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Proteomics

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Articles 1 - 30 of 75

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Synthesis And Evaluation Of Novel Silica Hydride-Based Stationary Phases For Bioanalytical Applications Sep 2019

Synthesis And Evaluation Of Novel Silica Hydride-Based Stationary Phases For Bioanalytical Applications

Seiichiro Watanabe

Most HPLC columns are packed with silanol (Si-OH)-rich type-B silica that often
participates in undesired electrostatic interactions with sample solutes and produces a poor analyte peak shape. These silanols are also known to facilitate the surface hydration required for HILIC mode to retain polar analytes. However, the hydrated surface composition can easily fluctuate, which results in poor reproducibility and requires a lengthy equilibration step. In this study, four novel stationary phases have been developed by using the TYPE-CTM silica material, in which up to 95% of the surface silanols have been replaced with Si-H group. One of the advantages ...


Acid Sphingomyelinase Regulates The Localization And Trafficking Of Palmitoylated Proteins, Xiahui Xiong, Chia-Fang Lee, Wenjing Li, Jiekai Yu, Linyu Zhu, Yongsoon Kim, Hul Zhang, Hong Sun May 2019

Acid Sphingomyelinase Regulates The Localization And Trafficking Of Palmitoylated Proteins, Xiahui Xiong, Chia-Fang Lee, Wenjing Li, Jiekai Yu, Linyu Zhu, Yongsoon Kim, Hul Zhang, Hong Sun

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

In human, loss of Acid Sphingomeylinase (ASM/SMPD1) causes Niemann-Pick Disease, type A. ASM hydrolyzes sphingomyelins to produce ceramides but protein targets of ASM remain largely unclear. ... See full text for complete abstract.


Serum Deprivation Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improves Exosome Activity And Alters Lipid And Protein Composition, Reka A. Haraszti, Rachael Miller, Michelle L. Dubuke, Andrew H. Coles, Marie C. Didiot, Dimas Echeverria, Matteo Stoppato, Yves Y. Sere, John D. Leszyk, Julia F. Alterman, Bruno M. D. C. Godinho, Matthew R. Hassler, Rachel Wollacott, Yan Wang, Scott A. Shaffer, Neil Aronin, Anastasia Khvorova May 2019

Serum Deprivation Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improves Exosome Activity And Alters Lipid And Protein Composition, Reka A. Haraszti, Rachael Miller, Michelle L. Dubuke, Andrew H. Coles, Marie C. Didiot, Dimas Echeverria, Matteo Stoppato, Yves Y. Sere, John D. Leszyk, Julia F. Alterman, Bruno M. D. C. Godinho, Matthew R. Hassler, Rachel Wollacott, Yan Wang, Scott A. Shaffer, Neil Aronin, Anastasia Khvorova

Open Access Articles

Exosomes can serve as delivery vehicles for advanced therapeutics. The components necessary and sufficient to support exosomal delivery have not been established. Here we connect biochemical composition and activity of exosomes to optimize exosome-mediated delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). This information is used to create effective artificial exosomes. We show that serum-deprived mesenchymal stem cells produce exosomes up to 22-fold more effective at delivering siRNAs to neurons than exosomes derived from control cells. Proteinase treatment of exosomes stops siRNA transfer, indicating that surface proteins on exosomes are involved in trafficking. Proteomic and lipidomic analyses show that exosomes derived in ...


Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Analysis Of Bioactive Proteins In Emd That Modulate Adhesion Of Gingival Fibroblast To Improve Bio-Integration Of Dental Implants, David Zuanazzi Machado Jr Mar 2019

Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Analysis Of Bioactive Proteins In Emd That Modulate Adhesion Of Gingival Fibroblast To Improve Bio-Integration Of Dental Implants, David Zuanazzi Machado Jr

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Titanium implants are used in dental practice to replace damaged or lost teeth. The implant needs to integrate with the surrounding gingiva to protect it against bacterial invasion that leads to implant loss. The biointegration is dependent on the implant surface that interacts with proteins from biological fluids to modulate tissues response. Tailoring the surface with specific proteins from the enamel matrix derivative (EMD) would be beneficial to improve the implant-gingiva interface since EMD can affect various cells including gingival fibroblasts. A surface-affinity approach using three different titanium surfaces and saliva was utilized as a model in combination with tandem ...


