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Articles 1 - 18 of 18

Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

Strategies Involving The Food-Derived Agent Curcumin To Eliminate Brain Cancer, Sumit Mukherjee Sep 2018

Strategies Involving The Food-Derived Agent Curcumin To Eliminate Brain Cancer, Sumit Mukherjee

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most deadly forms of cancer with a mean 5-year survival rate of ≤5%. We have used the non-invasive strategy of long-term intranasal (IN) delivery of a glioblastoma-directed adduct of curcumin (CC), CC-CD68Ab, into the brain of murine GBM cell line GL261-implanted mice to study the therapeutic effect of CC on GBM remission. The treatment caused GBM tumor remission in 50% of GL261-implanted GBM mice. A similar rescue rate (60%) was also achieved through long-term intraperitoneal (i.p) infusion of a highly bioavailable phosphotidylcholine (PC)-encapsulated formulation of CC, Curcumin Phytosome Meriva (CCP), into the ...


Stromal Fibroblasts Restrain The Rate Of Colon Cancer Progression And Metastasis By Suppressing Regulatory T Cells And Colon Cancer Stem Cells, Changsoo Kwak May 2017

Stromal Fibroblasts Restrain The Rate Of Colon Cancer Progression And Metastasis By Suppressing Regulatory T Cells And Colon Cancer Stem Cells, Changsoo Kwak

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The initiation, progression, and metastasis of tumors involve not only cancer cells, but also the tumor microenvironment, which consists of immune or inflammatory cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and extracellular matrix components (ECM). Fibroblasts are ubiquitous stromal cells that can influence other neighboring cell types through the secretion of chemokines, cytokines, ECM, ECM remodeling enzymes, and other metabolites. Myofibroblasts are a distinct subtype of fibroblasts characterized by expression α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA). These cells are a dominant component of the microenvironment, and a FSP1 and FAP could be a different clone of fibroblasts. Myofibroblasts also have been known to contribute to ...


Effects Of Chromium On Mouse Splenic T Lymphocytes And Effects Of Ethanol Exposure During Early Neurodevelopment On Behaviors In Mice, Lu Dai Jan 2017

Effects Of Chromium On Mouse Splenic T Lymphocytes And Effects Of Ethanol Exposure During Early Neurodevelopment On Behaviors In Mice, Lu Dai

Theses and Dissertations--Toxicology and Cancer Biology

The dissertation consists of three major projects with the focus on the immunotoxicity of chromium and the behavior disorders caused by early ETOH exposure respectively.

Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is widely used in various industrial processes and has been recognized as a carcinogen. As the first line of host defense system, the immune system can be a primary target of Cr(VI). T cell population represents a major arm of the immune system that plays a critical role in host anti-tumor immunity. Dysfunction of T cells compromises host anti-tumor immunity resulting in oncogenesis. Using mouse splenic T cells as an ...


Immunomodulation Of Breast Cancer Cells For Whole Tumor Vaccination, Kristina G. Maxwell May 2016

Immunomodulation Of Breast Cancer Cells For Whole Tumor Vaccination, Kristina G. Maxwell

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Hematogenous metastasis causes 90% of breast cancer-related deaths.Current therapies include chemotherapy and irradiation following surgery. These therapies are very harmful to the human body and do not elicit an anti-tumor immune response. To create a novel therapeutic, an autologous vaccine increasing the immunogenicity of non immunogenic breast cancer cell lines has been proposed.

To create this vaccine, 4T1 mouse mammary breast cancer cells have been selected as the desired cell line to treat. They are non immunogenic and highly invasive. In order to increase their immunogenicity, first projected, was the addition of cytokines to 4T1 cells to increase the ...


