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Articles 1 - 30 of 54

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Some Of The Most Interesting Casp11 Targets Through The Eyes Of Their Authors, Andriy Kryshtafovych, John Moult, Arnaud Basle, Alex Burgin, Timonthy K. Craig, Robert A. Edwards, Deborah Fass, Marcus D. Hartmann, Mateusz Korycinski, Richard J. Lewis, Donald Lorimer, Andrei N. Lupas, Janet Newman, Thomas S. Peat, Kurt H. Piepenbrink, Janani Prahlad, Mark J. Van Raaij, Forest Rohwer, Anca M. Segall, Victor Seguritan, Eric J. Sundberg, Abhimanyu K. Singh, Mark A. Wilson, Torsten Schwede Jun 2019

Some Of The Most Interesting Casp11 Targets Through The Eyes Of Their Authors, Andriy Kryshtafovych, John Moult, Arnaud Basle, Alex Burgin, Timonthy K. Craig, Robert A. Edwards, Deborah Fass, Marcus D. Hartmann, Mateusz Korycinski, Richard J. Lewis, Donald Lorimer, Andrei N. Lupas, Janet Newman, Thomas S. Peat, Kurt H. Piepenbrink, Janani Prahlad, Mark J. Van Raaij, Forest Rohwer, Anca M. Segall, Victor Seguritan, Eric J. Sundberg, Abhimanyu K. Singh, Mark A. Wilson, Torsten Schwede

Kurt Piepenbrink

The Critical Assessment of protein Structure Prediction (CASP) experiment would not have been possible without the prediction targets provided by the experimental structural biology community. In this article, selected crystallographers providing targets for the CASP11 experiment discuss the functional and biological significance of the target proteins, highlight their most interesting structural features, and assess whether these features were correctly reproduced in the predictions submitted to CASP11.


Automatic 13C Chemical Shift Reference Correction Of Protein Nmr Spectral Data Using Data Mining And Bayesian Statistical Modeling, Xi Chen Jan 2019

Automatic 13C Chemical Shift Reference Correction Of Protein Nmr Spectral Data Using Data Mining And Bayesian Statistical Modeling, Xi Chen

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a highly versatile analytical technique for studying molecular configuration, conformation, and dynamics, especially of biomacromolecules such as proteins. However, due to the intrinsic properties of NMR experiments, results from the NMR instruments require a refencing step before the down-the-line analysis. Poor chemical shift referencing, especially for 13C in protein Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments, fundamentally limits and even prevents effective study of biomacromolecules via NMR. There is no available method that can rereference carbon chemical shifts from protein NMR without secondary experimental information such as structure or resonance assignment.

To solve this problem, we ...


Chemoreceptor Dynamics And Signaling: Nmr Measurements Within Functional Complexes, Maryam Kashefi Jan 2019

Chemoreceptor Dynamics And Signaling: Nmr Measurements Within Functional Complexes, Maryam Kashefi

Doctoral Dissertations

Bacteria employ remarkable membrane-bound nanoarrays to sense their environment and direct their swimming. Arrays consist of chemotaxis receptor trimers of dimers that are bridged at their membrane-distal tips by rings of two cytoplasmic proteins, a kinase CheA and a coupling protein CheW. It is widely accepted that ligand binding to the receptor causes a 2 Å piston motion of a helix that extends through the periplasmic and transmembrane domains. However, it is not clear how the signal propagates 200 Å further to control activity of the kinase bound at the tip of the receptor. Dynamic changes within the cytoplasmic domain ...