Nascent Dna Proteomics Analysis Uncovers Dna Replication Dynamics In The Human Pathogen Trypanosoma Brucei, Maria Rocha Granados Jan 2019

Nascent Dna Proteomics Analysis Uncovers Dna Replication Dynamics In The Human Pathogen Trypanosoma Brucei, Maria Rocha Granados

Doctoral Dissertations

DNA is the substrate of many cellular processes including DNA replication, transcription and chromatin remodeling. These processes are coordinated to maintain genome integrity and ensure accurate duplication of genetic and epigenetic information. Genome-wide studies have provided evidence of the relationship between transcription and DNA replication timing. A global analysis of DNA replication initiation in T. brucei showed that TbORC1 (subunit of the origin recognition complex, ORC) binding sites are located at the boundaries of transcription units. Although recent studies in T. brucei indicate functional links among DNA replication and transcription, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we adapted ...


Egfr Signaling From The Early Endosome., Julie A. Gosney Aug 2018

Egfr Signaling From The Early Endosome., Julie A. Gosney

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is an integral component of proliferative signaling. When activated by a ligand at the plasma membrane, EGFR dimerizes with another ErbB family receptor, leading to kinase domain activation and transphosphorylation of C-terminus tyrosine residues. These phosphotyrosines act as crucial regulators of EGFR signaling as effector proteins dock to the receptor at these sites. The receptor undergoes clathrin-mediated endocytosis into early endosomes, where it can then be trafficked to a lysosome for degradation. However, the kinase domain of EGFR retains its activity during trafficking, suggesting that EGFR can continue ...


Mapping Molecular Datasets Back To The Brain Regions They Are Extracted From: Remembering The Native Countries Of Hypothalamic Expatriates And Refugees, Arshad M. Khan, Alice H. Grant, Anais Martinez, Gully Apc Burns, Brendan S. Thatcher, Vishwanath T. Anekonda, Benjamin W. Thompson, Zachary S. Roberts, Daniel H. Moralejo, James E. Blevins Jun 2018

Mapping Molecular Datasets Back To The Brain Regions They Are Extracted From: Remembering The Native Countries Of Hypothalamic Expatriates And Refugees, Arshad M. Khan, Alice H. Grant, Anais Martinez, Gully Apc Burns, Brendan S. Thatcher, Vishwanath T. Anekonda, Benjamin W. Thompson, Zachary S. Roberts, Daniel H. Moralejo, James E. Blevins

Arshad M. Khan, Ph.D.

This article, which includes novel unpublished data along with commentary and analysis,
focuses on approaches to link transcriptomic, proteomic, and peptidomic datasets mined from
brain tissue to the original locations within the brain that they are derived from using digital atlas
mapping techniques. We use, as an example, the transcriptomic, proteomic and peptidomic
analyses conducted in the mammalian hypothalamus. Following a brief historical overview, we
highlight studies that have mined biochemical and molecular information from the hypothalamus
and then lay out a strategy for how these data can be linked spatially to the mapped locations in a
canonical brain atlas ...


A Systems Chemical Biology Approach For Dissecting Differential Molecular Mechanisms Of Action Of Clinical Kinase Inhibitors In Lung Cancer, Natalia Junqueira Sumi Jun 2018

A Systems Chemical Biology Approach For Dissecting Differential Molecular Mechanisms Of Action Of Clinical Kinase Inhibitors In Lung Cancer, Natalia Junqueira Sumi

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Lung cancer is the second most common cancer type and is associated with high mortality rates. The survival rate for lung cancer patients has increased slowly in the last decade mainly as the result of the development of novel targeted and immune therapies. However, non-small cell lung cancer patients lacking known or actionable driver mutations and small cell lung cancer patients with recurrent disease are still in urgent need of new therapies. Drug repurposing is an efficient way to identify new therapies since it uses clinically relevant small molecule drugs. Determination of off-targets of small molecules is a novel approach ...


