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Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

9th Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium, University Of Texas Md Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association Sep 2019

9th Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium, University Of Texas Md Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association

MD Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium Abstracts

The mission of the Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium (APSS) is to provide a platform for talented postdoctoral fellows throughout the Texas Medical Center to present their work to a wider audience. The MD Anderson Postdoctoral Association convened its inaugural Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium (APSS) on August 4, 2011.

The APSS provides a professional venue for postdoctoral scientists to develop, clarify, and refine their research as a result of formal reviews and critiques of faculty and other postdoctoral scientists. Additionally, attendees discuss current research on a broad range of subjects while promoting academic interactions and enrichment and developing new collaborations.


Pathognomonic And Epistatic Genetic Alterations In B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Man Chun John Ma, Benjamin J. Chen, Michael R. Green Jun 2019

Pathognomonic And Epistatic Genetic Alterations In B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Man Chun John Ma, Benjamin J. Chen, Michael R. Green

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) encompasses multiple clinically and phenotypically distinct subtypes of malignancy with unique molecular etiologies. Common subtypes of B-NHL such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have been comprehensively interrogated at the genomic level, but other less common subtypes such as mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) remain sparsely characterized. Furthermore, multiple B-NHL subtypes have thus far not been comprehensively compared to identify conserved or subtype-specific patterns of genomic alterations. Here, we employed a large targeted hybrid-capture sequencing approach encompassing 380 genes to interrogate the genomic landscapes of 755 B-NHL tumors at high depth; primarily including DLBCL, MCL, follicular lymphoma ...


Establishment Of Crispr/Cas-9 Aided Knockout Of The Zic2 Gene In The African-American Prostate Cancer Cell Line E006aa-Pr, Janelle Moore May 2019

Establishment Of Crispr/Cas-9 Aided Knockout Of The Zic2 Gene In The African-American Prostate Cancer Cell Line E006aa-Pr, Janelle Moore

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

The largest U.S. cancer health disparity exists in prostate cancer, with African American men having the highest incidence and mortality rates. The present study evaluated the effects of ZIC2 and the underlying mechanisms in the E006 parental African-American cell line that produces tumors at accelerated growth rates because of the increase of ZIC2 genes in African-American males. We analyzed the experimental research that the overexpression of ZIC2 contributes to progression of prostate cancer. E006AA cells with overexpressed or suppressed ZIC2 were analyzed to determine phenotypic differences, PCR, cell proliferation and immunoblot assays. The expression levels of ZIC2 were analyzed ...


Circulating Micrornas Mir-331 And Mir-195 Differentiate Local Luminal A From Metastatic Breast Cancer, Peter Mcanena, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Catherine Curran, K. Gilligan, Jane E. Freedman, James A. L. Brown, Michael J. Kerin May 2019

Circulating Micrornas Mir-331 And Mir-195 Differentiate Local Luminal A From Metastatic Breast Cancer, Peter Mcanena, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Catherine Curran, K. Gilligan, Jane E. Freedman, James A. L. Brown, Michael J. Kerin

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer related death in women, with metastasis the principle cause of mortality. New non-invasive prognostic markers are needed for the early detection of metastasis, facilitating treatment decision optimisation. MicroRNA (miRNA) are small, non-coding RNAs regulating gene expression and involved in many cellular processes, including metastasis. As biomarkers, circulating miRNAs (in blood) hold great promise for informing diagnosis or monitoring treatment responses.

METHODS: Plasma extracted RNA from age matched local Luminal A (n = 4) or metastatic disease (n = 4) were profiled using Next Generation Sequencing. Selected differentially expressed miRNA were validated on a ...


Notch Inhibitors And The Bet Inhibitor Jq-1 Decrease The Growth Of Primary Tumor Cells Derived From A Novel Mouse Model Of C11orf95-Rela Induced Brain Tumor, Ericka Randazzo, Jesse Dunnack, Justin Fang, Joseph Loturco Phd May 2019

Notch Inhibitors And The Bet Inhibitor Jq-1 Decrease The Growth Of Primary Tumor Cells Derived From A Novel Mouse Model Of C11orf95-Rela Induced Brain Tumor, Ericka Randazzo, Jesse Dunnack, Justin Fang, Joseph Loturco Phd

University Scholar Projects

Brain tumors are the most common childhood solid malignancy, and because of remarkable advances in treating many cancers outside of the brain, they have become the leading cause of cancer mortality in children. Ependymomas are a class of brain tumors which can be further subdivided into three groups based upon their location and genetic features. Of the three classes, supratentorial ependymomas are the only subgroup known to be marked by an oncogenic driver gene, which consists of a fusion mutation between the C11orf95 and RELA genes. C11orf95-RELA positive tumors are the most aggressive and lethal of ...


Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: A Case Study Correlating Cytogenetic Abnormality With Prognosis, Alyssa Lamond, Theresa Tellier-Castellone May 2019

Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: A Case Study Correlating Cytogenetic Abnormality With Prognosis, Alyssa Lamond, Theresa Tellier-Castellone

Senior Honors Projects

Advancements in medical technology today have positively impacted the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of cancers. Particularly acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has completely improved from having the poorest prognosis to one of the best. Acute promyelocytic leukemia is a malignant disease of hematopoietic tissue classified by WHO as leukemia with >20% blasts from the myeloid lineage, specifically promyelocytes. Determined in 1976, FAB classified AML subtypes M1-M7, with APL being M3. Specific characteristics classify the subtype of AML, with each resulting from a different genetic abnormality. The focus of APL diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis occurs around the known PML-RARα fusion gene. Flow ...


Crispr-Sonic: Targeted Somatic Oncogene Knock-In Enables Rapid In Vivo Cancer Modeling, Haiwei Mou, Deniz M. Ozata, Jordan L. Smith, Ankur Sheel, Suet-Yan Kwan, Soren Hough, Alper Kucukural, Zachary Kennedy, Yueying Cao, Wen Xue Apr 2019

Crispr-Sonic: Targeted Somatic Oncogene Knock-In Enables Rapid In Vivo Cancer Modeling, Haiwei Mou, Deniz M. Ozata, Jordan L. Smith, Ankur Sheel, Suet-Yan Kwan, Soren Hough, Alper Kucukural, Zachary Kennedy, Yueying Cao, Wen Xue

RNA Therapeutics Institute Publications

CRISPR/Cas9 has revolutionized cancer mouse models. Although loss-of-function genetics by CRISPR/Cas9 is well-established, generating gain-of-function alleles in somatic cancer models is still challenging because of the low efficiency of gene knock-in. Here we developed CRISPR-based Somatic Oncogene kNock-In for Cancer Modeling (CRISPR-SONIC), a method for rapid in vivo cancer modeling using homology-independent repair to integrate oncogenes at a targeted genomic locus. Using a dual guide RNA strategy, we integrated a plasmid donor in the 3'-UTR of mouse beta-actin, allowing co-expression of reporter genes or oncogenes from the beta-actin promoter. We showed that knock-in of oncogenic Ras and ...


Unified Methods For Feature Selection In Large-Scale Genomic Studies With Censored Survival Outcomes, Lauren Spirko-Burns, Karthik Devarajan Mar 2019

Unified Methods For Feature Selection In Large-Scale Genomic Studies With Censored Survival Outcomes, Lauren Spirko-Burns, Karthik Devarajan

COBRA Preprint Series

One of the major goals in large-scale genomic studies is to identify genes with a prognostic impact on time-to-event outcomes which provide insight into the disease's process. With rapid developments in high-throughput genomic technologies in the past two decades, the scientific community is able to monitor the expression levels of tens of thousands of genes and proteins resulting in enormous data sets where the number of genomic features is far greater than the number of subjects. Methods based on univariate Cox regression are often used to select genomic features related to survival outcome; however, the Cox model assumes proportional ...


Supervised Dimension Reduction For Large-Scale "Omics" Data With Censored Survival Outcomes Under Possible Non-Proportional Hazards, Lauren Spirko-Burns, Karthik Devarajan Mar 2019

Supervised Dimension Reduction For Large-Scale "Omics" Data With Censored Survival Outcomes Under Possible Non-Proportional Hazards, Lauren Spirko-Burns, Karthik Devarajan

COBRA Preprint Series

The past two decades have witnessed significant advances in high-throughput ``omics" technologies such as genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics and radiomics. These technologies have enabled simultaneous measurement of the expression levels of tens of thousands of features from individual patient samples and have generated enormous amounts of data that require analysis and interpretation. One specific area of interest has been in studying the relationship between these features and patient outcomes, such as overall and recurrence-free survival, with the goal of developing a predictive ``omics" profile. Large-scale studies often suffer from the presence of a large fraction of censored observations and potential ...