Biophysical Exploration Of Conformational Environments In Zymogen Prothrombin And Blood Coagulant Thrombin., Ramya Billur May 2018

Biophysical Exploration Of Conformational Environments In Zymogen Prothrombin And Blood Coagulant Thrombin., Ramya Billur

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The serine protease thrombin plays important roles in coagulation, anticoagulation, and platelet activation. Thrombin is initially expressed as the inactive zymogen prothrombin (ProT). The final cleaved and activated form of thrombin has mature anion binding exosites (ABEs) and several regulatory loops. Engagement with these exosites helps define the fate of thrombin as a procoagulant or an anticoagulant. Researchers previously reported that zymogen ProT may already bind exosite ligands. Little is known about conformational changes associated with ProT maturation, resultant ligand binding affinities, individual ligand-protein contacts, and long-range communication between thrombin exosites. Protease Activated Receptors (PARs) play critical roles in controlling ...


Optimization Of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Methods For Measuring Protein Hydration In Reverse Micelles, Christine Jorge Jan 2018

Optimization Of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Methods For Measuring Protein Hydration In Reverse Micelles, Christine Jorge

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Water is fundamental to all aspects of protein function including folding, stability, catalysis, and dynamics. The unique characteristics of water make it the ideal solvent for supporting life but also make it incredibly difficult to study. While much has been learned about the role of water in protein function, a site resolved understanding of these interactions has remained elusive thereby leaving a large hole in the biophysical puzzle. Experimental techniques that provide a site-resolved view of protein hydration without mutation of the protein are necessary to understand the thermodynamic role of water on protein function. It has been shown that ...


Structure, Function & Dynamics At The Membrane, Evan O'Brien Jan 2018

Structure, Function & Dynamics At The Membrane, Evan O'Brien

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The biological membrane is necessary for maintaining cellular identity, yet must also allow for interaction with the extracellular environment in order to respond to stimuli. Proteins that are directly embedded in the membrane or that interact more peripherally are responsible for these extracellular signaling events, which lie at the heart of cell communication. The first major goal of this work was to interrogate the peripheral interaction of cytochrome c and the mitochondrial lipid cardiolipin at atomic resolution using solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques; this interaction is key to promoting apoptosis. After demonstrating that the protein was correctly folded in ...


Reverse Micelle Encapsulation And Its Use In Examining The Interplay Between Hydration And Protein Dynamics, Bryan Stephen Marques Jan 2018

Reverse Micelle Encapsulation And Its Use In Examining The Interplay Between Hydration And Protein Dynamics, Bryan Stephen Marques

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

As the universal solvent, water is unquestionably essential to most aspects of protein biophysics from protein folding to enzymatic activity. Much has been learned about the relationship between proteins and surrounding solvent waters; however, it is often difficult to experimentally examine these interactions in a site-specific manner without perturbing molecular structure. Furthermore, the effect of nearby hydration dynamics on protein dynamics (and, in effect, protein conformational entropy) is poorly understood at atomic resolution. With the use of a combination of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and protein reverse micelle (RM) encapsulation, it is possible to examine both the dynamic behavior ...


Structure Of The Picornavirus Replication Platform: A Potential Drug Target For Inhibiting Virus Replication, Meghan Suzanne Warden Jan 2018

Structure Of The Picornavirus Replication Platform: A Potential Drug Target For Inhibiting Virus Replication, Meghan Suzanne Warden

Chemistry & Biochemistry Theses & Dissertations

Picornaviruses are small, positive-stranded RNA viruses, divided into twelve different genera. Members of the Picornaviridae family cause a wide range of human and animal diseases including the common cold, poliomyelitis, foot and mouth disease, and dilated cardiomyopathy. The picornavirus genome is replicated via a highly conserved mechanism involving a presumed cloverleaf structure located at the 5’ noncoding region of the virus genome. The 5’ cloverleaf consists of three stem loops (B, C, and D) and one stem (A), which interact with a variety of virus and host cell proteins during replication. In this dissertation, human rhinovirus serotype 14 (HRV-14) SLB ...


