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Articles 1 - 30 of 96

Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

Unified Methods For Feature Selection In Large-Scale Genomic Studies With Censored Survival Outcomes, Lauren Spirko-Burns, Karthik Devarajan Mar 2019

Unified Methods For Feature Selection In Large-Scale Genomic Studies With Censored Survival Outcomes, Lauren Spirko-Burns, Karthik Devarajan

COBRA Preprint Series

One of the major goals in large-scale genomic studies is to identify genes with a prognostic impact on time-to-event outcomes which provide insight into the disease's process. With rapid developments in high-throughput genomic technologies in the past two decades, the scientific community is able to monitor the expression levels of tens of thousands of genes and proteins resulting in enormous data sets where the number of genomic features is far greater than the number of subjects. Methods based on univariate Cox regression are often used to select genomic features related to survival outcome; however, the Cox model assumes proportional ...


Supervised Dimension Reduction For Large-Scale "Omics" Data With Censored Survival Outcomes Under Possible Non-Proportional Hazards, Lauren Spirko-Burns, Karthik Devarajan Mar 2019

Supervised Dimension Reduction For Large-Scale "Omics" Data With Censored Survival Outcomes Under Possible Non-Proportional Hazards, Lauren Spirko-Burns, Karthik Devarajan

COBRA Preprint Series

The past two decades have witnessed significant advances in high-throughput ``omics" technologies such as genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics and radiomics. These technologies have enabled simultaneous measurement of the expression levels of tens of thousands of features from individual patient samples and have generated enormous amounts of data that require analysis and interpretation. One specific area of interest has been in studying the relationship between these features and patient outcomes, such as overall and recurrence-free survival, with the goal of developing a predictive ``omics" profile. Large-scale studies often suffer from the presence of a large fraction of censored observations and potential ...


Epigenetic Regulators Rbbp4 And Hdac1 Are Overexpressed In A Zebrafish Model Of Rb1 Embryonal Brain Tumor, And Are Required For Neural Progenitor Survival And Proliferation, Laura E. Schultz, Jeffrey A. Haltom, Maira P. Almeida, Wesley A. Wierson, Staci L. Solin, Trevor J. Weiss, Jordan A. Helmer, Elizabeth J. Sandquist, Heather R. Shive, Maura Mcgrail Jan 2019

Epigenetic Regulators Rbbp4 And Hdac1 Are Overexpressed In A Zebrafish Model Of Rb1 Embryonal Brain Tumor, And Are Required For Neural Progenitor Survival And Proliferation, Laura E. Schultz, Jeffrey A. Haltom, Maira P. Almeida, Wesley A. Wierson, Staci L. Solin, Trevor J. Weiss, Jordan A. Helmer, Elizabeth J. Sandquist, Heather R. Shive, Maura Mcgrail

Maura McGrail

In this study, we used comparative genomics and developmental genetics to identify epigenetic regulators driving oncogenesis in a zebrafish retinoblastoma 1 (rb1) somatic-targeting model of RB1 mutant embryonal brain tumors. Zebrafish rb1 brain tumors caused by TALEN or CRISPR targeting are histologically similar to human central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors (CNS-PNETs). Like the human oligoneural OLIG2+/SOX10+ CNS-PNET subtype, zebrafish rb1 tumors show elevated expression of neural progenitor transcription factors olig2, sox10, sox8b and the receptor tyrosine kinase erbb3a oncogene. Comparison of rb1 tumor and rb1/rb1 germline mutant larval transcriptomes shows that the altered oligoneural precursor signature is ...


Characterization Of A Basement Membrane Associated Protein Encoding Gene In Drosophila Melanogaster, Aref Ranjbar, Ajay Srivastava Nov 2018

Characterization Of A Basement Membrane Associated Protein Encoding Gene In Drosophila Melanogaster, Aref Ranjbar, Ajay Srivastava

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Title: Characterization of a Basement Membrane Associated Protein Encoding Gene in Drosophila melanogaster

Authors: Aref Ranjbar, Mayank Kapadia, Ajay Srivastava, PhD(faculty member, mentor)

Basement Membranes (BM) are important for normal development and tumor progression. In order to get a better understanding of BM dynamics we identified genes that encoded BM interacting proteins. One such gene is predicted to be involved in vesicle-mediated transport in Drosophila melanogaster. Here we characterize this gene by utilizing molecular biology techniques like immunohistochemistry, RNA in situ hybridization, and Western blot analysis utilizing antibodies generated in the laboratory. Western blot analysis identified this protein to ...