Immunotherapy Of Cancer: Reprogramming Tumor/Immune Cellular Crosstalk To Improve Anti-Tumor Efficacy, Kyle K. Payne Jan 2015

Immunotherapy Of Cancer: Reprogramming Tumor/Immune Cellular Crosstalk To Improve Anti-Tumor Efficacy, Kyle K. Payne

Theses and Dissertations

Immunotherapy of cancer has been shown to be promising in prolonging patient survival. However, complete elimination of cancer and life-long relapse-free survival remain to be major challenge for anti-cancer therapeutics. We have previously reported that ex vivo reprogramming of tumor-sensitized immune cells by bryostatin 1/ionomycin (B/I) and the gamma-chain (γ-c) cytokines IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15 resulted in the generation of memory T cells as well as CD25+ NKT cells and CD25+ NK cells. Adoptive cellular therapy (ACT) utilizing these reprogrammed immune cells protected FVBN202 mice from tumor challenge, and overcame the suppressive functions of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs ...


Tattletales And T-Bow Update 20141018, George Mcnamara Oct 2014

Tattletales And T-Bow Update 20141018, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Tattletales and T-Bow Update 20141018

http://0-works.bepress.com.library.simmons.edu/gmcnamara/63

Tattletales is my concept to multiplex fluorescent protein biosensors ("Tattletales", which is also the overall concept name) and multicolor FP reporters ("T-Bow" for Rainbow T-cells and tumor cells) to study the physiology of live cells.

These are based on:

1. LacI-GFP :: LacO operator synthetic tandem repeat array (Robinett et al 1996 JCB, Fig 4A, http://jcb.rupress.org/content/135/6/1685.full.pdf )

2. the plethora of fluorescent protein biosensors - see page 1 of this "63" download site.

3. the many colors, and combinations of colors (CY11.5 ...


Tattletales And T-Bow Update 20140602mon, George Mcnamara Jun 2014

Tattletales And T-Bow Update 20140602mon, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Tattletales and T-Bow Update 20140602Mon

http://0-works.bepress.com.library.simmons.edu/gmcnamara/42

Please see also http://0-works.bepress.com.library.simmons.edu/gmcnamara/26

Tattletales: multiplex fluorescent protein biosensors by spatial localization with TALE-FPs, Cas9-FPs, ZF-FPs, LacI-FPs, TetR-FPs, etc.

T-Bow: Rainbow T-cells and Tumor cells (and ES cells, iPS cells, other cells and organisms). You can think of this as "Brainbow meets TALENs/Cas9/ZFNs/other DNA sequence specific binding proteins".

If not familiar with Brainbow, see

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brainbow

If not familiar with TALENs, Cas9, etc, see

http://www.addgene.org/genome_engineering/

Big idea: localizing fluorescent proteins - and/or Nano-Lanterns ...


Car-Modified T Cells Capable Of Distinguishing Normal Cells From Malignant Cells, Hillary G. Caruso May 2014

Car-Modified T Cells Capable Of Distinguishing Normal Cells From Malignant Cells, Hillary G. Caruso

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

T cells can be redirected to target tumor-associated antigen (TAA) by genetic modification to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), which fuses the specificity derived from an antibody to T-cell activation domains to result in lysis of TAA-expressing cells. Due to the potential for on-target, off-tissue toxicity, CAR+ T-cell therapy is currently limited to unique or lineage-restricted TAAs. Glioblastoma, a grade IV brain malignancy, overexpresses epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in 40-50% of patients. EGFR also has widespread normal tissue expression. To target EGFR on glioblastoma while reducing the potential for normal tissue toxicity, EGFR-specific CAR generated from cetuximab, Cetux-CAR ...


Modeling The Adaptive Immune Response To Mutation-Generated Antigens, Rory J. Geyer May 2014

Modeling The Adaptive Immune Response To Mutation-Generated Antigens, Rory J. Geyer

University Scholar Projects

Somatic mutations may drive tumorigenesis or lead to new, immunogenic epitopes (neoantigens). The immune system is thought to represses neoplastic growths through the recognition of neoantigens presented only by tumor cells. To study mutations as well as the immune response to mutation-generated antigens, we have created a conditional knockin mouse line with a gene encoding, 5’ to 3’, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), ovalbumin (which is processed to the immunologically recognizable peptide, SIINFEKL), and cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), or, YFP-ovalbumin-CFP. A frame shift mutation has been created at the 5’ end of the ovalbumin gene, hence YFP should always be expressed ...