Insight Into The Interaction Between The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (Pparγ) And Adipocyte Fatty Acid-Binding Protein (A-Fabp), Qian Wang Sep 2017

Insight Into The Interaction Between The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (Pparγ) And Adipocyte Fatty Acid-Binding Protein (A-Fabp), Qian Wang

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The Adipocyte Fatty Acid-Binding Protein (AFABP) is mainly expressed in fat cells. It can bind fatty acids and other lipophilic substances such as eicosanoids and retinoids. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a nuclear receptor protein that requires ligand binding to regulate the specific gene transcription. PPARγ is expressed at extremely high levels in adipose tissue, macrophages, and the large intestine, where it controls lipid adipogenesis and energy conversion. Moreover, it has been found that AFABP and PPARγ can form a complex in vivo. It is proposed that AFABP carries the ligand and enters into the nucleus where it ...


Autoinhibition And Activation Of Parkin, Jacob D. Aguirre Apr 2017

Autoinhibition And Activation Of Parkin, Jacob D. Aguirre

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mutations in the gene encoding parkin, an E3-ubiquitin ligase, result in 50% of Autosomal Recessive Juvenile Parkinsonism cases. Parkin has been identified as a key mediator of mitochondrial regeneration following oxidative stress, and pathogenic mutations have been shown to impair its ubiquitin ligase activity. Neurodegeneration of dopamine-producing neurons appears to be a downstream consequence of parkin loss-of-function, resulting in early-onset forms of Parkinson’s disease. Although ubiquitination activity is essential for its neuroprotective function, parkin is autoinhibited in its native state by various mechanisms, including its N-terminal ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain. Therefore, the overarching objective of this thesis was to structurally ...


The Effects Of Carrier Ligands On Cisplatin Binding To Cysteine And Methionine, Adam C.R Smith Apr 2017

The Effects Of Carrier Ligands On Cisplatin Binding To Cysteine And Methionine, Adam C.R Smith

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

We have reacted several derivatives of the anticancer drug cisplatin with N-acetyl-Lcysteine (N-AcCys) and N-acetyl-L-methionine (N-AcMet), which are two of the primary amino acid targets of platinum. NMR spectroscopy was used to monitor the reactions and determine the effect the different ligands would have on the platinum reactivity. Several of the platinum compounds were tested at pH of 4 and 7, and with platinum:amino acid ratios of 1:1, 2:1 and 1:2. Competition reactions between cysteine and methionine were done to confirm which would react with the platinum compound first. [Pt(dien)(NO3)]+ reacts faster with methionine ...


Reactivity Of Ketyl And Acetyl Radicals From Direct Solar Actinic Photolysis Of Aqueous Pyruvic Acid, Alexis J. Eugene, Marcelo I. Guzman Mar 2017

Reactivity Of Ketyl And Acetyl Radicals From Direct Solar Actinic Photolysis Of Aqueous Pyruvic Acid, Alexis J. Eugene, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The variable composition of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) contributes to the large uncertainty for predicting radiative forcing. A better understanding of the reaction mechanisms leading to aerosol formation such as for the photochemical reaction of aqueous pyruvic acid (PA) at λ ≥ 305 nm can contribute to constrain these uncertainties. Herein, the photochemistry of aqueous PA (5-300 mM) continuously sparged with air is re-examined in the laboratory under comparable irradiance at 38° N at noon on a summer day. Several analytical methods are employed to monitor the time series of the reaction, including (1) the derivatization of carbonyl (C═O) functional ...


Characterization Of Lipid Rafts In Human Platelets Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: A Pilot Study, Joshua F. Ceñido, Boris Itin, Ruth E. Stark, Yung-Yu Huang, Maria A. Oquendo, J. John Mann, M. Elizabeth Sublette Mar 2017

Characterization Of Lipid Rafts In Human Platelets Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: A Pilot Study, Joshua F. Ceñido, Boris Itin, Ruth E. Stark, Yung-Yu Huang, Maria A. Oquendo, J. John Mann, M. Elizabeth Sublette

Publications and Research

Lipid microdomains (‘lipid rafts’) are plasma membrane subregions, enriched in cholesterol and glycosphingolipids, which participate dynamically in cell signaling and molecular trafficking operations. One strategy for the study of the physicochemical properties of lipid rafts in model membrane systems has been the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), but until now this spectroscopic method has not been considered a clinically relevant tool. We performed a proof-of-concept study to test the feasibility of using NMR to study lipid rafts in human tissues. Platelets were selected as a cost-effective and minimally invasive model system in which lipid rafts have previously been studied ...


