active form of GDF6, we generated a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Due to the high similarity of human and mouse GDF6 proteins, the C-terminal GDF6 protein was expressed as bacterial recombinant protein with fusion tags to enhance immunogenicity. The ...


Defining The Role Of Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 In Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia., Vipul Shukla May 2016

Defining The Role Of Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 In Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia., Vipul Shukla

Theses & Dissertations

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) represents the most common adult leukemia in the Western hemisphere. Despite considerable progress in our current understanding of CLL, this disease remains incurable and the molecular events underlying the complex pathogenesis of CLL are not fully elucidated. Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 (IRF4) belongs to the IRF superfamily of transcription factors that has been shown to play critical roles at multiple stages of B cell development. Interestingly, a Genome Wide Association Study identified Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) mediated IRF4 down regulation, as a major predisposing genetic event during the development of CLL. However, whether low levels of ...


Immunomodulation Of Breast Cancer Cells For Whole Tumor Vaccination, Kristina G. Maxwell May 2016

Immunomodulation Of Breast Cancer Cells For Whole Tumor Vaccination, Kristina G. Maxwell

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Hematogenous metastasis causes 90% of breast cancer-related deaths.Current therapies include chemotherapy and irradiation following surgery. These therapies are very harmful to the human body and do not elicit an anti-tumor immune response. To create a novel therapeutic, an autologous vaccine increasing the immunogenicity of non immunogenic breast cancer cell lines has been proposed.

To create this vaccine, 4T1 mouse mammary breast cancer cells have been selected as the desired cell line to treat. They are non immunogenic and highly invasive. In order to increase their immunogenicity, first projected, was the addition of cytokines to 4T1 cells to increase the ...


Characterizing Monoclonal Antibodies Against The Cholecystokinin 2 Receptor (Cck2r) And A Splice Variant For Use In Pancreatic Cancer Studies, Laura Ritenour May 2016

Characterizing Monoclonal Antibodies Against The Cholecystokinin 2 Receptor (Cck2r) And A Splice Variant For Use In Pancreatic Cancer Studies, Laura Ritenour

Honors Projects and Presentations: Undergraduate

Pancreatic cancer is an extremely aggressive cancer with a five-year survival rate of less than 6%, largely due to the lack of early detection and effective treatment options. A better understanding of the mechanisms leading to malignant transformation is necessary to improve patient outcomes. One known contributor to tumor aggression is the cholecystokinin 2 receptor (CCK2R), a G-protein coupled receptor that binds the gastrointestinal hormones CCK and gastrin. A constitutively-active form of the receptor, the intron 4 splice variant (CCK2i4svR), has also been observed in cancer cells. To facilitate studies of CCK2i4svR, a monoclonal antibody specific to an insertion in ...


Automated Assessment Of Disease Progression In Acute Myeloid Leukemia By Probabilistic Analysis Of Flow Cytometry Data, Bartek Rajwa, Paul K. Wallace, Elizabeth A. Griffiths, Murat Dundar Jan 2016

Automated Assessment Of Disease Progression In Acute Myeloid Leukemia By Probabilistic Analysis Of Flow Cytometry Data, Bartek Rajwa, Paul K. Wallace, Elizabeth A. Griffiths, Murat Dundar

Bindley Publications

Objective: Flow cytometry (FC) is a widely acknowledged technology in diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and has been indispensable in determining progression of the disease. Although FC plays a key role as a post-therapy prognosticator and evaluator of therapeutic efficacy, the manual analysis of cytometry data is a barrier to optimization of reproducibility and objectivity. This study investigates the utility of our recently introduced non-parametric Bayesian framework in accurately predicting the direction of change in disease progression in AML patients using FC data. Methods: The highly flexible non-parametric Bayesian model based on the infinite mixture of infinite Gaussian mixtures ...


Increasing The Stability And Expression Of Green Fluorescent Protein In Pancreatic Cancer Cells For Metastasis Assays, Holly M. Ross, John F. Harms Jan 2016

Increasing The Stability And Expression Of Green Fluorescent Protein In Pancreatic Cancer Cells For Metastasis Assays, Holly M. Ross, John F. Harms

Honors Projects and Presentations: Undergraduate

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States, with only 11% of patients diagnosed with metastatic disease surviving the first year. Even so, few studies exist to characterize the mechanism of metastasis in this highly aggressive form of cancer. Consequently, it is imperative that techniques, such as tagging cells with green fluorescent protein (GFP), are developed to track cancerous cells over the course of their spread. Unfortunately, the existing GFP vector contains a cytomegalovirus promotor, which is readily silenced by cells and decreases the vector’s usefulness for long-term studies in vivo. It was ...


Chronic Inflammation As A Result Of Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Review Of The Literature, Samantha L. Lane May 2015

Chronic Inflammation As A Result Of Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Review Of The Literature, Samantha L. Lane

DePaul Discoveries

Approximately 170 million people are infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide5,6. It is estimated that roughly 80% of those infected suffer from persistent infection with the virus; this persistence of infection is progressive, and over time can lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma7. Chronic inflammation and apoptotic deregulation are both hallmarks of chronic HCV infection, and many molecular pathways are initiated in both the innate and adaptive immune responses during infection with this viral pathogen. The aim of this review was to survey some of the major molecular mechanisms responsible for the induction of chronic ...