Epigenetic Alterations Mediate Ipsc Normalization Of Dna-Repair Expression And Tnr Stability In Huntington's Disease, Peter A. Mollica, Martina Zamponi, John Reid, Deepak Sharma, Alyson E. White, Roy C. Ogle, Robert D. Bruno, Patrick C. Sachs Jul 2018

Epigenetic Alterations Mediate Ipsc Normalization Of Dna-Repair Expression And Tnr Stability In Huntington's Disease, Peter A. Mollica, Martina Zamponi, John Reid, Deepak Sharma, Alyson E. White, Roy C. Ogle, Robert D. Bruno, Patrick C. Sachs

Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications

Huntington's disease (HD) is a rare autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by a cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) trinucleotide repeat (TNR) expansion within the HTT gene. The mechanisms underlying HD-associated cellular dysfunction in pluripotency and neurodevelopment are poorly understood. We had previously identified downregulation of selected DNA repair genes in HD fibroblasts relative to wild-type fibroblasts, as a result of promoter hypermethylation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that hypomethylation during cellular reprogramming to the induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) state leads to upregulation of DNA repair genes and stabilization of TNRs in HD cells. We sought to determine how the HD TNR ...


Systematic Pan-Cancer Analysis Of Somatic Allele Frequency, Liam Spurr, Muzi Li, Nawaf Alomran, Qianqian Zhang, Paula Restrepo, Mercedeh Movassagh, Chris Trenkov, Nerissa Tunnessen, Tatiyana Apanasovich, Keith A. Crandall, Nathan Edwards, Anelia Horvath May 2018

Systematic Pan-Cancer Analysis Of Somatic Allele Frequency, Liam Spurr, Muzi Li, Nawaf Alomran, Qianqian Zhang, Paula Restrepo, Mercedeh Movassagh, Chris Trenkov, Nerissa Tunnessen, Tatiyana Apanasovich, Keith A. Crandall, Nathan Edwards, Anelia Horvath

Open Access Articles

Imbalanced expression of somatic alleles in cancer can suggest functional and selective features, and can therefore indicate possible driving potential of the underlying genetic variants. To explore the correlation between allele frequency of somatic variants and total gene expression of their harboring gene, we used the unique data set of matched tumor and normal RNA and DNA sequencing data of 5523 distinct single nucleotide variants in 381 individuals across 10 cancer types obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We analyzed the allele frequency in the context of the variant and gene functional features and linked it with changes in ...


Genetic Testing And A Real World Case Of Lynch Syndrome, Paige Montanaro May 2018

Genetic Testing And A Real World Case Of Lynch Syndrome, Paige Montanaro

Senior Honors Projects

In recent years, advancements in genetic testing methods have revolutionized the medical field by enhancing the ability to identify persons with an inherited predisposition to cancer. According to the American Society for Clinical Oncology, individuals should undergo genetic testing when he or she meets the following criteria: the individual demonstrates familial history that indicates a predisposition to certain cancers, the test can be adequately interpreted, and the results will aid in the diagnosis, treatment, or management of the patient or additional family members at risk. Genetic testing can be done on samples of hair, skin, blood, amniotic fluid, or other ...


Changes In The Proliferation And Gene Expression Of Huvecs In Response To Treatment With Plant Secondary Metabolites, Caleigh Howard Mar 2018

Changes In The Proliferation And Gene Expression Of Huvecs In Response To Treatment With Plant Secondary Metabolites, Caleigh Howard

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Medicinal plants have historically been a valuable source of new drugs, and Southern California possesses a rich collection of native plants which have been used as medicines by native people groups for thousands of years. Angiogenesis is the biological process of new blood-vessel growth from endothelial cells. It is an essential part of the wound-healing process, and increased angiogenesis has also been implicated in the growth of some types of cancerous tumors. In this study, extracts of the Southern Californian native plants Red shanks (Adenostoma sparsifolium) and the alkaloid extract of Jimson weed (Datura wrightii) were tested for their angiogenic ...


