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Stem cells

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Articles 1 - 29 of 29

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Tale Factors Use Two Distinct Functional Modes To Control An Essential Zebrafish Gene Expression Program, Franck Ladam, William Stanney, Ian J. Donaldson, Ozge Yildiz, Nicoletta Bobola, Charles G. Sagerstrom Jun 2018

Tale Factors Use Two Distinct Functional Modes To Control An Essential Zebrafish Gene Expression Program, Franck Ladam, William Stanney, Ian J. Donaldson, Ozge Yildiz, Nicoletta Bobola, Charles G. Sagerstrom

Open Access Articles

TALE factors are broadly expressed embryonically and known to function in complexes with transcription factors (TFs) like Hox proteins at gastrula/segmentation stages, but it is unclear if such generally expressed factors act by the same mechanism throughout embryogenesis. We identify a TALE-dependent gene regulatory network (GRN) required for anterior development and detect TALE occupancy associated with this GRN throughout embryogenesis. At blastula stages, we uncover a novel functional mode for TALE factors, where they occupy genomic DECA motifs with nearby NF-Y sites. We demonstrate that TALE and NF-Y form complexes and regulate chromatin state at genes of this GRN ...


Imp3 Stabilization Of Wnt5b Mrna Facilitates Taz Activation In Breast Cancer, Sanjoy Samanta, Santosh Guru, Ameer L. Elaimy, John J. Amante, Jianhong Ou, Jun Yu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Arthur M. Mercurio May 2018

Imp3 Stabilization Of Wnt5b Mrna Facilitates Taz Activation In Breast Cancer, Sanjoy Samanta, Santosh Guru, Ameer L. Elaimy, John J. Amante, Jianhong Ou, Jun Yu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Arthur M. Mercurio

Open Access Articles

Insulin-like growth factor-2 mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP3) is an oncofetal protein associated with many aggressive cancers and implicated in the function of breast cancer stem cells (CSCs). The mechanisms involved, however, are poorly understood. We observed that IMP3 facilitates the activation of TAZ, a transcriptional co-activator of Hippo signaling that is necessary for the function of breast CSCs. The mechanism by which IMP3 activates TAZ involves both mRNA stability and transcriptional regulation. IMP3 stabilizes the mRNA of an alternative WNT ligand (WNT5B) indirectly by repressing miR145-5p, which targets WNT5B, resulting in TAZ activation by alternative WNT signaling. IMP3 also facilitates ...


Skeletal Muscle Metabolism: From Tissue To Stem Cell, Katherine Elise Gadek Jan 2018

Skeletal Muscle Metabolism: From Tissue To Stem Cell, Katherine Elise Gadek

Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Excessive circulating triglycerides due to reduction or loss of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity contribute to hypertriglyceridemia and increased risk for pancreatitis. The only gene therapy treatment for LPL deficiency decreases pancreatitis but minimally reduces hypertriglyceridemia. Synthesized in striated muscle and adipose tissue, LPL is then trafficked to blood vessel endothelial cells where it hydrolyzes triglycerides into free fatty acids. We conditionally knocked out LPL in differentiated striated muscle tissue lowering striated muscle LPL activity and causing hypertriglyceridemia. We crossed these LPL knockout mice with mice possessing a conditional avian retroviral receptor gene and infected mice with human LPL or mCherry ...


Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Function In Muscle Stem Cells, Tashi Hackett Jan 2018

Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Function In Muscle Stem Cells, Tashi Hackett

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Skeletal muscle has a remarkable ability to regenerate itself following injury and this is reliant upon a group of stem cells known as muscle stem cells Muscle stem cell dysfunction contributes to variety of muscle wasting diseases and insights into mechanisms that regulate MuSC function could lead to new therapies and further our understanding of stem cell biology in general. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 (FGF2) is a protein that regulates muscle stem cell behavior through stimulation of cell surface tyrosine receptor kinases known as Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors (Jones, 2001). Activation of the receptors by FGF will induce intracellular signaling ...


