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Phosphorylation

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Articles 1 - 30 of 66

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Myxobacteria Versus Sponge-Derived Alkaloids: The Bengamide Family Identified As Potent Immune Modulating Agents By Scrutiny Of Lc-Ms/Elsd Libraries., Tyler A. Johnson, Johann Sohn, Yvette M Vaske, Kimberly N White, Tanya L Cohen, Helene C Vervoort, Karen Tenney, Frederick A Valeriote, Leonard F Bjeldanes, Phillip Crews Feb 2019

Myxobacteria Versus Sponge-Derived Alkaloids: The Bengamide Family Identified As Potent Immune Modulating Agents By Scrutiny Of Lc-Ms/Elsd Libraries., Tyler A. Johnson, Johann Sohn, Yvette M Vaske, Kimberly N White, Tanya L Cohen, Helene C Vervoort, Karen Tenney, Frederick A Valeriote, Leonard F Bjeldanes, Phillip Crews

Tyler Johnson

A nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) luciferase assay has been employed to identify the bengamides, previously known for their anti-tumor activity, as a new class of immune modulators. A unique element of this study was that the bengamide analogs were isolated from two disparate sources, Myxococcus virescens (bacterium) and Jaspis coriacea (sponge). Comparative LC-MS/ELSD and NMR analysis facilitated the isolation of M. viriscens derived samples of bengamide E (8) and two congeners, bengamide E' (13) and F' (14) each isolated as an insperable mixture of diastereomers. Additional compounds drawn from the UC, Santa Cruz repository allowed expansion of the structure activity ...


A Comprehensive Catalog Of Post-Translational Modifications Of Drosophila Melanogaster Hox Protein, Sex Combs Reduced, Anirban Banerjee Oct 2018

A Comprehensive Catalog Of Post-Translational Modifications Of Drosophila Melanogaster Hox Protein, Sex Combs Reduced, Anirban Banerjee

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

During formation of the anterior-posterior axis, Homeotic selector (HOX) proteins determine the identity of Drosophila body segments. HOX proteins are transcription factors that regulate gene expression during development. Besides a highly conserved DNA-binding homeodomain (HD), HOX proteins also contain functionally important, evolutionarily conserved small motifs. These short motifs found in HOX proteins may be Short Linear Motifs (SLiMs). SLiMs are proposed to be sites of phosphorylation and this may regulate the activity of HOX proteins. The primary aim of this work was to develop a comprehensive catalogue of the sites of phosphorylation and other post-translational modifications (PTMs) for Fushi tarazu ...


Structural And Functional Characterization Of Hyper-Phosphorylated Grk5 Protein Expressed From E. Coli, Joseph M. Krampen, John Tesmer, Qiuyan Chen Aug 2018

Structural And Functional Characterization Of Hyper-Phosphorylated Grk5 Protein Expressed From E. Coli, Joseph M. Krampen, John Tesmer, Qiuyan Chen

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) are proteins in the cell responsible for regulating GPCRs located on the cell membrane. GRKs regulate active GPCRs by phosphorylating them at certain sites which causes them to stop normal signaling on the membrane. This ultimately affects how the cell responds to its environment. GRK5 is a kinase of particular interest due to its involvement in the pathology of diseases such as cardiac failure, cancers, and diabetes. Understanding the structure and function of GRK5 is essential for discovering ways to manipulate its behavior with these diseases, but not much is known about how GRK5 ...


Role Of Protein Charge Density On Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Formation, Xinyu Sun, Dong Li, Zhaoshuai Wang, Panchao Yin, Rundong Hu, Rundong Hu, Hui Li, Qiao Liu, Yunyi Gao, Baiping Ren, Jie Zheng, Yinan Wei, Tianbo Liu Apr 2018

Role Of Protein Charge Density On Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Formation, Xinyu Sun, Dong Li, Zhaoshuai Wang, Panchao Yin, Rundong Hu, Rundong Hu, Hui Li, Qiao Liu, Yunyi Gao, Baiping Ren, Jie Zheng, Yinan Wei, Tianbo Liu

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The role of electrostatic interactions in the viral capsid assembly process was studied by comparing the assembly process of a truncated hepatitis B virus capsid protein Cp149 with its mutant protein D2N/D4N, which has the same conformational structure but four fewer charges per dimer. The capsid protein self-assembly was investigated under a wide range of protein surface charge densities by changing the protein concentration, buffer pH, and solution ionic strength. Lowering the protein charge density favored the capsid formation. However, lowering charge beyond a certain point resulted in capsid aggregation and precipitation. Interestingly, both the wild-type and D2N/D4N ...