Epigenetic Regulators Rbbp4 And Hdac1 Are Overexpressed In A Zebrafish Model Of Rb1 Embryonal Brain Tumor, And Are Required For Neural Progenitor Survival And Proliferation, Laura E. Schultz, Jeffrey A. Haltom, Maira P. Almeida, Wesley A. Wierson, Staci L. Solin, Trevor J. Weiss, Jordan A. Helmer, Elizabeth J. Sandquist, Heather R. Shive, Maura Mcgrail Jan 2018

Epigenetic Regulators Rbbp4 And Hdac1 Are Overexpressed In A Zebrafish Model Of Rb1 Embryonal Brain Tumor, And Are Required For Neural Progenitor Survival And Proliferation, Laura E. Schultz, Jeffrey A. Haltom, Maira P. Almeida, Wesley A. Wierson, Staci L. Solin, Trevor J. Weiss, Jordan A. Helmer, Elizabeth J. Sandquist, Heather R. Shive, Maura Mcgrail

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

In this study, we used comparative genomics and developmental genetics to identify epigenetic regulators driving oncogenesis in a zebrafish retinoblastoma 1 (rb1) somatic-targeting model of RB1 mutant embryonal brain tumors. Zebrafish rb1 brain tumors caused by TALEN or CRISPR targeting are histologically similar to human central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors (CNS-PNETs). Like the human oligoneural OLIG2+/SOX10+ CNS-PNET subtype, zebrafish rb1 tumors show elevated expression of neural progenitor transcription factors olig2, sox10, sox8b and the receptor tyrosine kinase erbb3a oncogene. Comparison of rb1 tumor and rb1/rb1 germline mutant larval transcriptomes shows that the altered oligoneural precursor signature is ...


Studies Of Norspermidine Uptake In Drosophila Suggest The Existence Of Multiple Polyamine Transport Pathways, Michael Dieffenbach Jan 2018

Studies Of Norspermidine Uptake In Drosophila Suggest The Existence Of Multiple Polyamine Transport Pathways, Michael Dieffenbach

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Polyamines are a class of essential nutrients involved in many basic cellular processes such as gene expression, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Without polyamines, cell growth is delayed or halted. Cancerous cells require an abundance of polyamines through a combination of synthesis and transport from the extracellular environment. An FDA-approved drug, D,L-α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), blocks polyamine synthesis but is ineffective at inhibiting cell growth due to polyamine transport. Thus, there is a need to develop drugs that inhibit polyamine transport to use in combination with DFMO. Surprisingly, little is known about the polyamine transport system in humans and other eukaryotes. Understanding ...


Integrative Microrna And Mrna Deep-Sequencing Expression Profiling In Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma, Cliff I. Oduor, Yasin Kaymaz, Kiprotich Chelimo, Juliana A. Otieno, John Michael Ong'echa, Ann M. Moormann, Jeffrey A. Bailey Nov 2017

Integrative Microrna And Mrna Deep-Sequencing Expression Profiling In Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma, Cliff I. Oduor, Yasin Kaymaz, Kiprotich Chelimo, Juliana A. Otieno, John Michael Ong'echa, Ann M. Moormann, Jeffrey A. Bailey

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Supported Publications

BACKGROUND: Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is characterized by overexpression of the c-myc oncogene, which in the vast majority of cases is a consequence of an IGH/MYC translocation. While myc is the seminal event, BL is a complex amalgam of genetic and epigenetic changes causing dysregulation of both coding and non-coding transcripts. Emerging evidence suggest that abnormal modulation of mRNA transcription via miRNAs might be a significant factor in lymphomagenesis. However, the alterations in these miRNAs and their correlations to their putative mRNA targets have not been extensively studied relative to normal germinal center (GC) B cells.

METHODS: Using more sensitive ...


Identification Of Kit As A Suppressor Of Brafv600e-Mutant Melanoma, James V. Neiswender Nov 2017

Identification Of Kit As A Suppressor Of Brafv600e-Mutant Melanoma, James V. Neiswender

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Genetic changes acquired in the pigment producing cells of the skin, called melanocytes, can lead to formation of the deadly cancer melanoma. Mutations or amplifications leading to the activation of the RAS/MAPK pathway occur in more than 90% of melanomas. Melanocyte development and survival requires the stimulation of this pathway by the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) KIT. In ~2% of melanomas, oncogenic KIT mutations drive tumor formation; however, the majority of melanomas lose wild-type KIT expression, suggesting that KIT could suppress melanoma formation. In human melanoma patients of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we found an association between BRAF ...