Modeling The Adaptive Immune Response To Mutation-Generated Antigens, Rory J. Geyer May 2014

Modeling The Adaptive Immune Response To Mutation-Generated Antigens, Rory J. Geyer

Honors Scholar Theses

Somatic mutations may drive tumorigenesis or lead to new, immunogenic epitopes (neoantigens). The immune system is thought to represses neoplastic growths through the recognition of neoantigens presented only by tumor cells. To study mutations as well as the immune response to mutation-generated antigens, we have created a conditional knockin mouse line with a gene encoding, 5’ to 3’, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), ovalbumin (which is processed to the immunologically recognizable peptide, SIINFEKL), and cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), or, YFP-ovalbumin-CFP. A frame shift mutation has been created at the 5’ end of the ovalbumin gene, hence YFP should always be expressed ...


The Effect Of Small Molecule 390 On Cxcr4 Receptors, Selam B. Zenebe-Gete '14, Shruti R. Topudurti '14, Shum Andrew, Richard J. Miller May 2014

The Effect Of Small Molecule 390 On Cxcr4 Receptors, Selam B. Zenebe-Gete '14, Shruti R. Topudurti '14, Shum Andrew, Richard J. Miller

Student Publications & Research

CXCR4 is the chemokine receptor which aids in chemotaxis of stem cells, such as those in the bone marrow or the brain. SDF-1 is the natural ligand for the CXCR4 receptor. Similarities between novel molecule 390 synthesized by the Miller Lab and SDF-1 make this novel small molecule a possible agonist of the CXCR4 receptor. To determine whether 390 is an agonist to the CXCR4 receptor, we transfected cells with CXCR4 and exposed them to no agonist [vehicle control], SDF-1, or varying concentrations of our agonist drug. Next, we took calcium images using the dye fura-2, which indicates changes in ...


The Effect Of Lactic Acid On Mast Cell Function, Andrew J. Spence Jan 2014

The Effect Of Lactic Acid On Mast Cell Function, Andrew J. Spence

Theses and Dissertations

This study shows for the first time the effect that L-(+)-lactic acid has on mast cell activation. Lactic acid is a byproduct of anaerobic glycolysis and is associated with inflammatory environments such as wounds, tumors and, asthma. In this study, pre-treatment with lactic acid altered cytokine production by bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC). Specifically, lactic acid enhanced cytokine secretion following IgE cross-linking, but decreased IL-33 mediated cytokine production. These effects were altered by genetic background, since C57BL/6 mast cells demonstrated the aforementioned result, but lactic acid had no effect on IgE-mediated cytokine production in 129/SvJ mast cells ...


Characterization Of Differentiation And Prognostic Biomarkers On Cd8+ Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes In Metastatic Melanoma, Richard C. Wu May 2013

Characterization Of Differentiation And Prognostic Biomarkers On Cd8+ Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes In Metastatic Melanoma, Richard C. Wu

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) frequently infiltrate tumors, yet most melanoma patients fail to undergo tumor regression. We studied the differentiation of the CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) from 44 metastatic melanoma patients using known T-cell differentiation markers. We also compared CD8+ TIL against the T cells from matched melanoma patients’ peripheral blood. We discovered a novel subset of CD8+ TIL co-expressing early-differentiation markers, CD27, CD28, and a late/senescent CTL differentiation marker, CD57. This CD8+CD57+ TIL expressed a cytolytic enzyme, granzyme B (GB), yet did not express another cytolytic pore-forming molecule, perforin (Perf). In contrast, the CD8+CD57+ T ...