Evidence For The Involvement Of Runx1 And Runx2 In Maintenance Of The Breast Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype, Mark Fitzgerald Jan 2018

Evidence For The Involvement Of Runx1 And Runx2 In Maintenance Of The Breast Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype, Mark Fitzgerald

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

In the United States, metastatic breast cancer kills approximately 40,000 women and 400 men annually, and approximately 200,000 new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed each year. Worldwide, breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women. Despite advances in the detection and treatment of metastatic breast cancer, mortality rates from this disease remain high because the fact is that once metastatic, it is virtually incurable. It is widely accepted that a major reason breast cancer continues to exhibit recurrence after remission is that current therapies are insufficient for targeting and eliminating therapy-resistant cancer cells. Emerging ...


Regenerative Therapy By Replacement Of Stem Cells In Females, Saara Ahmad, Rehana Rehman, Fatima Ahmad Nov 2017

Regenerative Therapy By Replacement Of Stem Cells In Females, Saara Ahmad, Rehana Rehman, Fatima Ahmad

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

No abstract provided.


The Dlk1-Meg3 Locus In Malignant Cells Of Proposed Primordial Germ Cell Origins., Zachariah Payne Sellers Aug 2017

The Dlk1-Meg3 Locus In Malignant Cells Of Proposed Primordial Germ Cell Origins., Zachariah Payne Sellers

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are hypothesized to deposit hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) along their migration route through the embryo during the early stages of embryogenesis. PGCs also undergo global chromatin remodeling, including the erasure and reestablishment of genomic imprints, during this migration. While PGCs do not spontaneously form teratomas, their malignant development into germ cell tumors (GCTs) in vivo is often accompanied by the retention of hypomethylation at the IGF2-H19 imprinting control differentially methylated region (DMR). Previous studies in bimaternal embryos determined that proper genomic imprinting at two paternally imprinted loci was necessary for their growth and development: Igf2-H19 and ...


Histone Variant Macroh2a In The Gut And Beyond: A Study Of Intestinal Fortitude, Ryan James Cedeno Jan 2017

Histone Variant Macroh2a In The Gut And Beyond: A Study Of Intestinal Fortitude, Ryan James Cedeno

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Epigenetic factors guide chromatin remodeling during cell state transitions and confer resistance to genotoxic stressors that could induce deleterious transformations. A particularly peculiar component of the epigenome with emerging roles in fine-tuning cell identity and upholding genomic stability is the structural histone variant macroH2A. Relatively little is currently known about macroH2A’s influence on overall cell developmental potency and less still is known about macroH2A’s contributions to adult stem cell identity and function in vivo. In this work, we use induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) reprogramming and the murine intestinal stem cell (ISC) system to model macroH2A’s overall ...


High-Resolution Proteomic And Lipidomic Analysis Of Exosomes And Microvesicles From Different Cell Sources, Reka A. Haraszti, Marie-Cecile Didiot, Ellen Sapp, John D. Leszyk, Scott A. Shaffer, Hannah E. Rockwell, Fei Gao, Niven R. Narain, Marian Difiglia, Michael A. Kiebish, Neil Aronin, Anastasia Khvorova Nov 2016

High-Resolution Proteomic And Lipidomic Analysis Of Exosomes And Microvesicles From Different Cell Sources, Reka A. Haraszti, Marie-Cecile Didiot, Ellen Sapp, John D. Leszyk, Scott A. Shaffer, Hannah E. Rockwell, Fei Gao, Niven R. Narain, Marian Difiglia, Michael A. Kiebish, Neil Aronin, Anastasia Khvorova

Open Access Articles

Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles (MVs), are explored for use in diagnostics, therapeutics and drug delivery. However, little is known about the relationship of protein and lipid composition of EVs and their source cells. Here, we report high-resolution lipidomic and proteomic analyses of exosomes and MVs derived by differential ultracentrifugation from 3 different cell types: U87 glioblastoma cells, Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma cells and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We identified 3,532 proteins and 1,961 lipid species in the screen. Exosomes differed from MVs in several different areas: (a) The protein patterns of exosomes were ...