Metabolic Investigations Of The Molecular Mechanisms Associated With Parkinson’S Disease, Robert Powers, Shulei Lei, Annadurai Anandhan, Darrell D. Marshall, Bradley Worley, Ronald Cerny, Eric D. Dodds, Yuting Huang, Mihalis I. Panayiotidis, Aglaia Pappa, Rodrigo Franco Jan 2017

Metabolic Investigations Of The Molecular Mechanisms Associated With Parkinson’S Disease, Robert Powers, Shulei Lei, Annadurai Anandhan, Darrell D. Marshall, Bradley Worley, Ronald Cerny, Eric D. Dodds, Yuting Huang, Mihalis I. Panayiotidis, Aglaia Pappa, Rodrigo Franco

Robert Powers Publications

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by fibrillar cytoplasmic aggregates of α-synuclein (i.e., Lewy bodies) and the associated loss of dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra. Mutations in genes such as α -synuclein (SNCA) account for only 10% of PD occurrences. Exposure to environmental toxicants including pesticides and metals (e.g., paraquat (PQ) and manganese (Mn)) is also recognized as an important PD risk factor. Thus, aging, genetic alterations, and environmental factors all contribute to the etiology of PD. In fact, both genetic and environmental factors are thought to interact in the promotion of idiopathic PD ...


Structure Determination Of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Heparin-Binding Domain In Complex With A Dna Aptamer, Sabrina Robin Hunt Jan 2017

Structure Determination Of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Heparin-Binding Domain In Complex With A Dna Aptamer, Sabrina Robin Hunt

Chemistry & Biochemistry Graduate Theses & Dissertations (1986-2018)

Vascular endothelial growth factor is a cytokine that is required for the maintenance of healthy vasculature, and it is responsible for a variety of pathogenic conditions, such as age-related macular degeneration and tumor growth in numerous cancers. As an important therapeutic target, vascular endothelial growth factor has been the focus of many in vitro selection strategies to identify aptamers that bind the protein with high affinity and specificity. One of these is a 25-nucleotide DNA aptamer that targets the heparin-binding domain (HBD) of vascular endothelial growth factor. The work presented here focuses on determining the solution structure of the HBD-aptamer ...


An Enzymology And Structural Biology Approach Towards Elucidation Of E. Coli Fatty Acid Biosynthesis And Its Application To The Production Of Bio-Renewables, Aaron Michael Marcella Jan 2017

An Enzymology And Structural Biology Approach Towards Elucidation Of E. Coli Fatty Acid Biosynthesis And Its Application To The Production Of Bio-Renewables, Aaron Michael Marcella

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Prokaryotic fatty acid biosynthesis is an important process to study due to its necessity for cell survival and production of highly reduced carbon chains. A characterization of several proteins involved in E. coli fatty acid biosynthesis is presented. This work provides a method for generating large amounts of pure malonyl acyl-carrier-protein using both the wild type malonyl-CoA:holo-ACP transacylase (FabD) and a variant studied further in our lab. This preparation overcomes the phenomena of a 50:50 mixture of malonyl and acetyl-ACP in the reaction and is crucial for the efficacy of future assays involving malonyl-ACP. A new assay has ...


Nmrfx Processor: A Cross-Platform Nmr Data Processing Program, Michael Norris, Bayard Fetler, Jan Marchant, Bruce A. Johnson Jul 2016

Nmrfx Processor: A Cross-Platform Nmr Data Processing Program, Michael Norris, Bayard Fetler, Jan Marchant, Bruce A. Johnson

Advanced Science Research Center

NMRFx Processor is a new program for the processing of NMR data. Written in the Java programming language, NMRFx Processor is a cross-platform application and runs on Linux, Mac OS X and Windows operating systems. The application can be run in both a graphical user interface (GUI) mode and from the command line. Processing scripts are written in the Python programming language and executed so that the low-level Java commands are automatically run in parallel on computers with multiple cores or CPUs. Processing scripts can be generated automatically from the parameters of NMR experiments or interactively constructed in the GUI ...