Lafora Disease Offers A Unique Window Into Neuronal Glycogen Metabolism, Matthew S. Gentry, Joan J. Guinovart, Berge A. Minassian, Peter J. Roach, Jose M. Serratosa Feb 2018

Lafora Disease Offers A Unique Window Into Neuronal Glycogen Metabolism, Matthew S. Gentry, Joan J. Guinovart, Berge A. Minassian, Peter J. Roach, Jose M. Serratosa

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Lafora disease (LD) is a fatal, autosomal recessive, glycogen-storage disorder that manifests as severe epilepsy. LD results from mutations in the gene encoding either the glycogen phosphatase laforin or the E3 ubiquitin ligase malin. Individuals with LD develop cytoplasmic, aberrant glycogen inclusions in nearly all tissues that more closely resemble plant starch than human glycogen. This Minireview discusses the unique window into glycogen metabolism that LD research offers. It also highlights recent discoveries, including that glycogen contains covalently bound phosphate and that neurons synthesize glycogen and express both glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase.


The Molecular Basis Of Caspase-9 Inactivation By Pka And C-Abl Kinases, Banyuhay Paningbatan Serrano Jan 2018

The Molecular Basis Of Caspase-9 Inactivation By Pka And C-Abl Kinases, Banyuhay Paningbatan Serrano

Doctoral Dissertations

Caspases are the cysteine proteases that facilitate the fundamental pathway of programmed cell death or apoptosis. The activation and function of these powerful enzymes are tightly regulated to ensure the faithful execution of apoptosis and prevent untimely cell death. Many deadly human diseases such as cancer, neurodegeneration and autoimmune disorders have been associated with defective activation and faulty regulation of caspases. As such, caspases are considered as attractive drug targets, which when properly controlled, can lead to effective therapeutics for apoptosis-related diseases. Thus, comprehensive investigations of the structure, function and regulation of caspases are necessary to understand the complex mechanisms ...


Regulation Of Liver Mitochondrial Metabolism During Hibernation By Post-Translational Modification, Katherine E. Mathers Dec 2017

Regulation Of Liver Mitochondrial Metabolism During Hibernation By Post-Translational Modification, Katherine E. Mathers

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hibernation, characterized by a seasonal reduction in metabolism and body temperature, allows animals to conserve energy when environmental conditions (e.g. temperature, food availability) are unfavourable. During hibernation, small mammals such as the 13-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) cycle between two distinct metabolic states: torpor, where metabolic rate is suppressed by >95% and body temperature falls to ~5 °C, and interbout euthermia (IBE), where metabolic rate and body temperature rapidly increase and are maintained at euthermic levels several hours. Suppression of metabolism during entrance into torpor is paralleled by rapid suppression of liver mitochondrial metabolism. In my thesis, I aimed ...


Casein Kinase 2-Mediated Phosphorylation Of Brahma-Related Gene 1 Controls Myoblast Proliferation And Contributes To Swi/Snf Complex Composition, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Brian T. Nasipak, Amanda L. Paskavitz, Dominic T. Haokip, Jake M. Schnabl, Jeffrey A. Nickerson, Anthony N. Imbalzano Nov 2017

Casein Kinase 2-Mediated Phosphorylation Of Brahma-Related Gene 1 Controls Myoblast Proliferation And Contributes To Swi/Snf Complex Composition, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Brian T. Nasipak, Amanda L. Paskavitz, Dominic T. Haokip, Jake M. Schnabl, Jeffrey A. Nickerson, Anthony N. Imbalzano

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

Transcriptional regulation is modulated in part by chromatin-remodeling enzymes that control gene accessibility by altering chromatin compaction or nucleosome positioning. Brahma-related gene 1 (Brg1), a catalytic subunit of the mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling enzymes, is required for both myoblast proliferation and differentiation, and the control of Brg1 phosphorylation by calcineurin, PKCbeta1, and p38 regulates the transition to differentiation. However, we hypothesized that Brg1 activity might be regulated by additional kinases. Here, we report that Brg1 is also a target of casein kinase 2 (CK2), a serine/threonine kinase, in proliferating myoblasts. We found that CK2 interacts with Brg1, and mutation ...