Dna Methylation Directs Genomic Localization Of Mbd2 And Mbd3 In Embryonic Stem Cells, Sarah J. Hainer, Kurtis N. Mccannell, Jun Yu, Ly-Sha Ee, Lihua (Julie) Zhu, Oliver J. Rando, Thomas G. Fazzio Nov 2016

Dna Methylation Directs Genomic Localization Of Mbd2 And Mbd3 In Embryonic Stem Cells, Sarah J. Hainer, Kurtis N. Mccannell, Jun Yu, Ly-Sha Ee, Lihua (Julie) Zhu, Oliver J. Rando, Thomas G. Fazzio

Open Access Articles

Cytosine methylation is an epigenetic and regulatory mark that functions in part through recruitment of chromatin remodeling complexes containing methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) proteins. Two MBD proteins, Mbd2 and Mbd3, were previously shown to bind methylated or hydroxymethylated DNA, respectively; however, both of these findings have been disputed. Here, we investigated this controversy using experimental approaches and re-analysis of published data and find no evidence for methylation-independent functions of Mbd2 or Mbd3. We show that chromatin localization of Mbd2 and Mbd3 is highly overlapping and, unexpectedly, we find Mbd2 and Mbd3 are interdependent for chromatin association. Further investigation reveals that ...


Regulation Of X-Linked Gene Expression During Early Mouse Development By Rlim, Feng Wang, Jongdae Shin, Jeremy Shea, Jun Yu, Ana Boskovic, Meg Byron, Xiaochun Zhu, Alex K. Shalek, Aviv Regev, Jeanne B. Lawrence, Eduardo M. Torres, Lihua J. Zhu, Oliver J. Rando, Ingolf Bach Sep 2016

Regulation Of X-Linked Gene Expression During Early Mouse Development By Rlim, Feng Wang, Jongdae Shin, Jeremy Shea, Jun Yu, Ana Boskovic, Meg Byron, Xiaochun Zhu, Alex K. Shalek, Aviv Regev, Jeanne B. Lawrence, Eduardo M. Torres, Lihua J. Zhu, Oliver J. Rando, Ingolf Bach

Open Access Articles

Mammalian X-linked gene expression is highly regulated as female cells contain two and male one X chromosome (X). To adjust the X gene dosage between genders, female mouse preimplantation embryos undergo an imprinted form of X chromosome inactivation (iXCI) that requires both Rlim (also known as Rnf12) and the long non-coding RNA Xist. Moreover, it is thought that gene expression from the single active X is upregulated to correct for bi-allelic autosomal (A) gene expression. We have combined mouse genetics with RNA-seq on single mouse embryos to investigate functions of Rlim on the temporal regulation of iXCI and Xist. Our ...


Suppression Of Ischemia In Arterial Occlusive Disease By Jnk-Promoted Native Collateral Artery Development, Kasmir Ramo, Koichi Sugamura, Siobhan M. Craige, John F. Keaney Jr., Roger J. Davis Aug 2016

Suppression Of Ischemia In Arterial Occlusive Disease By Jnk-Promoted Native Collateral Artery Development, Kasmir Ramo, Koichi Sugamura, Siobhan M. Craige, John F. Keaney Jr., Roger J. Davis

Davis Lab Publications

Arterial occlusive diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality. Blood flow to the affected tissue must be restored quickly if viability and function are to be preserved. We report that disruption of the mixed-lineage protein kinase (MLK) - cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway in endothelial cells causes severe blockade of blood flow and failure to recover in the murine femoral artery ligation model of hindlimb ischemia. We show that the MLK-JNK pathway is required for the formation of native collateral arteries that can restore circulation following arterial occlusion. Disruption of the MLK-JNK pathway causes decreased Dll4/Notch signaling, excessive ...