Epigenetic Regulators Rbbp4 And Hdac1 Are Overexpressed In A Zebrafish Model Of Rb1 Embryonal Brain Tumor, And Are Required For Neural Progenitor Survival And Proliferation, Laura E. Schultz, Jeffrey A. Haltom, Maira P. Almeida, Wesley A. Wierson, Staci L. Solin, Trevor J. Weiss, Jordan A. Helmer, Elizabeth J. Sandquist, Heather R. Shive, Maura Mcgrail Jan 2019

Epigenetic Regulators Rbbp4 And Hdac1 Are Overexpressed In A Zebrafish Model Of Rb1 Embryonal Brain Tumor, And Are Required For Neural Progenitor Survival And Proliferation, Laura E. Schultz, Jeffrey A. Haltom, Maira P. Almeida, Wesley A. Wierson, Staci L. Solin, Trevor J. Weiss, Jordan A. Helmer, Elizabeth J. Sandquist, Heather R. Shive, Maura Mcgrail

Maura McGrail

In this study, we used comparative genomics and developmental genetics to identify epigenetic regulators driving oncogenesis in a zebrafish retinoblastoma 1 (rb1) somatic-targeting model of RB1 mutant embryonal brain tumors. Zebrafish rb1 brain tumors caused by TALEN or CRISPR targeting are histologically similar to human central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors (CNS-PNETs). Like the human oligoneural OLIG2+/SOX10+ CNS-PNET subtype, zebrafish rb1 tumors show elevated expression of neural progenitor transcription factors olig2, sox10, sox8b and the receptor tyrosine kinase erbb3a oncogene. Comparison of rb1 tumor and rb1/rb1 germline mutant larval transcriptomes shows that the altered oligoneural precursor signature is ...


Characterization Of A Basement Membrane Associated Protein Encoding Gene In Drosophila Melanogaster, Aref Ranjbar, Ajay Srivastava Nov 2018

Characterization Of A Basement Membrane Associated Protein Encoding Gene In Drosophila Melanogaster, Aref Ranjbar, Ajay Srivastava

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Title: Characterization of a Basement Membrane Associated Protein Encoding Gene in Drosophila melanogaster

Authors: Aref Ranjbar, Mayank Kapadia, Ajay Srivastava, PhD(faculty member, mentor)

Basement Membranes (BM) are important for normal development and tumor progression. In order to get a better understanding of BM dynamics we identified genes that encoded BM interacting proteins. One such gene is predicted to be involved in vesicle-mediated transport in Drosophila melanogaster. Here we characterize this gene by utilizing molecular biology techniques like immunohistochemistry, RNA in situ hybridization, and Western blot analysis utilizing antibodies generated in the laboratory. Western blot analysis identified this protein to ...


Rare Gene Fusion Rearrangement Sptnb1-Pdgfrb In An Atypical Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Vanessa Fiorini Furtado, Neeraj Y. Saini, William V. Walsh, Venu G. Bathini, Patricia M. Miron Oct 2018

Rare Gene Fusion Rearrangement Sptnb1-Pdgfrb In An Atypical Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Vanessa Fiorini Furtado, Neeraj Y. Saini, William V. Walsh, Venu G. Bathini, Patricia M. Miron

Open Access Articles

The 2016 revision to the World Health Organization classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia recognizes a distinct class of myeloid and lymphoid tumors with eosinophilia-related proliferations associated with specific gene rearrangements, one of which involves rearrangements of platelet-derived growth factor receptor B (PDGFRB) gene. We report a case of a rare PDGFRB rearrangement with SPTNB1 (spectrin beta, nonerythrocytic 1) that presented as atypical myeloproliferative neoplasm.


Genome-Wide Screening Identifies Genes And Biological Processes Implicated In Chemoresistance And Oncogene-Induced Apoptosis, Tengyu Ko Oct 2018

Genome-Wide Screening Identifies Genes And Biological Processes Implicated In Chemoresistance And Oncogene-Induced Apoptosis, Tengyu Ko

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Anti-proliferative responses such as senescence and apoptosis are often used by normal cells to combat oncogenic insults and to prevent tumorigenesis. However, oncogenic mutations are frequently found in cancers, suggesting that additional mutations may occur to facilitate the bypass of these anti-proliferative responses. It is believed that some of these additional mutations may also contribute to the chemoresistance of cancers. This dissertation focused on identifying novel genes and biological processes implicated in chemoresistance and tumorigenesis.