A Systems Biology Approach For Studying Heterotopic Ossification: Proteomic Analysis Of Clinical Serum And Tissue Samples, Erin Crowgey, Jennifer Wyffels, Patrick Osborn, Thomas Wood, Laura Edsberg Jun 2018

A Systems Biology Approach For Studying Heterotopic Ossification: Proteomic Analysis Of Clinical Serum And Tissue Samples, Erin Crowgey, Jennifer Wyffels, Patrick Osborn, Thomas Wood, Laura Edsberg

Faculty Articles

Heterotopic ossification (HO) refers to the abnormal formation of bone in soft tissue. Although some of the underlying processes of HO have been described, there are currently no clinical tests using validated biomarkers for predicting HO formation. As such, the diagnosis is made radiographically after HO has formed. To identify potential and novel biomarkers for HO, we used isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and high-throughput antibody arrays to produce a semi-quantitative proteomics survey of serum and tissue from subjects with (HO+) and without (HO−) heterotopic ossification. The resulting data were then analyzed using a systems biology approach ...


Determination Of Adamts13 Susceptibility In Type Iia Von Willebrand Disease, Monica Buselli May 2018

Determination Of Adamts13 Susceptibility In Type Iia Von Willebrand Disease, Monica Buselli

Graduate Master's Theses, Capstones, and Culminating Projects

von Willebrand Disease (vWD) is a bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency in von Willebrand Factor (vWF), a large glycoprotein that assists in coagulation. Specifically, large vWF multimers in the blood stream are key components in starting the coagulation cascade. vWF is cleaved by the metalloprotease ADAMTS13, regulating the multimers size, which hinders vWF’s ability to function properly. The three main types of vWD —Type I, II, and III— are not well defined, and as a result are all similarly treated with plasma-derived vWF replacement therapy. Plasma-derived vWF is a treatment that does not cure the problem but relieves ...


The Role Of Phosphohistidine Phosphatase 1 In Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury, Daniel Richard Martin Apr 2018

The Role Of Phosphohistidine Phosphatase 1 In Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury, Daniel Richard Martin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Chronic liver diseases, which includes alcoholic liver disease (ALD), are consistently among the top 15 leading causes of death in the United States. ALD is characterized by progression from a normal liver to fatty liver disease (hepatic steatosis), which can lead to cirrhosis, alcoholic hepatitis, and liver failure. We have identified a novel role of phosphohistidine signaling, mediated through phosphohistidine phosphatase 1 (PHPT1), in the onset of hepatic steatosis. We have identified PHPT1 as a target of selective oxidation following acute ethanol exposure as well as being downregulated following chronic ethanol exposure. We mapped the oxidative modification site and developed ...


Influence Of Dietary Ractopamine And Supranutritional Supplementation Of Vitamin E On Proteome Profile Of Postmortem Beef Longissimus Lumborum Muscle, Hyun Mok Kim Jan 2018

Influence Of Dietary Ractopamine And Supranutritional Supplementation Of Vitamin E On Proteome Profile Of Postmortem Beef Longissimus Lumborum Muscle, Hyun Mok Kim

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

The effects of dietary ingredients on the proteome profile of postmortem beef longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle were evaluated. In the first experiment, the influence of dietary ractopamine on the whole-muscle proteome of beef LL was examined. Five proteins were differentially abundant between ractopamine-fed (RAC) and non-ractopamine fed (CON) groups. The differentially abundant proteins were over-abundant in RAC and were related to muscle structure development (F-actin-capping protein subunit beta-2 and PDZ and LIM domain protein-3), chaperone (heat shock protein beta-1), oxygen transportation (myoglobin), and glycolysis (L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain). These findings indicated that ractopamine influences the abundance of proteins associated with ...


Proteogenomic Study Of Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacterium Anabaena Cylindrica, Yeyan Qiu Jan 2018

Proteogenomic Study Of Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacterium Anabaena Cylindrica, Yeyan Qiu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cyanobacteria are gram-negative photosynthetic bacteria. In some filamentous cyanobacteria such as Anabaena cylindrica, every 10th to 20th vegetative cells can differentiate into nitrogen fixing heterocysts. Heterocyst can induce the neighboring cells developing into spore-like akinetes. The specialized cell functions and resourceful networks have contributed to the prosperity of cyanobacteria for over 2 billion years, but the genetic mechanisms for multi-cellular differentiation are barely known, especially for akinete formation. The heterocysts, akinetes and vegetative cells of Anabaena cylindrica were isolated for proteomic study. This study identified a total of 1395 proteins, including 664 proteins from akinetes, 751 proteins from ...