A Cytosolic Multiprotein Complex Containing P85Α Is Required For Β-Catenin Activation In Colitis And Colitis-Associated Cancer, Tatiana Goretsky, Emily M. Bradford, Hyunji Ryu, Maryam Tahir, Mary Pat Moyer, Tianyan Gao, Linheng Li, Terrence A. Barrett Nov 2015

A Cytosolic Multiprotein Complex Containing P85Α Is Required For Β-Catenin Activation In Colitis And Colitis-Associated Cancer, Tatiana Goretsky, Emily M. Bradford, Hyunji Ryu, Maryam Tahir, Mary Pat Moyer, Tianyan Gao, Linheng Li, Terrence A. Barrett

Internal Medicine Faculty Publications

Wnt/β-catenin signaling is required for crypt structure maintenance. We previously observed nuclear accumulation of Ser-552 phosphorylated β-catenin (pβ-CatSer-552) in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) during colitis and colitis-associated cancer. Data here delineate a novel multiprotein cytosolic complex (MCC) involved in β-catenin signaling in the intestine. The MCC contains p85α, the class IA subunit of PI3K, along with β-catenin, 14-3-3ζ, Akt, and p110α. MCC levels in IEC increase in colitis and colitis-associated cancer patients. IEC-specific p85α-deficient (p85ΔIEC) mice develop more severe dextran sodium sulfate colitis due to delayed ...


Efficient In Vitro Development Of Photoreceptors From Human Pluripotent Stem Cells, Joseph C. Reynolds May 2015

Efficient In Vitro Development Of Photoreceptors From Human Pluripotent Stem Cells, Joseph C. Reynolds

Graduate Master's Theses, Capstones, and Culminating Projects

Degeneration of the rod and cone photoreceptors in the human retina is among the most common causes of blindness. Replacing these damaged photoreceptors may help to restore vision. Repairing the damaged retina relies on the insertion of new, healthy cells. Embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are two possible sources of photoreceptors to restore vision. Previous data shows that human ES cells and iPS cells can be differentiated into photoreceptors and transplanted into the eye to restore some vision. However, this process is inefficient, and costly. Here, we show a new method for inducing photoreceptor production ...


The Effect Of Small Molecule 390 On Cxcr4 Receptors, Selam B. Zenebe-Gete '14, Shruti R. Topudurti '14, Shum Andrew, Richard J. Miller May 2014

The Effect Of Small Molecule 390 On Cxcr4 Receptors, Selam B. Zenebe-Gete '14, Shruti R. Topudurti '14, Shum Andrew, Richard J. Miller

Student Publications & Research

CXCR4 is the chemokine receptor which aids in chemotaxis of stem cells, such as those in the bone marrow or the brain. SDF-1 is the natural ligand for the CXCR4 receptor. Similarities between novel molecule 390 synthesized by the Miller Lab and SDF-1 make this novel small molecule a possible agonist of the CXCR4 receptor. To determine whether 390 is an agonist to the CXCR4 receptor, we transfected cells with CXCR4 and exposed them to no agonist [vehicle control], SDF-1, or varying concentrations of our agonist drug. Next, we took calcium images using the dye fura-2, which indicates changes in ...


Establishment Of Methods For Isolation Of Pnmt+ Cardiac Progenitor Cells, Namita Varudkar Jan 2014

Establishment Of Methods For Isolation Of Pnmt+ Cardiac Progenitor Cells, Namita Varudkar

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Millions of patients suffer each year from endothelial dysfunction and/or debilitating myocardial damage resulting in decreased quality of life and increased risk of death or disablement. Current pharmacological approaches are only partly effective at treating cardiovascular disease, and hence, better strategies are needed to provide significant improvements in treatment options. Cardiac stem/progenitor cells have the potential to regenerate myocardial tissue and repair damaged heart muscle. There are many different types of cardiac progenitor cells, and each may have certain unique properties and characteristics that would likely ...