Cisplatin-based chemotherapeutic regimens are frequently used for treatments of solid tumors. However, tumor cells may have inherent or acquired resistance to cisplatin, and the underlying ...


8th Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium, University Of Texas Md Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association Oct 2018

8th Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium, University Of Texas Md Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association

MD Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium Abstracts

The mission of the Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium (APSS) is to provide a platform for talented postdoctoral fellows throughout the Texas Medical Center to present their work to a wider audience. The MD Anderson Postdoctoral Association convened its inaugural Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium (APSS) on August 4, 2011.

The APSS provides a professional venue for postdoctoral scientists to develop, clarify, and refine their research as a result of formal reviews and critiques of faculty and other postdoctoral scientists. Additionally, attendees discuss current research on a broad range of subjects while promoting academic interactions and enrichment and developing new collaborations.


Retinoblastoma Binding Protein 4 Maintains Cycling Neural Stem Cells And Prevents Dna Damage And Tp53-Dependent Apoptosis In Rb1 Mutant Neural Progenitors, Laura E. Schultz-Rogers, Maira P. Almeida, Wesley A. Wierson, Marcel Kool, Maura Mcgrail Sep 2018

Retinoblastoma Binding Protein 4 Maintains Cycling Neural Stem Cells And Prevents Dna Damage And Tp53-Dependent Apoptosis In Rb1 Mutant Neural Progenitors, Laura E. Schultz-Rogers, Maira P. Almeida, Wesley A. Wierson, Marcel Kool, Maura Mcgrail

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Retinoblastoma-binding protein 4 (Rbbp4) is a WDR adaptor protein for multiple chromatin remodelers implicated in human oncogenesis. Here we show Rbbp4 is overexpressed in zebrafish rb1-embryonal brain tumors and is upregulated across the spectrum of human embryonal and glial brain cancers. We demonstrate in vivo Rbbp4 is essential for zebrafish neurogenesis and has distinct roles in neural stem and progenitor cells. rbbp4 mutant neural stem cells show delayed cell cycle progression and become hypertrophic. In contrast, rbbp4 mutant neural precursors accumulate extensive DNA damage and undergo programmed cell death that is dependent on Tp53 signaling. Loss of Rbbp4 and disruption ...


Identification Of Susceptibility Pathways For The Role Of Chromosome 15q25.1 In Modifying Lung Cancer Risk, Xuemei Ji, Yohan Bossé, Maria Teresa Landi, Jiang Gui, Xiangjun Xiao, David Qian, Philippe Joubert Joubert, Maxime Lamontagne, Yafang Li, Ivan Gorlov, Mariella De Biasi, Younghun Han, Olga Gorlova, Rayjean J. Hung, Xifeng Wu, James Mckay, Xuchen Zong, Robert Carreras-Torres, David C. Christiani, Neil Caporaso, Mattias Johansson, Geoffrey Liu, Stig E. Bojesen, Loic Le Marchand, Demetrios Albanes, Heike Bickeböller, Melinda C. Aldrich, William S. Bush, Adonina Tardon, Gad Rennert, Susanne M. Arnold Aug 2018

Identification Of Susceptibility Pathways For The Role Of Chromosome 15q25.1 In Modifying Lung Cancer Risk, Xuemei Ji, Yohan Bossé, Maria Teresa Landi, Jiang Gui, Xiangjun Xiao, David Qian, Philippe Joubert Joubert, Maxime Lamontagne, Yafang Li, Ivan Gorlov, Mariella De Biasi, Younghun Han, Olga Gorlova, Rayjean J. Hung, Xifeng Wu, James Mckay, Xuchen Zong, Robert Carreras-Torres, David C. Christiani, Neil Caporaso, Mattias Johansson, Geoffrey Liu, Stig E. Bojesen, Loic Le Marchand, Demetrios Albanes, Heike Bickeböller, Melinda C. Aldrich, William S. Bush, Adonina Tardon, Gad Rennert, Susanne M. Arnold

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified the chromosome 15q25.1 locus as a leading susceptibility region for lung cancer. However, the pathogenic pathways, through which susceptibility SNPs within chromosome 15q25.1 affects lung cancer risk, have not been explored. We analyzed three cohorts with GWAS data consisting 42,901 individuals and lung expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data on 409 individuals to identify and validate the underlying pathways and to investigate the combined effect of genes from the identified susceptibility pathways. The KEGG neuroactive ligand receptor interaction pathway, two Reactome pathways, and 22 Gene Ontology terms were identified and replicated to ...