Nbpmf: Novel Network-Based Inference Methods For Peptide Mass Fingerprinting, Zhewei Liang Nov 2017

Nbpmf: Novel Network-Based Inference Methods For Peptide Mass Fingerprinting, Zhewei Liang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Proteins are large, complex molecules that perform a vast array of functions in every living cell. A proteome is a set of proteins produced in an organism, and proteomics is the large-scale study of proteomes. Several high-throughput technologies have been developed in proteomics, where the most commonly applied are mass spectrometry (MS) based approaches. MS is an analytical technique for determining the composition of a sample. Recently it has become a primary tool for protein identification, quantification, and post translational modification (PTM) characterization in proteomics research. There are usually two different ways to identify proteins: top-down and bottom-up. Top-down approaches ...


Mass-Spectrometry Based Proteomics Of Age-Related Changes In Murine Microglia, Antwoine Flowers Mar 2017

Mass-Spectrometry Based Proteomics Of Age-Related Changes In Murine Microglia, Antwoine Flowers

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The last century has seen a steady increase in the extension of the average lifespan. This has concomitantly produced higher incidences of age-related chronic degenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Age is the single greatest risk factor for the development of not just these degenerative conditions but cancer as well. The aged niche undergoes a number of maladaptive changes that allow underlying conditions to present and progress. Exactly which changes, contribute to the progression of which disease is currently an area of intense study. However, these answers often present therapeutic targets for disease prevention. Age is characterized ...


Quantitative Proteomic Characterization Of Cx-4945, A Clinical Stage Inhibitor Of Protein Kinase Ck2, Adam J. Rabalski Feb 2017

Quantitative Proteomic Characterization Of Cx-4945, A Clinical Stage Inhibitor Of Protein Kinase Ck2, Adam J. Rabalski

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Protein phosphorylation is controlled by protein kinases, and represents a critical signaling mechanism involved in the regulation of fundamental biological processes. Furthermore, the aberrant regulation of kinase activity is implicated in diseases such as cancer and has resulted in efforts to target kinases therapeutically. Protein kinase CK2, although frequently considered constitutively active, has emerged as a clinical target on the basis of its altered expression in different types of human cancers and its regulatory participation in multiple biological processes. In fact, CX-4945, a small molecule ATP-competitive inhibitor of CK2 has advanced to clinical trial and has been widely used to ...


Metagomics: A Web-Based Tool For Peptide-Centric Functional And Taxonomic Analysis Of Metaproteomics Data, Michael Riffle, Damon H. May, Emma Timmins-Schiffman, Molly P. Mikan, Daniel Jaschob, William S. Noble, Brook L. Nunn Jan 2017

Metagomics: A Web-Based Tool For Peptide-Centric Functional And Taxonomic Analysis Of Metaproteomics Data, Michael Riffle, Damon H. May, Emma Timmins-Schiffman, Molly P. Mikan, Daniel Jaschob, William S. Noble, Brook L. Nunn

OEAS Faculty Publications

Metaproteomics is the characterization of all proteins being expressed by a community of organisms in a complex biological sample at a single point in time. Applications of metaproteomics range from the comparative analysis of environmental samples (such as ocean water and soil) to microbiome data from multicellular organisms (such as the human gut). Metaproteomics research is often focused on the quantitative functional makeup of the metaproteome and which organisms are making those proteins. That is: What are the functions of the currently expressed proteins? How much of the metaproteome is associated with those functions? And, which microorganisms are expressing the ...