Comprehensive Genomic Sequencing Detects Important Genetic Differences Between Right-Sided And Left-Sided Colorectal Cancer, Yoshifumi Shimada, Stephen Lyle, Kazuaki Takabe, Toshifumi Wakai Aug 2017

Comprehensive Genomic Sequencing Detects Important Genetic Differences Between Right-Sided And Left-Sided Colorectal Cancer, Yoshifumi Shimada, Stephen Lyle, Kazuaki Takabe, Toshifumi Wakai

Open Access Articles

Objectives: Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy has been found to be more effective against left-sided colorectal cancer (LCRC) than right-sided colorectal cancer (RCRC). We hypothesized that RCRC is more likely to harbor genetic alterations associated with resistance to anti-EGFR therapy and tested this using comprehensive genomic sequencing.

Materials and methods: A total of 201 patients with either primary RCRC or LCRC were analyzed. We investigated tumors for genetic alterations using a 415-gene panel, which included alterations associated with resistance to anti-EGFR therapy: TK receptors (ERBB2, MET, EGFR, FGFR1, and PDGFRA), RAS pathway (KRAS, NRAS, HRAS, BRAF, and MAPK2K1), and ...


The Dlk1-Meg3 Locus In Malignant Cells Of Proposed Primordial Germ Cell Origins., Zachariah Payne Sellers Aug 2017

The Dlk1-Meg3 Locus In Malignant Cells Of Proposed Primordial Germ Cell Origins., Zachariah Payne Sellers

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are hypothesized to deposit hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) along their migration route through the embryo during the early stages of embryogenesis. PGCs also undergo global chromatin remodeling, including the erasure and reestablishment of genomic imprints, during this migration. While PGCs do not spontaneously form teratomas, their malignant development into germ cell tumors (GCTs) in vivo is often accompanied by the retention of hypomethylation at the IGF2-H19 imprinting control differentially methylated region (DMR). Previous studies in bimaternal embryos determined that proper genomic imprinting at two paternally imprinted loci was necessary for their growth and development: Igf2-H19 and ...


Clinical And Experimental Studies Of A Novel P525r Fus Mutation In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Lisha Kuang, Marisa Kamelgarn, Alexandra Arenas, Jozsef Gal, Deborah Taylor, Weiming Gong, Martin Brown, Daret St. Clair, Edward J. Kasarskis, Haining Zhu Aug 2017

Clinical And Experimental Studies Of A Novel P525r Fus Mutation In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Lisha Kuang, Marisa Kamelgarn, Alexandra Arenas, Jozsef Gal, Deborah Taylor, Weiming Gong, Martin Brown, Daret St. Clair, Edward J. Kasarskis, Haining Zhu

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Objective: To describe the clinical features of a novel fused in sarcoma (FUS) mutation in a young adult female amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patient with rapid progression of weakness and to experimentally validate the consequences of the P525R mutation in cellular neuronal models.

Methods: We conducted sequencing of genomic DNA from the index patient and her family members. Immunocytochemistry was performed in various cellular models to determine whether the newly identified P525R mutant FUS protein accumulated in cytoplasmic inclusions. Clinical features of the index patient were compared with 19 other patients with ALS carrying the P525L mutation in the same ...


C-Myc’S Role On Methylation Of The Gata-2 Gene In Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma, Jonathan D. Hajduk Apr 2017

C-Myc’S Role On Methylation Of The Gata-2 Gene In Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma, Jonathan D. Hajduk

Student Scholar Showcase

Lung cancer accounts for more deaths per year than any other form of cancer, resulting in a total of 158,000 deaths per year in the U.S. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is diagnosed in greater than 224,000 Americans every year. Methylation and subsequent downregulation of certain genes has been directly linked to the uncontrolled growth of NSCLC cells. Natural killer (NK) cells are key innate immune cells responsible for apoptosis of cells with incorrect genetic code. It is believed that one component of uncontrolled NSCLC growth is due to the NK cells’ inability to detect errors within ...


Homothorax Is A Modifier Of Radiation Sensitivity In Drosophila Melanogaster Bantam Mutants, Geoffrey Meyerhof Jan 2017

Homothorax Is A Modifier Of Radiation Sensitivity In Drosophila Melanogaster Bantam Mutants, Geoffrey Meyerhof

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Radiation resistance in human cancers represents a massive impediment for successful tumor treatment. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model for human radiation resistance because of its largely conserved apoptotic pathways and malleable genome. This thesis investigates the genetic regulatory mechanisms for bantam (ban), an anti-apoptotic microRNA. To first identify genes that interact with ban, a forward genetic screen was conducted. This screen looked for genes that yielded radiation dependent pupal lethality in a ban deficient background. From this screen the transcription factor, homothorax, was identified as displaying radiation dependent synthetic lethality with ban. To investigate the mechanism ...