Hdac6 Regulates Tip60-P400 Function In Stem Cells, Poshen B. Chen, Jui-Hung Hung, Taylor L. Hickman, Andrew H. Coles, James F. Carey, Zhiping Weng, Feixia Chu, Thomas G. Fazzio Dec 2013

Hdac6 Regulates Tip60-P400 Function In Stem Cells, Poshen B. Chen, Jui-Hung Hung, Taylor L. Hickman, Andrew H. Coles, James F. Carey, Zhiping Weng, Feixia Chu, Thomas G. Fazzio

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations

In embryonic stem cells (ESCs), the Tip60 histone acetyltransferase activates genes required for proliferation and silences genes that promote differentiation. Here we show that the class II histone deacetylase Hdac6 co-purifies with Tip60-p400 complex from ESCs. Hdac6 is necessary for regulation of most Tip60-p400 target genes, particularly those repressed by the complex. Unlike differentiated cells, where Hdac6 is mainly cytoplasmic, Hdac6 is largely nuclear in ESCs, neural stem cells (NSCs), and some cancer cell lines, and interacts with Tip60-p400 in each. Hdac6 localizes to promoters bound by Tip60-p400 in ESCs, binding downstream of transcription start sites. Surprisingly, Hdac6 does not ...


Germline Transgenic Methods For Tracking Cells And Testing Gene Function During Regeneration In The Axolotl, Shahryar Khattak, Maritta Schuez, Tobias Richter, Dunja Knapp, Saori L. Haigo, Tatiana Sandoval-Guzmán, Kristyna Hradlikova, Annett Duemmler, Ryan R. Kerney, Elly M. Tanaka Jun 2013

Germline Transgenic Methods For Tracking Cells And Testing Gene Function During Regeneration In The Axolotl, Shahryar Khattak, Maritta Schuez, Tobias Richter, Dunja Knapp, Saori L. Haigo, Tatiana Sandoval-Guzmán, Kristyna Hradlikova, Annett Duemmler, Ryan R. Kerney, Elly M. Tanaka

Biology Faculty Publications

The salamander is the only tetrapod that regenerates complex body structures throughout life. Deciphering the underlying molecular processes of regeneration is fundamental for regenerative medicine and developmental biology, but the model organism had limited tools for molecular analysis. We describe a comprehensive set of germline transgenic strains in the laboratory-bred salamander Ambystoma mexicanum(axolotl) that open up the cellular and molecular genetic dissection of regeneration. We demonstrate tissue-dependent control of gene expression in nerve, Schwann cells, oligodendrocytes, muscle, epidermis, and cartilage. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of tamoxifen-induced Cre/loxP-mediated recombination to indelibly mark different cell types. Finally, we ...


A High Omega-3 Fatty Acid Diet Has Different Effects On Early And Late Stage Myeloid Progenitors, Melinda Varney, James Buchanan, Yulia Dementieva, W. Hardman, Vincent Sollars Jun 2013

A High Omega-3 Fatty Acid Diet Has Different Effects On Early And Late Stage Myeloid Progenitors, Melinda Varney, James Buchanan, Yulia Dementieva, W. Hardman, Vincent Sollars

Yulia Dementieva

The effects of the polyunsaturated omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids (FA) on hematopoiesis are complex in that both FA forms are processed into leukotrienes, eicosanoids, and prostaglandins, which can have independent effects. These FA have antagonistic effects in that n-6 FA prostaglandins tend to be pro-proliferative and pro-inflammatory, while the effects of n-3 FA prostaglandins are the opposite. We have previously shown that diets high in n-3 FA reduce the size of the middle to later stage myeloid progenitor compartment in FVB X sv129 F1hybrid mice. To assay the effects of high n-3 FA diets on earlier stages ...


Expansion Of Breast Cancer Stem Cells With Fibrous Scaffolds, Sheng Feng, Pang-Kuo Lo, Shou Liu, Xinfeng Liu, Hexin Chen, Qian Wang Jan 2013

Expansion Of Breast Cancer Stem Cells With Fibrous Scaffolds, Sheng Feng, Pang-Kuo Lo, Shou Liu, Xinfeng Liu, Hexin Chen, Qian Wang

Faculty Publications

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are hypothesized as tumor-initiating cells within tumors and main contributors of tumor growth, metastasis and recurrence. Mammary cancer cells, MCF-7 cells, were cultured on 3D polycaprolactone (PCL) fibrous scaffolds, showing an increased proportion of CSCs. The expression of stem cell markers, including OCT3/4 and SOX2, and breast CSC-specific markers, SOX4 and CD49f, was significantly upregulated, and the mammosphere-forming capability in cells cultured on PCL fibrous scaffolds increased. The fibrous scaffolds also induced the elongation of MCF-7 cells and extended cell proliferation. The increase of CSC properties after being cultured on fibrous scaffolds was further confirmed ...