The Human Heterochromatin Landscape: Genomic Subtypes, Bound Proteins, And Contributions To Cell Identity, Justin S. Becker Jan 2017

The Human Heterochromatin Landscape: Genomic Subtypes, Bound Proteins, And Contributions To Cell Identity, Justin S. Becker

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Large portions of mammalian genomes are packaged into structurally compact heterochromatin, which protects genome integrity and suppresses transcription of lineage-inappropriate genes. Characterization of heterochromatic regions has relied on genomic mapping of associated histone modifications, such as H3K9me3 and H3K27me3, and purification of proteins interacting with these modifications. Heterochromatic regions marked by H3K9me3 have been shown to impede gene activation during reprogramming to pluripotency, and I find that H3K9me3 domains can similarly impede conversion of fibroblasts to hepatocytes. However, both H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 can be found in transcriptionally active chromatin, limiting the accuracy of histone marks alone for identifying heterochromatin domains ...


Comparative Proteomic Analyses Of The Parietal Lobe From Rhesus Monkeys Fed A High-Fat/Sugar Diet With And Without Resveratrol Supplementation, Relative To A Healthy Diet: Insights Into The Roles Of Unhealthy Diets And Resveratrol On Function, Aaron M. Swomley, Judy C. Triplett, Jeriel T. Keeney, Govind Warrier, Kevin J. Pearson, Julie A. Mattison, Rafael De Cabo, Jian Cai, Jon B. Klein, D. Allan Butterfield Jan 2017

Comparative Proteomic Analyses Of The Parietal Lobe From Rhesus Monkeys Fed A High-Fat/Sugar Diet With And Without Resveratrol Supplementation, Relative To A Healthy Diet: Insights Into The Roles Of Unhealthy Diets And Resveratrol On Function, Aaron M. Swomley, Judy C. Triplett, Jeriel T. Keeney, Govind Warrier, Kevin J. Pearson, Julie A. Mattison, Rafael De Cabo, Jian Cai, Jon B. Klein, D. Allan Butterfield

Chemistry Faculty Publications

A diet consisting of a high intake of saturated fat and refined sugars is characteristic of a Western-diet and has been shown to have a substantial negative effect on human health. Expression proteomics were used to investigate changes to the parietal lobe proteome of rhesus monkeys consuming either a high fat and sugar (HFS) diet, a HFS diet supplemented with resveratrol (HFS+RSV), or a healthy control diet for 2 years. Here we discuss the modifications in the levels of 12 specific proteins involved in various cellular systems including metabolism, neurotransmission, structural integrity, and general cellular signaling following a nutritional ...


Quantitative Proteomic Investigation Of Disease Models Of Type 2 Diabetes, Mark Gabriel Athanason Nov 2016

Quantitative Proteomic Investigation Of Disease Models Of Type 2 Diabetes, Mark Gabriel Athanason

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

PANcreatic DERived factor (PANDER, FAM3B) is a member of a superfamily of FAM3 proteins that are uniquely structured and strongly expressed from the endocrine pancreas and co-secreted with insulin. Unique animal models available to our lab have indicated that PANDER can induce a selective hepatic insulin resistant (SHIR) phenotype whereby insulin signaling is blunted yet lipogenesis is increased. The complexity of the biological networks involved with this process warranted the logical approach of employing quantitative mass spectrometry based proteomic analysis using stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to identify the global proteome differences between the PANDER ...


High-Resolution Proteomic And Lipidomic Analysis Of Exosomes And Microvesicles From Different Cell Sources, Reka A. Haraszti, Marie-Cecile Didiot, Ellen Sapp, John D. Leszyk, Scott A. Shaffer, Hannah E. Rockwell, Fei Gao, Niven R. Narain, Marian Difiglia, Michael A. Kiebish, Neil Aronin, Anastasia Khvorova Nov 2016

High-Resolution Proteomic And Lipidomic Analysis Of Exosomes And Microvesicles From Different Cell Sources, Reka A. Haraszti, Marie-Cecile Didiot, Ellen Sapp, John D. Leszyk, Scott A. Shaffer, Hannah E. Rockwell, Fei Gao, Niven R. Narain, Marian Difiglia, Michael A. Kiebish, Neil Aronin, Anastasia Khvorova

Open Access Articles

Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles (MVs), are explored for use in diagnostics, therapeutics and drug delivery. However, little is known about the relationship of protein and lipid composition of EVs and their source cells. Here, we report high-resolution lipidomic and proteomic analyses of exosomes and MVs derived by differential ultracentrifugation from 3 different cell types: U87 glioblastoma cells, Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma cells and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We identified 3,532 proteins and 1,961 lipid species in the screen. Exosomes differed from MVs in several different areas: (a) The protein patterns of exosomes were ...