Intrinsic Disorder Within An Akap-Protein Kinase A Complex Guides Local Substrate Phosphorylation, F. Donelson Smith, Steve L. Reichow, Jessica L. Esseltine, Dan Shi, Lorene K. Langeberg, John D. Scott, Tamir Gonen Oct 2017

Intrinsic Disorder Within An Akap-Protein Kinase A Complex Guides Local Substrate Phosphorylation, F. Donelson Smith, Steve L. Reichow, Jessica L. Esseltine, Dan Shi, Lorene K. Langeberg, John D. Scott, Tamir Gonen

Steve Reichow

Anchoring proteins sequester kinases with their substrates to locally disseminate intracellular signals and avert indiscriminate transmission of these responses throughout the cell. Mechanistic understanding of this process is hampered by limited structural information on these macromolecular complexes. A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) spatially constrain phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinases (PKA). Electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstructions of type-II PKA-AKAP18γ complexes reveal hetero-pentameric assemblies that adopt a range of flexible tripartite configurations. Intrinsically disordered regions within each PKA regulatory subunit impart the molecular plasticity that affords an ∼16 nanometer radius of motion to the associated catalytic subunits. Manipulating flexibility within the PKA holoenzyme ...


Cooperative Interaction Of Transcription Termination Factors With The Rna Polymerase Ii C-Terminal Domain, Bradley M. Lunde, Steve Reichow, Minkyu Kim, Hyunsuk Suh, Thomas C. Leeper, Fan Yang, Hannes Mutschler, Stephen Buratowski, Anton Meinhart, Gabriele Varani Oct 2017

Cooperative Interaction Of Transcription Termination Factors With The Rna Polymerase Ii C-Terminal Domain, Bradley M. Lunde, Steve Reichow, Minkyu Kim, Hyunsuk Suh, Thomas C. Leeper, Fan Yang, Hannes Mutschler, Stephen Buratowski, Anton Meinhart, Gabriele Varani

Steve Reichow

Phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II controls the co-transcriptional assembly of RNA processing and transcription factors. Recruitment relies on conserved CTDinteracting domains that recognize different CTD phosphoisoforms during the transcription cycle, but the molecular basis for their specificity remains unclear. We show that the CTD-interacting domains of two transcription termination factors, Rtt103 and Pcf11, achieve high affinity and specificity both by specifically recognizing the phosphorylated CTD and by cooperatively binding to neighboring CTD repeats. Single amino acid mutations at the protein-protein interface abolish cooperativity and affect recruitment at the 3′-end processing site in vivo. We suggest ...


Structural And Functional Effect Of Phosphorylation On Ampa Receptors, Caitlin E. Nurik Aug 2017

Structural And Functional Effect Of Phosphorylation On Ampa Receptors, Caitlin E. Nurik

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Structural and Functional Effect of Phosphorylation on AMPA Receptors

Cailtin Edmunds show you, BA

Advisory Professor: Vasanthi Jayaraman, Ph. D.

The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor is the primary contributor to neuronal fast excitatory transmission, and plays a key role in learning and memory. Previous studies have established that residues S818, S831, and T840 in the C-terminal segment of GluA1 homomeric AMPA receptor are phosphorylated by PKC, and phosphorylation at these sites leads to an increase in receptor conductance. We show that the domain inclusive of those sites alters its secondary structure due to phosphorylation (using glutamate substitution as a mimic ...


Phopsphorylation And Ubiquitin Modification At Dna Damage Sites In Response To Double-Strand Breaks, Atanu Paul May 2017

Phopsphorylation And Ubiquitin Modification At Dna Damage Sites In Response To Double-Strand Breaks, Atanu Paul

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Genomes of all organisms are continuously damaged by numerous exogenous and endogenous sources leading to different kinds of DNA lesions, which if not repaired efficiently may trigger wide-scale genomic instability, a hallmark of cancer development. To overcome this, cells have evolved a sophisticated sensory network called the DNA damage response (DDR) comprised of a large number of distinct protein complexes categorized as sensor, mediator, transducer and effector proteins that amplify the DNA damage signal and activate cell cycle checkpoint to initiate DNA repair or trigger apoptosis where the defect is beyond repair. This intricate signaling pathway is tightly regulated by ...