Cellular Mechanisms Of Mammalian Liver Regeneration, Kilangsungla Yanger Jan 2013

Cellular Mechanisms Of Mammalian Liver Regeneration, Kilangsungla Yanger

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

ABSTRACT

CELLULAR MECHANISMS OF MAMMALIAN LIVER REGENERATION

Kilangsungla Yanger

Ben Z. Stanger

The liver is an essential organ that aids in metabolic processes, protein synthesis and detoxification of harmful substances. As the centre for detoxification, the liver is able to compensate for this routine damage with its robust regenerative ability. All vertebrate livers, for example, can make up for tissue mass loss (via surgical excision of a portion of the liver) by replication of their differentiated cells within the remnant lobes. These differentiated cells include parenchymal cells such as the hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells (BECs) and also non-parenchymal cells ...


A High Omega-3 Fatty Acid Diet Has Different Effects On Early And Late Stage Myeloid Progenitors, Melinda Varney, James Buchanan, Yulia Dementieva, W. Hardman, Vincent Sollars Aug 2012

A High Omega-3 Fatty Acid Diet Has Different Effects On Early And Late Stage Myeloid Progenitors, Melinda Varney, James Buchanan, Yulia Dementieva, W. Hardman, Vincent Sollars

Elaine Hardman Ph.D.

The effects of the polyunsaturated omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids (FA) on hematopoiesis are complex in that both FA forms are processed into leukotrienes, eicosanoids, and prostaglandins, which can have independent effects. These FA have antagonistic effects in that n-6 FA prostaglandins tend to be pro-proliferative and pro-inflammatory, while the effects of n-3 FA prostaglandins are the opposite. We have previously shown that diets high in n-3 FA reduce the size of the middle to later stage myeloid progenitor compartment in FVB X sv129 F1hybrid mice. To assay the effects of high n-3 FA diets on earlier stages ...


The Epigenomic Viewpoint On Cellular Differentiation Of Myeloid Progenitor Cells As It Pertains To Leukemogenesis, Vincent E. Sollars Aug 2012

The Epigenomic Viewpoint On Cellular Differentiation Of Myeloid Progenitor Cells As It Pertains To Leukemogenesis, Vincent E. Sollars

Vincent E Sollars

The new millennium has brought with it a surge of research in the field of epigenetics. This has included advances in our understanding of stem cell characteristics and mechanisms of commitment to cell lineages prior to differentiation. The nature of stem cells is similar to that of malignant cells in that they have unlimited self-renewal and protection from apoptosis, leading researchers to suspect that stem cells are the target of oncogenesis. This review will explore the idea of how epigenetic control of gene expression may contribute to mechanisms controlling differentiation of myeloid progenitor cells and its importance to our understanding ...


A High Omega-3 Fatty Acid Diet Has Different Effects On Early And Late Stage Myeloid Progenitors, Melinda Varney, James Buchanan, Yulia Dementieva, W. Hardman, Vincent Sollars Aug 2012

A High Omega-3 Fatty Acid Diet Has Different Effects On Early And Late Stage Myeloid Progenitors, Melinda Varney, James Buchanan, Yulia Dementieva, W. Hardman, Vincent Sollars

Vincent E Sollars

The effects of the polyunsaturated omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids (FA) on hematopoiesis are complex in that both FA forms are processed into leukotrienes, eicosanoids, and prostaglandins, which can have independent effects. These FA have antagonistic effects in that n-6 FA prostaglandins tend to be pro-proliferative and pro-inflammatory, while the effects of n-3 FA prostaglandins are the opposite. We have previously shown that diets high in n-3 FA reduce the size of the middle to later stage myeloid progenitor compartment in FVB X sv129 F1hybrid mice. To assay the effects of high n-3 FA diets on earlier stages ...