Investigating The Mechanism Of Nur77-Induced Apoptosis In T Cells, Heather E. Fogarty Jan 2012

Investigating The Mechanism Of Nur77-Induced Apoptosis In T Cells, Heather E. Fogarty

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Nur77 is a member of the orphan nuclear receptor family, where it is known to play an important role in apoptosis in both negative selection in T cells and in cancer cell lines. In the development of T cells, it is critical for the immune system to discriminate self from non-self by eliminating auto-reactive cells. It was originally thought that Nur77 initiated apoptosis by activating downstream gene targets. However, it is now clear that Nur77 has its own distinct role outside of the nucleus and the precise mechanisms by which Nur77 induces apoptosis in T cells still needs to be ...


Enforced Expression Of Tbx1 In Fetal Thymic Epithelial Cells Antagonizes Thymus Organogenesis, Kim T. Cardenas Aug 2011

Enforced Expression Of Tbx1 In Fetal Thymic Epithelial Cells Antagonizes Thymus Organogenesis, Kim T. Cardenas

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Enforced expression of Tbx1 in fetal thymic epithelial cells antagonizes

thymus organogenesis

Kim T. Cardenas

The thymus and parathyroid glands originate from organ-specific domains of 3rd pharyngeal pouch (PP) endoderm. At embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5), the ventral thymus and dorsal parathyroid domains can be identified by Foxn1 and Gcm2 expression respectively. Neural crest cells, (NCCs) play a role in regulating patterning of 3rd PP endoderm. In addition, pharyngeal endoderm influences fate determination via secretion of Sonic hedgehog (Shh), a morphogen required for Gcm2 expression and generation of the parathyroid domain. Gcm2 is a downstream target of the transcription ...


Functions Of Dna Damage Response Factors In Lymphocyte Development And Transformation, Bu Yin May 2010

Functions Of Dna Damage Response Factors In Lymphocyte Development And Transformation, Bu Yin

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) can activate cell cycle checkpoints or apoptosis, and lead to genomic alterations that drive malignant transformation. The H2AX core histone variant is phosphorylated in chromatin around DSBs by kinases such as ATM and DNA-PKcs. However, how H2AX suppresses chromosome breaks and translocations in cells and prevents tumorigenesis in mice and humans is not well understood. V(D)J recombination is a genetically programmed DNA damage and repair process that assembles the variable region exons of antigen receptor genes in developing lymphocytes. Using an inducible V(D)J recombination system, I found that H2AX is phosphorylated ...


Isolation Of Resident Mammary Macrophages And Their Possible Role In Breast Cancer, Scott Smith Apr 1996

Isolation Of Resident Mammary Macrophages And Their Possible Role In Breast Cancer, Scott Smith

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

A novel tissue digestion and culture technique was used to enrich for macrophages and isolate cells from reduction mammoplasty and non-cancerous mastectomy tissue obtained from pre- and postmenopausal women. The effectiveness of the isolation procedure was tested with immunohistochemical techniques which characterized cells for the following proteins: CD 68 and Ham 56 (known markers of macrophage cells); keratin; and smooth muscle actin. The results of the immunohistochemistry verified the presence of macrophages in the cultures. Cell cultures were also tested for macrophage biological activity which was measured by the release of oxygen free radicals. Also studied was whether this response ...


Characterization By Flow Cytometry And Fluorescence Microscopy Of A Novel P34 Kd Proliferation-Associated Antigen On The Surface Membrane Of Normal And Leukemic Human Leukocytes, Kerrie Barrett Apr 1991

Characterization By Flow Cytometry And Fluorescence Microscopy Of A Novel P34 Kd Proliferation-Associated Antigen On The Surface Membrane Of Normal And Leukemic Human Leukocytes, Kerrie Barrett

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) that recognize different surface membrane antigens have proven useful in classifying human leukocytes as different subsets. A recently developed murine MoAb 53.6 (IgG2a), raised against the HEL human erythroleukemia cell line has been shown to identify a p34 kDa surface membrane antigen that is associated with cell proliferation. The p34 kDa antigen is a non-glycosylated acid polypeptide whose structural gene is encoded on human chromosome 11. Moreover, the p34 kDa antigen is expressed on different human hematopoietic cell lines that represent leukemic leukocyte subsets of T cells, B cells, and myelomonocytic cells that are in different ...