Novel Interactome Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Myosin Type Ii Identified By A Modified Integrated Membrane Yeast Two-Hybrid (Imyth) Screen, Ednalise Santiago, Pearl Akamine, Jamie Snider, Victoria Wong, Matthew Jessulat, Viktor Deineko, Alla Gagarinova, Hiroyuki Aoki, Zoran Minic, Sadhna Phanse, Andrea San Antonio, Luis A Cubano, Brian C. Rymond, Mohan Babu, Igor Stagljar, Jose R. Rodriguez-Medina May 2016

Novel Interactome Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Myosin Type Ii Identified By A Modified Integrated Membrane Yeast Two-Hybrid (Imyth) Screen, Ednalise Santiago, Pearl Akamine, Jamie Snider, Victoria Wong, Matthew Jessulat, Viktor Deineko, Alla Gagarinova, Hiroyuki Aoki, Zoran Minic, Sadhna Phanse, Andrea San Antonio, Luis A Cubano, Brian C. Rymond, Mohan Babu, Igor Stagljar, Jose R. Rodriguez-Medina

Biology Faculty Publications

Nonmuscle myosin type II (Myo1p) is required for cytokinesis in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Loss of Myo1p activity has been associated with growth abnormalities and enhanced sensitivity to osmotic stress, making it an appealing antifungal therapeutic target. The Myo1p tail-only domain was previously reported to have functional activity equivalent to the full-length Myo1p whereas the head-only domain did not. Since Myo1p tail-only constructs are biologically active, the tail domain must have additional functions beyond its previously described role in myosin dimerization or trimerization. The identification of new Myo1p-interacting proteins may shed light on the other functions of the ...


Proteomic Characterization Of Eggshell Membranes And Their Effect On Poultry Physiology And Immunity, Sarbjeet Kaur Makkar May 2016

Proteomic Characterization Of Eggshell Membranes And Their Effect On Poultry Physiology And Immunity, Sarbjeet Kaur Makkar

Theses and Dissertations

The use of antibiotics in poultry growth and disease control has led to antibiotics resistant problem in human beings, which is a big concern among consumers. With the necessity for judicious use of antibiotics in poultry production, alternative strategies to improve disease resistance in poultry production are necessary. The research is more inclined towards using the natural products available to grow healthier and antibiotic free meat animals. In the context of exploring natural and sustainable resource of alternative to antibiotics, the biochemical milieu of eggshell membranes (ESM) were analyzed by using mass spectrometry techniques including matrix assisted laser desorption ionization ...


Investigation Of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Structural Determinants And Exploitation Of The Host Ubiquitin System, Jillian Nicole Whelan Apr 2016

Investigation Of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Structural Determinants And Exploitation Of The Host Ubiquitin System, Jillian Nicole Whelan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a globally circulating, non-segmented, negative sense (NNS) RNA virus that causes severe lower respiratory infections. This study explored several avenues to ultimately expand upon our understanding of RSV pathogenesis at the protein level. Evaluation of RSV intrinsic protein disorder increased the relatively limited description of the RSV structure-function relationship. Global proteomics analysis provided direction for further hypothesis-driven investigation of host pathways altered by RSV infection, specifically the interaction between the RSV NS2 protein and the host ubiquitin system. NS2 primarily acts to antagonize the innate immune system by targeting STAT2 for proteasomal degradation. The goal ...


Comparative Proteomic Analysis Of Extracellular Vesicles From Prostate Cancer-Derived Cell Lines, Gloria Polanco Jan 2016

Comparative Proteomic Analysis Of Extracellular Vesicles From Prostate Cancer-Derived Cell Lines, Gloria Polanco

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the leading non-cutaneous malignancy and the second deadliest among American men. PCa mortality rates among African American men are much higher than any other ethnic group, and the same is true for men of African ancestry world-wide. There is also a lack of reliable diagnostic markers and effective treatment options. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been observed to play an important role in cancer processes such as promotion of tumor growth and metastasis. They are also a promising source of diagnostic markers. This study addresses these problems by studying the proteome of EVs derived from PCa cells ...