A Proposal To Test The Effects Of Factor Ecat1 On Pluripotency, From Reprogramming To Differentiation Of Human Somatic Cells, Vritti R. Goel Jan 2012

A Proposal To Test The Effects Of Factor Ecat1 On Pluripotency, From Reprogramming To Differentiation Of Human Somatic Cells, Vritti R. Goel

CMC Senior Theses

The field of stem cell research has been growing more because of the interest in using stem cells to cure diseases and heal injuries. Human embryonic stem cells, because of the controversy surrounding them—and subsequently the difficulties in acquiring samples of the existing aging cell lines—can only be used in limited capacities. While the development of induced pluripotent stem cells in the last decade has allowed the field to progress closer to medical treatments, the low efficiency of reprogramming a somatic cell to a pluripotent state, and the vast molecular and genomic differences between human embryonic stem cells ...


Discrimination Of Colon Cancer Stem Cells Using Noncanonical Amino Acid, X. Duan, H. Li, Hexin Chen, Qian Wang Jan 2012

Discrimination Of Colon Cancer Stem Cells Using Noncanonical Amino Acid, X. Duan, H. Li, Hexin Chen, Qian Wang

Faculty Publications

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) may be responsible for tumor recurrence. Metabolic labelling of newly synthesized proteins with non-canonical amino acids allows us to discriminate CSCs in mixed populations due to the quiescent nature of these cells.


Dopaminergic Innervation Of The Subventricular Zone In The Murine Brain, Linda Beth Drozdowicz May 2010

Dopaminergic Innervation Of The Subventricular Zone In The Murine Brain, Linda Beth Drozdowicz

Honors Scholar Theses

The subventricular zone (SVZ) is one of two areas in the brain that, in a healthy mouse, continually generate neurons throughout adulthood. While it was previously thought that only the A9 neurons of the substantia nigra sent dopaminergic afferents to the SVZ, recent studies suggest that the A10 neurons of the ventral tegmental area may innervate this area. This project has aimed to discover which, if either, model is correct.

Examination of the Aphakia (AK) mouse was used to determine the role of distinct midbrain regions in SVZ regulation. Additionally, intraperitoneal injections of the chemical MPTP were used to deduce ...


The Epigenomic Viewpoint On Cellular Differentiation Of Myeloid Progenitor Cells As It Pertains To Leukemogenesis, Vincent E. Sollars May 2005

The Epigenomic Viewpoint On Cellular Differentiation Of Myeloid Progenitor Cells As It Pertains To Leukemogenesis, Vincent E. Sollars

Biochemistry and Microbiology

The new millennium has brought with it a surge of research in the field of epigenetics. This has included advances in our understanding of stem cell characteristics and mechanisms of commitment to cell lineages prior to differentiation. The nature of stem cells is similar to that of malignant cells in that they have unlimited self-renewal and protection from apoptosis, leading researchers to suspect that stem cells are the target of oncogenesis. This review will explore the idea of how epigenetic control of gene expression may contribute to mechanisms controlling differentiation of myeloid progenitor cells and its importance to our understanding ...


Induction Of White Cell Proliferation Due To Haematopoietic Growth Factors Is Associated With An Increase In Multiple Forms Of Dihydrofolate Reductase In Non-Neutropenic Cancer Patients, M P. Iqbal, I A. Burney, F Sultana, N Mehboobali Feb 2001

Induction Of White Cell Proliferation Due To Haematopoietic Growth Factors Is Associated With An Increase In Multiple Forms Of Dihydrofolate Reductase In Non-Neutropenic Cancer Patients, M P. Iqbal, I A. Burney, F Sultana, N Mehboobali

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Objective: Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) are frequently used in cancer patients to overcome the granulocytopenic effects of chemotherapy, and also to mobilize the stem cells. The mobilized stem cells are collected from the peripheral blood and used for transplantation following high doses of chemotherapy. However, the molecular mechanism by which these colony stimulating factors (CSFs) bring about proliferation of myeloid precursor cells is not clearly known. Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), which has an established role in DNA synthesis, could be a link between administration of CSF and stem cell proliferation. The purpose of this study ...