Investigating The Essential Roles Of Dprl-1 In Drosophila Melanogaster, Alex Lee Jan 2017

Investigating The Essential Roles Of Dprl-1 In Drosophila Melanogaster, Alex Lee

Summer Research

Phosphatase of Regenerating Liver (PRL) proteins regulate a number of important cellular processes, including cell growth and division. Humans have three PRL proteins: PRL-1, PRL-2, and PRL-3. An accumulation of evidence has shown that elevated levels of PRLs are strongly correlated with uncontrollable growth and metastasis of tumors. However, contradictory findings have arisen indicating that PRLs instead function to halt cell division thereby preventing uncontrollable tumor growth. In light of these results, the underlying mechanisms regarding how PRLs function within cellular processes remains unclear. To investigate the functions of PRLs, we will create transgenic fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) with knockout ...


Genomic Landscape Of Colorectal Cancer In Japan: Clinical Implications Of Comprehensive Genomic Sequencing For Precision Medicine, Masayuki Nagahashi, Toshifumi Wakai, Stephen R. Lyle Dec 2016

Genomic Landscape Of Colorectal Cancer In Japan: Clinical Implications Of Comprehensive Genomic Sequencing For Precision Medicine, Masayuki Nagahashi, Toshifumi Wakai, Stephen R. Lyle

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Comprehensive genomic sequencing (CGS) has the potential to revolutionize precision medicine for cancer patients across the globe. However, to date large-scale genomic sequencing of cancer patients has been limited to Western populations. In order to understand possible ethnic and geographic differences and to explore the broader application of CGS to other populations, we sequenced a panel of 415 important cancer genes to characterize clinically actionable genomic driver events in 201 Japanese patients with colorectal cancer (CRC).

METHODS: Using next-generation sequencing methods, we examined all exons of 415 known cancer genes in Japanese CRC patients (n = 201) and evaluated for ...


Concomitant Targeting Of The Mtor/Mapk Pathways: Novel Therapeutic Strategy In Subsets Of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Dennis Ruder Dec 2016

Concomitant Targeting Of The Mtor/Mapk Pathways: Novel Therapeutic Strategy In Subsets Of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Dennis Ruder

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Over the last decade, a paradigm-shift in lung cancer therapy has evolved into targeted-driven medicinal approaches. However, patients frequently relapse and develop resistance to available therapies. Herein, we utilized genomic mutation data from advanced chemorefractory non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients enrolled in the Biomarker-Integrated Approaches of Targeted Therapy for Lung Cancer Elimination (BATTLE-2) clinical trial to characterize novel actionable genomic alterations potentially of clinical relevance. We identified RICTOR alterations (mutations, amplifications) in 17% of lung adenocarcinomas and found RICTOR expression correlates to worse overall survival. There was enrichment of MAPK pathway genetic aberrations in key oncogenes (e.g. KRAS ...


Melanocortin 1 Receptor: Structure, Function, And Regulation, Erin M. Wolf Horrell, Mary C. Boulanger, John A. D'Orazio May 2016

Melanocortin 1 Receptor: Structure, Function, And Regulation, Erin M. Wolf Horrell, Mary C. Boulanger, John A. D'Orazio

Physiology Faculty Publications

The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) is a melanocytic Gs protein coupled receptor that regulates skin pigmentation, UV responses, and melanoma risk. It is a highly polymorphic gene, and loss of function correlates with a fair, UV-sensitive, and melanoma-prone phenotype due to defective epidermal melanization and sub-optimal DNA repair. MC1R signaling, achieved through adenylyl cyclase activation and generation of the second messenger cAMP, is hormonally controlled by the positive agonist melanocortin, the negative agonist agouti signaling protein, and the neutral antagonist β-defensin 3. Activation of cAMP signaling up-regulates melanin production and deposition in the epidermis which functions to limit UV ...