Interaction Of Spliceosomal U2 Snrnp Protein P14 With Its Branch Site Rna Target, William Perea Vargas Jun 2016

Interaction Of Spliceosomal U2 Snrnp Protein P14 With Its Branch Site Rna Target, William Perea Vargas

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Newly transcribed precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) molecules contain coding sequences (exons) interspersed with non-coding intervening sequences (introns). These introns must be removed in order to generate a continuous coding sequence prior to translation of the message into protein. The mechanism through which these introns are removed is known as pre-mRNA splicing, a two-step reaction catalyzed be a large macromolecular machine, the spliceosome, located in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. The spliceosome is a protein-directed ribozyme composed of small nuclear RNAs (snRNA) and hundreds of proteins that assemble in a very dynamic process. One of these snRNAs, the U2 snRNA, is ...


The Nmr Solution Structure And Function Of Rpa3313: A Hypothetical Protein From R. Palustris, Austin J. Lowe, Jonathan Catazaro, Cheryl Arrowsmith, Robert Powers Apr 2016

The Nmr Solution Structure And Function Of Rpa3313: A Hypothetical Protein From R. Palustris, Austin J. Lowe, Jonathan Catazaro, Cheryl Arrowsmith, Robert Powers

UCARE Research Products

Protein function elucidation often relies heavily on amino acid sequence analysis and other bioinformatics approaches. The reliance is further extended to structure homology modeling for ligand docking and protein-protein interaction mapping. However, sequence analysis of RPA3313 exposes a large, unannotated class of hypothetical proteins mostly from the Rhizobiales order. In the absence of sequence and structure information, further functional elucidation of this class of proteins has been significantly hindered. A high quality NMR structure of RPA3313 reveals that the protein forms a novel split βαβ fold with a conserved ligand binding pocket between the first β-strand and the N-terminus of ...


Computational Modeling Of Rna-Small Molecule And Rna-Protein Interactions, Lu Chen Aug 2015

Computational Modeling Of Rna-Small Molecule And Rna-Protein Interactions, Lu Chen

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The past decade has witnessed an era of RNA biology; despite the considerable discoveries nowadays, challenges still remain when one aims to screen RNA-interacting small molecule or RNA-interacting protein. These challenges imply an immediate need for cost-efficient while predictive computational tools capable of generating insightful hypotheses to discover novel RNA-interacting small molecule or RNA-interacting protein. Thus, we implemented novel computational models in this dissertation to predict RNA-ligand interactions (Chapter 1) and RNA-protein interactions (Chapter 2).

Targeting RNA has not garnered comparable interest as protein, and is restricted by lack of computational tools for structure-based drug design. To test the potential ...


Structural Elucidation Of Aggr-Activated Regulator, Aar, In Enteroaggregative Escherichia Coli, Andrew Heindel May 2015

Structural Elucidation Of Aggr-Activated Regulator, Aar, In Enteroaggregative Escherichia Coli, Andrew Heindel

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Travelers’ Diarrhea is the number one cause of childhood death in the world. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is one of the main causes of this disease. EAEC adhere to the surface of the intestine and stack in a brick-like pattern. Via an unstudied quorum-sensing mechanism, these bacteria express a variety of virulence factors that lead to diarrhea. The long-term goal of this research is to elucidate the mechanism by which EAEC changes from benign to virulent. A previously-unstudied open-reading frame in EAEC, AggR activated repressor (Aar), has recently been hypothesized to act as one of the major transcription factors influencing ...