Quantitative Proteomic Characterization Of Cx-4945, A Clinical Stage Inhibitor Of Protein Kinase Ck2, Adam J. Rabalski Feb 2017

Quantitative Proteomic Characterization Of Cx-4945, A Clinical Stage Inhibitor Of Protein Kinase Ck2, Adam J. Rabalski

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Protein phosphorylation is controlled by protein kinases, and represents a critical signaling mechanism involved in the regulation of fundamental biological processes. Furthermore, the aberrant regulation of kinase activity is implicated in diseases such as cancer and has resulted in efforts to target kinases therapeutically. Protein kinase CK2, although frequently considered constitutively active, has emerged as a clinical target on the basis of its altered expression in different types of human cancers and its regulatory participation in multiple biological processes. In fact, CX-4945, a small molecule ATP-competitive inhibitor of CK2 has advanced to clinical trial and has been widely used to ...


Exploitation And Regulation Of Apoptotic Caspases, Scott Eron Jan 2017

Exploitation And Regulation Of Apoptotic Caspases, Scott Eron

Doctoral Dissertations

Caspases are the cysteine proteases that govern apoptotic cell death. The regulation of these enzymes is critical in order to restrain their death-inducing capabilities until the appropriate moment. Infidelity of caspase regulation and activation underlies a plethora of human diseases ranging from cancer to neurodegeneration. This establishes a pressing need for comprehensive studies of the apoptotic caspases in order to understand all aspects of their regulation, activation, substrate preferences, structure, and function. A detailed structural view of caspase regulation would have lasting implications for future therapeutic avenues targeting caspase function or apoptosis. This dissertation chronicles caspase regulation by phosphorylation as ...


Quantification Of Cell Signaling Networks Using Kinase Activity Chemosensors, Jon R. Beck, Edward N. Harris, Cliff I. Stains Jan 2017

Quantification Of Cell Signaling Networks Using Kinase Activity Chemosensors, Jon R. Beck, Edward N. Harris, Cliff I. Stains

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The ability to directly determine endogenous kinase activity in tissue homogenates provides valuable insights into signaling aberrations that underlie disease phenotypes. When activity data is collected across a panel of kinases, a unique “signaling fingerprint” is generated that allows for discrimination between diseased and normal tissue. Here we describe the use of peptide-based kinase activity sensors to fingerprint the signaling changes associated with disease states. This approach leverages the phosphorylation-sensitive sulfonamido-oxine (Sox) fluorophore to provide a direct readout of kinase enzymatic activity in unfractionated tissue homogenates from animal models or clinical samples. To demonstrate the application of this technology, we ...


Regulation Of Gap Junction Internalization And Degradation, Rachael Kells Andrews Jan 2017

Regulation Of Gap Junction Internalization And Degradation, Rachael Kells Andrews

Theses and Dissertations

Gap junctions (GJs) are channels that traverse the plasma membrane of neighboring cells and provide direct intercellular communication (GJIC) in multi-cellular organisms. GJIC is a prerequisite for coordinated development, differentiation and tissue function; disruption of which can cause disease. Post-translational modification is essential for regulation of GJ trafficking, gating, internalization, and degradation. In the dissertation work presented here (1) I show the role of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) on acute Cx43 (a GJ protein) GJ internalization. I treated primary pulmonary artery endothelial cells (pPAECs) with CME inhibitors after vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulation and analyzed internalization patterns of GJs. VEGF ...


Defining The Role Of Phosphorylation And Dephosphorylation In The Regulation Of Gap Junction Proteins, Hanjun Li Dec 2016

Defining The Role Of Phosphorylation And Dephosphorylation In The Regulation Of Gap Junction Proteins, Hanjun Li

Theses & Dissertations

Gap junctions are intercellular channels that permit the free passage of ions, small metabolites, and signaling molecules between neighboring cells. In the diseased human heart, altered ventricular gap junction organization and connexin expression (i.e., remodeling) are key contributors to rhythm disturbances and contractile dysfunction. Connexin43 (Cx43) is the dominant gap junction protein isoform in the ventricle which is under tight regulation by serine/tyrosine phosphorylation. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation regulate many aspects of Cx43 function including trafficking, assembly and disassembly, electrical and metabolic coupling at the plaque, as well as to modulate the interaction with other proteins.