Proteostasis Responses To Endogenous Alpha-Synuclein Aggregation In The Brain, Scott Edward Ugras Jan 2016

Proteostasis Responses To Endogenous Alpha-Synuclein Aggregation In The Brain, Scott Edward Ugras

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

α-Synuclein aggregation is implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). Changes in cellular signaling pathways induced by this aggregation may contribute to cell death and disease pathogenesis. To investigate this, we used quantitative proteomics to measure the relative abundance changes of the proteome and phosphoproteome in response to aggregation of endogenous α-synuclein in the brain of a mouse model. Aggregation in this model is induced by the intrastriatal injection of α-synuclein pre-formed fibrils and recapitulates several cardinal features of human PD, including progressive aggregation concomitant with dopaminergic degeneration and motor symptoms ...


Mass Spectrometry-Based Investigation Of App-Dependent Mechanisms In Neurodegeneration, Dale Chaput Nov 2015

Mass Spectrometry-Based Investigation Of App-Dependent Mechanisms In Neurodegeneration, Dale Chaput

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia affecting the elderly, and as the aging population increases the social and economic burden of AD grows substantially. Pathological hallmarks of AD include the accumulation of extracellular amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), as well as significant neuron loss. Amyloid plaques consist of aggregated amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide, which is generated from the proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in addition to several other peptides. While the processing of APP has been characterized, its primary physiological function and its involvement in AD pathology are poorly understood. Developing ...


Molecular And Phenotypic Studies Validating The Role Of The Ecdysone Receptor In The Human Parasite Brugia Malayi, Amruta Mhashilkar Nov 2015

Molecular And Phenotypic Studies Validating The Role Of The Ecdysone Receptor In The Human Parasite Brugia Malayi, Amruta Mhashilkar

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Filariasis and onchocerciasis are debilitating diseases affecting 120 million people globally. The massive socio-economic impact of these diseases energized the international community to declare a goal of eliminating filariasis 2020. This resulted in a dramatic increase in the efforts to eliminate filariasis and onchocerciasis, employing a strategy of mass drug administration (MDA). However, these programs rely upon the small arsenal of drugs. This leaves these programs vulnerable to failure in the face of developing resistance and local intolerance to the current drug regimens. Thus, new drugs against these infections are critically needed. A homologue of the ecdysone receptor (EcR), a ...


Quantitative Proteomics Of Androgen Receptor-Mediated Signaling Networks In Prostate Tumor Cells, Jordy Jame Hsiao May 2015

Quantitative Proteomics Of Androgen Receptor-Mediated Signaling Networks In Prostate Tumor Cells, Jordy Jame Hsiao

Theses and Dissertations

Aberrant androgen receptor (AR) activity plays a critical role in the development and progression of both early-staged organ-confined and late-staged metastatic human prostate cancer. Recent large-scale genomic sequencing studies showed that ~50% of organ-confined prostate cancer patients have genetic rearrangements that placed the ETS transcription factors (e.g. ERG, ETV1) under the control of androgen-regulated gene promoters such as TMPRSS2. This results in the upregulation of the ETS transcription factors’ expressions in the presence of androgens. The aberrant overexpression of the ETS transcription factors are shown to induce the expression of genes that promote the cellular motility and invasive potential ...


Regulation Of The Glutamate/Glutamine Cycle By Nitric Oxide In The Central Nervous System, Karthik Anderson Raju Jan 2015

Regulation Of The Glutamate/Glutamine Cycle By Nitric Oxide In The Central Nervous System, Karthik Anderson Raju

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Nitric oxide (˙NO) is a critical contributor to glutamatergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS). Much of its influence is due to the ability of this molecule to regulate protein structure and function through its posttranslational modification of cysteine residues, a process known as S-nitrosylation. However, little is known about the extent of this modification and its associated functional effects in the brain under physiological conditions. We employed mass spectrometry (MS)-based methodologies to interrogate the S-nitrosocysteine proteome in wild-type (WT), neuronal nitric oxide synthase-deficient (nNOS-/-), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase-deficient (eNOS-/-) mouse brain. These approaches identified 269 sites ...