Tumor-Stroma Interactions Differentially Alter Drug Sensitivity Based On The Origin Of Stromal Cells, Benjamin D. Landry, Thomas Leete, Ryan Richards, Peter Cruz-Gordillo, Hannah R. Schwartz, Megan E. Honeywell, Gary Ren, Alyssa D. Schwartz, Shelly R. Peyton, Michael J. Lee Aug 2018

Tumor-Stroma Interactions Differentially Alter Drug Sensitivity Based On The Origin Of Stromal Cells, Benjamin D. Landry, Thomas Leete, Ryan Richards, Peter Cruz-Gordillo, Hannah R. Schwartz, Megan E. Honeywell, Gary Ren, Alyssa D. Schwartz, Shelly R. Peyton, Michael J. Lee

Program in Systems Biology Publications and Presentations

Due to tumor heterogeneity, most believe that effective treatments should be tailored to the features of an individual tumor or tumor subclass. It is still unclear, however, what information should be considered for optimal disease stratification, and most prior work focuses on tumor genomics. Here, we focus on the tumor microenvironment. Using a large-scale coculture assay optimized to measure drug-induced cell death, we identify tumor-stroma interactions that modulate drug sensitivity. Our data show that the chemo-insensitivity typically associated with aggressive subtypes of breast cancer is not observed if these cells are grown in 2D or 3D monoculture, but is manifested ...


Investigating The Roles Of Tap63 And Tap73 In Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma And Lung Adenocarcinoma, Andrew J. Davis Aug 2018

Investigating The Roles Of Tap63 And Tap73 In Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma And Lung Adenocarcinoma, Andrew J. Davis

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

TP63 and TP73 (which encode p63 and p73, respectively) are highly conserved transcription factors with important roles in development and tissue homeostasis. Similar to their homolog, p53, both p63 and p73 have been shown to mediate tumor suppression in multiple tissue types. Interestingly, however, both genes are expressed as multiple isoforms, which appear to have different and, in many cases, antagonistic functions. Through the use of isoform-specific null alleles of p63 and p73 our lab and others have shown that the full-length N-terminal isoforms of p63 and p73 (referred to as TAp63 and TAp73, respectively) exhibit distinct functions in development ...


Deciphering The Role Of Human Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase 1 (Nat1) In Breast Cancer Cell Metabolism Using A Systems Biology Approach., Samantha Marie Carlisle Aug 2018

Deciphering The Role Of Human Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase 1 (Nat1) In Breast Cancer Cell Metabolism Using A Systems Biology Approach., Samantha Marie Carlisle

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) is a phase II xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme found in almost all tissues. NAT1 can additionally hydrolyze acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) in the absence of an arylamine substrate. NAT1 expression varies inter-individually and is elevated in several cancers including estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancers. Additionally, multiple studies have shown the knockdown of NAT1, by both small molecule inhibition and siRNA methods, in breast cancer cells leads to decreased invasive ability and proliferation and decreased anchorage-independent colony formation. However, the exact mechanism by which NAT1 expression affects cancer risk and progression remains unclear. Additionally, consequences ...


Computational Analysis Of Genomic Variants Affecting Predicted Microrna:Target Interactions In Prostate Cancer., Angélica Paola Hernández Pérez Jul 2018

Computational Analysis Of Genomic Variants Affecting Predicted Microrna:Target Interactions In Prostate Cancer., Angélica Paola Hernández Pérez

KGI Theses and Dissertations

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer of men in the United States and is third only to lung and colon as a cause of cancer death. Clinical behavior of the disease is variable and the combination of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening and Gleason score staging are currently the best available molecular and pathology tools to predict outcomes. Cancer biology research establishes microRNAs (miRNAs) as key molecular components in both normal and pathological states. Thus, elucidating miRNAs perturbed by genomic alterations will expand our understanding of the molecular taxonomy of PCa with the aim to complement current practices in ...