Serine phosphorylation has ...


The Role Of Phosphorylation In Pam2 Motif-Containing Proteins Mediated Messenger Rna Deadenylation, Kai-Lieh Huang Dec 2016

The Role Of Phosphorylation In Pam2 Motif-Containing Proteins Mediated Messenger Rna Deadenylation, Kai-Lieh Huang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Phosphorylation regulates many cellular processes. However, its role in mRNA deadenylation, a process to remove poly adenosines from the mature mRNA 3’ end tail, is unclear. The length of poly(A) tail determines mRNA stability and translation efficiency. Poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), which binds to newly synthesized poly(A) tails homogeneously and is known as a scaffold protein for PAM2 motif-containing proteins, plays a pivotal role in the shortening of poly (A) tails. This study is to examine the role of phosphorylation of PAM2 motif–containing proteins in regulating their interactions with PABP and mRNA deadenylation function.

The PAM2 ...


P70s6k1 (S6k1)-Mediated Phosphorylation Regulates Phosphatidylinositol 4-Phosphate 5-Kinase Type I Γ Degradation And Cell Invasion, Naser Jafari, Qiaodan Zheng, Liqing Li, Wei Li, Lei Qi, Jianyong Xiao, Tianyan Gao, Cai Huang Oct 2016

P70s6k1 (S6k1)-Mediated Phosphorylation Regulates Phosphatidylinositol 4-Phosphate 5-Kinase Type I Γ Degradation And Cell Invasion, Naser Jafari, Qiaodan Zheng, Liqing Li, Wei Li, Lei Qi, Jianyong Xiao, Tianyan Gao, Cai Huang

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase type I γ (PIPKIγ90) ubiquitination and subsequent degradation regulate focal adhesion assembly, cell migration, and invasion. However, it is unknown how upstream signals control PIPKIγ90 ubiquitination or degradation. Here we show that p70S6K1 (S6K1), a downstream target of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), phosphorylates PIPKIγ90 at Thr-553 and Ser-555 and that S6K1-mediated PIPKIγ90 phosphorylation is essential for cell migration and invasion. Moreover, PIPKIγ90 phosphorylation is required for the development of focal adhesions and invadopodia, key machineries for cell migration and invasion. Surprisingly, substitution of Thr-553 and Ser-555 ...


Role Of Phosphorylation In The Regulation Of Prmt5, Alexsandra B. Espejo Sep 2016

Role Of Phosphorylation In The Regulation Of Prmt5, Alexsandra B. Espejo

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

PRMT5 is a member of a group of proteins that mediate arginine methylation. It is involved in diverse cellular processes, including cell differentiation, splicing, transcription elongation and epigenetic silencing, and its expression is dysregulated in many cancers. Due to its pleiotropic functions, PRMT5 is subject to multi-level regulation. Post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins can modulate an array of cellular processes by regulating both protein interactions and protein structural changes. PRMT5 is commonly found associated with other proteins; these interactions seem to control both its catalytic activity and its substrate specificity. Recently, it became clear that PRMT5 is phosphorylated at a ...


Modulating Parkin E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Activity Using Phospho-Ubiquitin Variants, Susanna George Aug 2016

Modulating Parkin E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Activity Using Phospho-Ubiquitin Variants, Susanna George

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Parkin is a Parkinson’s disease-linked E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase that promotes mitophagy by ubiquitination of mitochondrial outer membrane proteins. Phosphorylation of Ub at Ser65 by the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 activates parkin. The role of other Ub phosphorylation sites and the associated kinases remain unknown. We optimized genetic code expansion to produce pure site-specfically phosphorylated Ub (pUb) variants (pUbS7, pUbS12, pUbS20, pUbS65) and investigated their activity in a key neurodegenerative pathway. Purification of pUbS7 revealed a +3 frameshifted protein (Ub ∆7) that was successfully purified away from the pUb. Parkin was significantly activated when ...


The Role Of Mdm2 Phosphorylation In P53 Responses To Dna Damage And Tumor Suppression: A Dissertation, Michael I. Carr Jul 2016

The Role Of Mdm2 Phosphorylation In P53 Responses To Dna Damage And Tumor Suppression: A Dissertation, Michael I. Carr

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The p53 tumor suppressor protein is upregulated in response to DNA damage and other stress signals. The upregulation of p53 involves freeing it from negative regulation imposed by Mdm2 and MdmX (Mdm4). Accumulating evidence indicates that phosphorylation of Mdm proteins by different stress-activated kinases such as ATM or c-Abl significantly impacts p53 functions. We have previously shown that ATM phosphorylation of Mdm2 Ser394 is required for robust p53 stabilization and activation following DNA damage.