Recurrent Mutations Of T-Cell Receptor And Co-Stimulatory Signaling Proteins In Peripheral T-Cell Lymphomas, Joseph Rohr May 2016

Recurrent Mutations Of T-Cell Receptor And Co-Stimulatory Signaling Proteins In Peripheral T-Cell Lymphomas, Joseph Rohr

Theses & Dissertations

Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) comprise a heterogeneous group of mature T-cell neoplasms with a poor prognosis. Recently, mutations in TET2 and other epigenetic modifiers as well as RHOA have been identified in these diseases, particularly in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL). CD28 is the major co-stimulatory receptor in T-cells which, upon binding ligand, induces sustained T-cell proliferation and cytokine production when combined with T-cell receptor stimulation, through many signaling molecules including VAV1. This thesis identifies recurrent mutations in CD28 in PTCLs, as well as mutations in VAV1. Two residues of CD28 – D124 and T195 – were recurrently mutated in 11.3% of ...


Defining The Role Of Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 In Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia., Vipul Shukla May 2016

Defining The Role Of Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 In Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia., Vipul Shukla

Theses & Dissertations

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) represents the most common adult leukemia in the Western hemisphere. Despite considerable progress in our current understanding of CLL, this disease remains incurable and the molecular events underlying the complex pathogenesis of CLL are not fully elucidated. Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 (IRF4) belongs to the IRF superfamily of transcription factors that has been shown to play critical roles at multiple stages of B cell development. Interestingly, a Genome Wide Association Study identified Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) mediated IRF4 down regulation, as a major predisposing genetic event during the development of CLL. However, whether low levels of ...


The Adp-Ribose Polymerase Tankyrase Regulates Adult Intestinal Stem Cell Proliferation During Homeostasis In Drosophila, Zhenghan Wang, Ai Tian, Hassina Benchabane, Ofelia Tacchelly-Benites, Eungi Yang, Hisashi Nojima, Yashi Ahmed Mar 2016

The Adp-Ribose Polymerase Tankyrase Regulates Adult Intestinal Stem Cell Proliferation During Homeostasis In Drosophila, Zhenghan Wang, Ai Tian, Hassina Benchabane, Ofelia Tacchelly-Benites, Eungi Yang, Hisashi Nojima, Yashi Ahmed

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Wnt/β-catenin signaling controls intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation, and is aberrantly activated in colorectal cancer. Inhibitors of the ADP-ribose polymerase Tankyrase (Tnks) have become lead therapeutic candidates for Wnt-driven cancers, following the recent discovery that Tnks targets Axin, a negative regulator of Wnt signaling, for proteolysis. Initial reports indicated that Tnks is important for Wnt pathway activation in cultured human cell lines. However, the requirement for Tnks in physiological settings has been less clear, as subsequent studies in mice, fish and flies suggested that Tnks was either entirely dispensable for Wnt-dependent processes in vivo, or alternatively, had tissue-specific roles ...


Molecular Mechanisms Of Squamous Cell Carcinoma Tumor Stem Cell Creation Via High Nitric Oxide (Hno) Adaptation, Niresh T. Kuganeswaran '16, Krishi Korrapati '17, Thomas Wan '16, Timothy Tamas, James A. Radosevich Mar 2016

Molecular Mechanisms Of Squamous Cell Carcinoma Tumor Stem Cell Creation Via High Nitric Oxide (Hno) Adaptation, Niresh T. Kuganeswaran '16, Krishi Korrapati '17, Thomas Wan '16, Timothy Tamas, James A. Radosevich

Student Publications & Research

Cancer relapse or recurrence is defined as the return of cancer or its signs/symptoms after a period of improvement. Surgery may not remove all cancer cells and leave behind a few which cannot be detected by scans or other tests. It is also possible that some tumor cells are resistant to chemotherapy or radiation. Although many cancer cells are killed by these treatments, there may exist a few which contain a different genetic makeup which allows them to survive. These hypermalignant cancer cells, or cancer stem cells (CSCs), have been associated with causing cancer relapse. It has also been ...


Role Of Pseudogenes In Cancer Stem Creation Via High Nitric Oxide (Hno) Adaptation, Krishi Korrapati '17, Niresh T. Kuganeswaran '16, Thomas Wan '16, Timothy Tamas, James A. Radosevich Mar 2016

Role Of Pseudogenes In Cancer Stem Creation Via High Nitric Oxide (Hno) Adaptation, Krishi Korrapati '17, Niresh T. Kuganeswaran '16, Thomas Wan '16, Timothy Tamas, James A. Radosevich

Student Publications & Research

Gene chip analysis of ten HNO adapted cell lines (Squamous cells: SCC-016, SCC-040, SCC-056, SCC-114, SCC-116; Adenocarcinomas: A549, BT20, Hs578, MCF7, and T47D) was carried out. Known pseudogenes were identified in each line, as well as their coding counterparts.