Epigenetic Alterations Mediate Ipsc Normalization Of Dna-Repair Expression And Tnr Stability In Huntington's Disease, Peter A. Mollica, Martina Zamponi, John Reid, Deepak Sharma, Alyson E. White, Roy C. Ogle, Robert D. Bruno, Patrick C. Sachs Jul 2018

Epigenetic Alterations Mediate Ipsc Normalization Of Dna-Repair Expression And Tnr Stability In Huntington's Disease, Peter A. Mollica, Martina Zamponi, John Reid, Deepak Sharma, Alyson E. White, Roy C. Ogle, Robert D. Bruno, Patrick C. Sachs

Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications

Huntington's disease (HD) is a rare autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by a cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) trinucleotide repeat (TNR) expansion within the HTT gene. The mechanisms underlying HD-associated cellular dysfunction in pluripotency and neurodevelopment are poorly understood. We had previously identified downregulation of selected DNA repair genes in HD fibroblasts relative to wild-type fibroblasts, as a result of promoter hypermethylation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that hypomethylation during cellular reprogramming to the induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) state leads to upregulation of DNA repair genes and stabilization of TNRs in HD cells. We sought to determine how the HD TNR ...


Systematic Pan-Cancer Analysis Of Somatic Allele Frequency, Liam Spurr, Muzi Li, Nawaf Alomran, Qianqian Zhang, Paula Restrepo, Mercedeh Movassagh, Chris Trenkov, Nerissa Tunnessen, Tatiyana Apanasovich, Keith A. Crandall, Nathan Edwards, Anelia Horvath May 2018

Systematic Pan-Cancer Analysis Of Somatic Allele Frequency, Liam Spurr, Muzi Li, Nawaf Alomran, Qianqian Zhang, Paula Restrepo, Mercedeh Movassagh, Chris Trenkov, Nerissa Tunnessen, Tatiyana Apanasovich, Keith A. Crandall, Nathan Edwards, Anelia Horvath

Open Access Articles

Imbalanced expression of somatic alleles in cancer can suggest functional and selective features, and can therefore indicate possible driving potential of the underlying genetic variants. To explore the correlation between allele frequency of somatic variants and total gene expression of their harboring gene, we used the unique data set of matched tumor and normal RNA and DNA sequencing data of 5523 distinct single nucleotide variants in 381 individuals across 10 cancer types obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We analyzed the allele frequency in the context of the variant and gene functional features and linked it with changes in ...


Investigating Invasion In Ductal Carcinoma In Situ With Topographical Single Cell Genome Sequencing, Anna Casasent, Anna Casasent May 2018

Investigating Invasion In Ductal Carcinoma In Situ With Topographical Single Cell Genome Sequencing, Anna Casasent, Anna Casasent

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Synchronous Ductal Carcinoma in situ (DCIS-IDC) is an early stage breast cancer invasion in which it is possible to delineate genomic evolution during invasion because of the presence of both in situ and invasive regions within the same sample. While laser capture microdissection studies of DCIS-IDC examined the relationship between the paired in situ (DCIS) and invasive (IDC) regions, these studies were either confounded by bulk tissue or limited to a small set of genes or markers. To overcome these challenges, we developed Topographic Single Cell Sequencing (TSCS), which combines laser-catapulting with single cell DNA sequencing to measure genomic copy ...


Trim24 In Normal & Malignant Hematopoiesis, Justin Shaw May 2018

Trim24 In Normal & Malignant Hematopoiesis, Justin Shaw

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has changed little in the past four decades. For the majority of AML patients, current treatment options include chemotherapy and allogeneic stem cell transplants, which also involves high-dose chemotherapy or radiation treatment. These options have little success in the long-run, as only an estimated 26% of patients survive five years post-diagnosis. In efforts to address this low survival rate, interest has increased for targeting epigenetic pathways in AML. This focus stems from the discovery that AML is frequently driven by blockades on hematopoietic stem cell differentiation, which involves a series of coordinated epigenetic changes ...