This dissertation describes in vivo examination of the mechanism by which Mdm2 Ser394 phosphorylation impacts p53 activities and its contribution to suppression of oncogene and DNA ...


Novel Mechanisms Governing Autoregulation Of The Src Family Kinase Fyn And Its Crosstalk With Protein Kinase A, Marion Weir Jan 2016

Novel Mechanisms Governing Autoregulation Of The Src Family Kinase Fyn And Its Crosstalk With Protein Kinase A, Marion Weir

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

ABSTRACT

Phosphorylation is a post-translational modification important for regulating protein activity and protein binding capacity. It is used in many different signaling pathways within the cell. Src Family Kinases and Protein Kinase A (PKA) are two prototyptical non-receptor tyrosine and serine/ threonine kinases, respectively, which are found in canonical signaling pathways. These two kinases are critical for signaling in essentially every cell of a multicellular organism, and are particularly important in development, cell migration and proliferation. Although both proteins have been intensely studied for many decades, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms which govern their regulation and the regulation that ...


Functional Roles For Post-Translational Modifications Of T-Snares In Platelets, Jinchao Zhang Jan 2016

Functional Roles For Post-Translational Modifications Of T-Snares In Platelets, Jinchao Zhang

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

Platelets affect vascular integrity by secreting a host of molecules that promote hemostasis and its sequela. Given its importance, it is critical to understand how platelet exocytosis is controlled. Post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation and acylation, have been shown to affect signaling pathways and platelet function. In this dissertation, I focus on how these modifications affect the t-SNARE proteins, SNAP-23 and syntaxin-11, which are both required for platelet secretion. SNAP-23 is regulated by phosphorylation. Using a proteoliposome fusion assay, I demonstrate that purified IκB Kinase (IKK) phosphorylated SNAP-23, which increased the initial rates of SNARE-mediated liposome fusion. SNAP-23 mutants containing ...


The Rational Design And Evaluation Of Ck2alpha Mutants Bearing Inhibitor-Refractory Amino Acid Substitutions, Sam Reid Fess Dec 2015

The Rational Design And Evaluation Of Ck2alpha Mutants Bearing Inhibitor-Refractory Amino Acid Substitutions, Sam Reid Fess

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

CK2 is a ubiquitously expressed and constitutively active serine/threonine protein kinase that is implicated in many cellular functions. Previous studies have indicated that the generation of mutants that are less sensitive to inhibition can be advantageous when studying protein kinases. Importantly, studies have demonstrated that mutants of CK2 rendered less sensitive to inhibition are attainable. To extend these observations, mutants of CK2α were designed and evaluated to test their effect on the inhibition of CK2 by CX-4945 using in vitro enzymatic assays followed by the development of inducible cell lines. CX-4945 is a CK2 inhibitor that has demonstrated anti-tumor ...


Intra-Domain Cross-Talk Regulates Serine-Arginine Protein Kinase 1-Dependent Phosphorylation And Splicing Function Of Transformer 2Β1, Michael A. Jamros, Brandon E. Aubol, Malik M. Keshwani, Zhaiyi Zhang, Stefan Stamm, Joseph A. Adams Jul 2015

Intra-Domain Cross-Talk Regulates Serine-Arginine Protein Kinase 1-Dependent Phosphorylation And Splicing Function Of Transformer 2Β1, Michael A. Jamros, Brandon E. Aubol, Malik M. Keshwani, Zhaiyi Zhang, Stefan Stamm, Joseph A. Adams

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Transformer 2β1 (Tra2β1) is a splicing effector protein composed of a core RNA recognition motif flanked by two arginine-serine-rich (RS) domains, RS1 and RS2. Although Tra2β1-dependent splicing is regulated by phosphorylation, very little is known about how protein kinases phosphorylate these two RS domains. We now show that the serine-arginine protein kinase-1 (SRPK1) is a regulator of Tra2β1 and promotes exon inclusion in the survival motor neuron gene 2 (SMN2). To understand how SRPK1 phosphorylates this splicing factor, we performed mass spectrometric and kinetic experiments. We found that SRPK1 specifically phosphorylates 21 serines in RS1, a process facilitated by a ...