The adenocarcinoma cell lines had no up regulated pseudogenes, while they had the following down regulated pseudogenes: RP6-159A1.2, RP11-255N24.3, AC004490.1, LDHBP, RP11-572H4.2. The squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) had the following up regulated pseudogenes: RPL37AP1, AC138972.1, RP11-641D5.1, AC005534.6, AC022431.1, RPL26P12, and they had these down regulated pseudogenes: RP6-159A1.2, RP11-255N24.3, RBMXP1, RP11-20O23.1 ...


Adducins Are Negative Regulators Of Migration And Invasion Of Normal Lung Epithelial Cells And Lung Cancer Cells, Parth Hitenbhai Amin, Parth Amin Jan 2016

Adducins Are Negative Regulators Of Migration And Invasion Of Normal Lung Epithelial Cells And Lung Cancer Cells, Parth Hitenbhai Amin, Parth Amin

Theses and Dissertations

Cell migration is an important component of many physiological and pathological processes such as tissue and organ morphogenesis during development, wound healing, inflammatory immune response, and tumor metastasis. The actin cytoskeleton is the basic engine driving cell migration. In the present study, we elucidate the role of an important actin interacting proteins, Adducins, in motility of normal lung epithelium and lung cancer cells. Adducins are the family of cytoskeleton protein capping the fast growing end and facilitating the bundling of actin filaments. Adducins are encoded by the three closely related genes namely alpha (ADD1), beta (ADD2) and gamma (ADD3) Adducin ...


Homozygous Knockout Of The Piezo1 Gene In The Zebrafish Is Not Associated With Anemia, Boris E. Shmukler, Nicholas C. Huston, Jonathan N. Thon, Chih-Wen Ni, George Kourkoulis, Nathan D. Lawson, Barry H. Paw, Seth L. Alper Dec 2015

Homozygous Knockout Of The Piezo1 Gene In The Zebrafish Is Not Associated With Anemia, Boris E. Shmukler, Nicholas C. Huston, Jonathan N. Thon, Chih-Wen Ni, George Kourkoulis, Nathan D. Lawson, Barry H. Paw, Seth L. Alper

Molecular, Cell and Cancer Biology Publications

We have now examined the erythroid phenotype in this zebrafish strain carrying a ZFN genomic knockout of piezo1. Genotyping was performed as previously described. In contrast to the anemic phenotype observed in zebrafish subjected to morpholino knockdown of piezo, the genomic ZFN knockout of piezo1 did not segregate either with anemia in the 3-dpf embryo or with dysmorphic erythrocyte morphology in the adult fish.


Three-Dimensional Confocal Microscopy Indentation Method For Hydrogel Elasticity Measurement, Donghee Lee, Md Mahmudur Rahman, You Zhou, Sangjin Ryu Aug 2015

Three-Dimensional Confocal Microscopy Indentation Method For Hydrogel Elasticity Measurement, Donghee Lee, Md Mahmudur Rahman, You Zhou, Sangjin Ryu

Md Mahmudur Rahman

No abstract provided.


Crosstalk Between Brca-Fanconi Anemia And Mismatch Repair Pathways Prevents Msh2-Dependent Aberrant Dna Damage Responses, Min Peng, Jenny X. Xie, Anna J. Ucher, Janet Stavnezer, Sharon B. Cantor Aug 2015

Crosstalk Between Brca-Fanconi Anemia And Mismatch Repair Pathways Prevents Msh2-Dependent Aberrant Dna Damage Responses, Min Peng, Jenny X. Xie, Anna J. Ucher, Janet Stavnezer, Sharon B. Cantor

Janet M. Stavnezer

Several proteins in the BRCA-Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway, such as FANCJ, BRCA1, and FANCD2, interact with mismatch repair (MMR) pathway factors, but the significance of this link remains unknown. Unlike the BRCA-FA pathway, the MMR pathway is not essential for cells to survive toxic DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs), although MMR proteins bind ICLs and other DNA structures that form at stalled replication forks. We hypothesized that MMR proteins corrupt ICL repair in cells that lack crosstalk between BRCA-FA and MMR pathways. Here, we show that ICL sensitivity of cells lacking the interaction between FANCJ and the MMR protein MLH1 is ...