Trim24 As An Oncogene In The Mammary Gland, Aundrietta Duncan May 2018

Trim24 As An Oncogene In The Mammary Gland, Aundrietta Duncan

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Despite the many advances made in breast cancer research and treatments, breast cancer remains one of the deadliest diseases plaguing women worldwide. While many findings on genetic mutations and their role in predisposing people to breast cancer have been uncovered, we are just beginning to understand the extent to which epigenetic regulators promote tumorigenic phenotypes, metastasis, and chemotherapeutic resistance. Moreover, new experimental tools offer the ability to address questions we were previously unable to assess. My project takes advantage of a new mouse model to understand the role of a proto-oncogenic, transcriptional co-regulator, TRIM24, in mammary gland development and disease ...


Phosphorylation Impairs Dicer1 Function To Accelerate Aging And Tumorigenesis In Vivo, Neeraj Aryal May 2018

Phosphorylation Impairs Dicer1 Function To Accelerate Aging And Tumorigenesis In Vivo, Neeraj Aryal

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Altered DICER1 protein levels are associated with developmental disorders, infertility, macular degenerative blindness, aging, and cancer in humans. Recently, post-translational regulation of Dicer1 via phosphorylation has been described in C. elegans. Oscillation of Dicer1 phosphorylation to regulate its activity is essential for germ cell development and embryogenesis in worms. These observations led us to posit that Dicer1 protein levels and activity are under tight regulation for normal mammalian homeostasis. To test whether phosphorylation of Dicer1 regulates its activity in mammals, I generated phospho-mimetic knock-in mouse models by replacing Serines 1712 and 1836 with Aspartic acids individually or together (dual phosphorylation ...


Pyruvate Kinase Isoform M2 Influences Autophagy And Related Processes In Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells, Matthew Lin May 2018

Pyruvate Kinase Isoform M2 Influences Autophagy And Related Processes In Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells, Matthew Lin

University Scholar Projects

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of liver cancer that affects ~14 million people in the world. Like all cancers, HCC is a disease that arises from unstinted cellular growth initiated by genetic alterations, metabolic changes, and dysregulation in key cellular pathways. Of interest is the relationship between metabolism and cell proliferation/degradation for therapeutic targeting. Pyruvate kinase M2 is a dimeric, glycolytically inactive isoform of the final enzyme involved in glycolysis, that is often upregulated in cancerous tissue. It is thought that the enzymatic function of PKM2 outside of glycolysis contributes to the biosynthesis of anabolic intermediates ...


Genetic Testing And A Real World Case Of Lynch Syndrome, Paige Montanaro May 2018

Genetic Testing And A Real World Case Of Lynch Syndrome, Paige Montanaro

Senior Honors Projects

In recent years, advancements in genetic testing methods have revolutionized the medical field by enhancing the ability to identify persons with an inherited predisposition to cancer. According to the American Society for Clinical Oncology, individuals should undergo genetic testing when he or she meets the following criteria: the individual demonstrates familial history that indicates a predisposition to certain cancers, the test can be adequately interpreted, and the results will aid in the diagnosis, treatment, or management of the patient or additional family members at risk. Genetic testing can be done on samples of hair, skin, blood, amniotic fluid, or other ...


Identification And Utility Of Dna In Exosomes, Paul Kurywchak May 2018

Identification And Utility Of Dna In Exosomes, Paul Kurywchak

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cancer-associated mortality has been declining for two decades but remains a significant public health problem, especially when patients initially present with advanced disease. Early detection methods have improved survival rates but remain unavailable for a majority of cancers due to a lack of sensitive biomarkers or numerous limitations associated with current diagnosis strategies. Approaches to develop “liquid biopsies” by detecting tumor cells or DNA in the blood have led to several breakthroughs and create the potential for non-invasive, routine assessment of diseases status. However, these biomarkers are rare and currently difficult to isolate, especially in the early stages of disease ...


The Regulation Of Dna Methylation In Mammalian Development And Cancer, Nicolas Veland May 2018

The Regulation Of Dna Methylation In Mammalian Development And Cancer, Nicolas Veland

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic modification in mammals, as it plays important regulatory roles in multiple biological processes, such as gene transcription, maintenance of chromosomal structure and genomic stability, genomic imprinting, retrotransposon silencing, and X-chromosome inactivation. Dysregulation of DNA methylation is associated with various human diseases. For example, cancer cells usually show global hypomethylation and regional hypermenthylation, which have been implicated in genomic instability and tumor suppressor silencing, respectively. Although great progress has been made in elucidating the biological functions of DNA methylation over the last several decades, how DNA methylation patterns and levels are regulated and dysregulated is ...