The Role Of Protein Kinases Rog1 And Srf6 In The Wak Stress Response Pathway, Jaepil Eric Yoon May 2015

The Role Of Protein Kinases Rog1 And Srf6 In The Wak Stress Response Pathway, Jaepil Eric Yoon

Jaepil Eric Yoon

The wall-associated kinases (WAKs) are receptor kinases that bind cell wall pectin to activate expansion and stress response pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana. When bound to pectin polymers, WAKs initiate expansion by inducing the expression of vacuolar invertases that increase cellular turgor pressure, which pushes out against the cell wall. WAKs also bind pathogen or wounding induced pectin fragments called oligogalacturonic acids (OGs). When bound to OGs, WAKs induce a stress response, which leads to the activation of MAP kinases, MPK3 and MPK6. Phosphoproteomics and mass spectrometry identified receptor kinase SRF6, cytoplasmic kinase ROG1, and nuclear DNA binding protein REM2 to ...


Beryllium Is A Potent And Unique Gsk-3Β Inhibitor With Potential To Differentially Regulate Glycogen Synthase And Β-Catenin, Ata Ur Rahman Mohammed Abdul May 2015

Beryllium Is A Potent And Unique Gsk-3Β Inhibitor With Potential To Differentially Regulate Glycogen Synthase And Β-Catenin, Ata Ur Rahman Mohammed Abdul

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is an important serine/threonine kinase that phosphorylates/regulates diverse and metabolically important proteins. Some of the important substrates of GSK-3β are glycogen synthase, tau, β-catenin, cyclin D1, axin, c-jun, c-myc, Heat Shock Factor–1, BCL-3, CREB, Histone H1.5, mdm2, p21 (CIP1), pyruvate dehydrogenase and many more. De-regulation of GSK-3β has been implicated in diseases like cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, bipolar disorder and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Currently, GSK-3β is one of the most widely studied proteins and there is a great interest in developing potent and efficient GSK-3β-inhibitors for research as well as therapeutic ...


Myosin-Binding Protein C Corrects An Intrinsic Inhomogeneity In Cardiac Excitation-Contraction Coupling, Michael J. Previs, Benjamin L. Prosser, Ji Young Mun, Samantha Beck Previs, James Gulick, Kyounghwan Lee, Jeffrey Robbins, Roger Craig, W J. Lederer, David M. Warshaw Feb 2015

Myosin-Binding Protein C Corrects An Intrinsic Inhomogeneity In Cardiac Excitation-Contraction Coupling, Michael J. Previs, Benjamin L. Prosser, Ji Young Mun, Samantha Beck Previs, James Gulick, Kyounghwan Lee, Jeffrey Robbins, Roger Craig, W J. Lederer, David M. Warshaw

Cell and Developmental Biology Publications

The beating heart exhibits remarkable contractile fidelity over a lifetime, which reflects the tight coupling of electrical, chemical, and mechanical elements within the sarcomere, the elementary contractile unit. On a beat-to-beat basis, calcium is released from the ends of the sarcomere and must diffuse toward the sarcomere center to fully activate the myosin- and actin-based contractile proteins. The resultant spatial and temporal gradient in free calcium across the sarcomere should lead to nonuniform and inefficient activation of contraction. We show that myosin-binding protein C (MyBP-C), through its positioning on the myosin thick filaments, corrects this nonuniformity in calcium activation by ...


Novel Regulatory Mechanisms By Which Large T Antigen Coordinates The Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Life Cycle, Jason Diaz Jan 2015

Novel Regulatory Mechanisms By Which Large T Antigen Coordinates The Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Life Cycle, Jason Diaz

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Due to its association with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a substantial effort has been made to better understand how Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) proteins drive oncogenesis; however, our understanding of the early steps of MCPyV infection remains poor. The polyomavirus Large Tumor antigen (LT) is a highly multi-functional protein with a wide range of activities, including: stimulation of cellular proliferation through its interaction with retinoblastoma protein and DnaJ heatshock protein family members; arrest of the cell cycle through a poorly understood activity localized to the C-terminal region; and regulation of the initiation of viral DNA replication. LT proteins also play ...