Conformational Heterogeneity And Exchange Within The Junction Of The Human U2-U6 Snrna Complex Measured By 19f Nmr Spectroscopy, Caijie Zhao Feb 2015

Conformational Heterogeneity And Exchange Within The Junction Of The Human U2-U6 Snrna Complex Measured By 19f Nmr Spectroscopy, Caijie Zhao

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Pre-mRNA splicing, the process by which non-coding sequences are removed and coding sequences are ligated, plays an important role in the maturation of precursor messenger RNA molecules prior to their translation into proteins. In eukaryotes, splicing is catalyzed by the spliceosome, a large and dynamic nuclear macromolecular "machine" that comprises five small nuclear (sn)RNA molecules and more than one hundred proteins. Among the RNA components, the complex formed between the U2 and U6 snRNA molecules is implicated in catalytic activity. In this dissertation, I have used 19F NMR techniques to characterize the conformation ("fold") and dynamics of a ...


Profiling Fatty Acid Composition Of Brown Adipose Tissue, White Adipose Tissue And Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue Of Healthy And Diet-Induced Obese Mice, Urszula Osinska Warncke Jan 2015

Profiling Fatty Acid Composition Of Brown Adipose Tissue, White Adipose Tissue And Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue Of Healthy And Diet-Induced Obese Mice, Urszula Osinska Warncke

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Bone marrow adipose tissue (MAT) contains a fat depot of unknown function. Characterization of this tissue in healthy and pathophysiological conditions may be an important step in order to understand MAT contribution to development of osteoporosis and perhaps to develop means to improve bone health by manipulation with a phenotype of MAT. Here we demonstrate that MAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and white adipose tissue (WAT) derived from healthy mice differ in fatty acid and phospholipid composition. The profile of MAT changed to resemble a less-metabolically active tissue upon metabolic impairment as seen in diet-induced obesity. Additionally, PPARγ activation alters ...


Representing Protein Native States Using Weighted Conformation Ensembles, Vijay Vammi Jan 2015

Representing Protein Native States Using Weighted Conformation Ensembles, Vijay Vammi

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The important structural and functional roles played by proteins in the proper functioning of cellular processes cannot be overstated. To comprehensively understand their functional behaviors, structural models derived from experimental data have been developed and these models have played a significant role in explaining the functional mechanisms of proteins. The paradigm "structure drives function" had been active for many years until recent evidence suggested that the complex functions of proteins could not be fully explained by a single structure and dynamics played a very important role in deciphering their functions. To incorporate dynamics into structural representations, ensembles of conformations, instead ...


Sharp Rna Recognition Motif Optimizations, Extensions, And Mutations For Use In 2d And 3d Nmr Experiments, Shaun M. Christie Jan 2015

Sharp Rna Recognition Motif Optimizations, Extensions, And Mutations For Use In 2d And 3d Nmr Experiments, Shaun M. Christie

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

SMRT/HDAC Associated Repressor Protein interacts with the long noncoding RNA, produced by SRA, by binding at the RRMs. Three projects were done to prepare the truncated proteins for use in 2D and 3D NMR experiments. The first focuses on RRM 3 and its optimization during the purification process. The second focuses on RRM 2-4, which was found to be missing two alpha helices that may be important for protein stability. These helices can also interact with RRM 3 as well due to the tight association of RRMs 3 and 4. The two step PCR extension of RRM 2-4 was ...


Some Of The Most Interesting Casp11 Targets Through The Eyes Of Their Authors, Andriy Kryshtafovych, John Moult, Arnaud Basle, Alex Burgin, Timonthy K. Craig, Robert A. Edwards, Deborah Fass, Marcus D. Hartmann, Mateusz Korycinski, Richard J. Lewis, Donald Lorimer, Andrei N. Lupas, Janet Newman, Thomas S. Peat, Kurt H. Piepenbrink, Janani Prahlad, Mark J. Van Raaij, Forest Rohwer, Anca M. Segall, Victor Seguritan, Eric J. Sundberg, Abhimanyu K. Singh, Mark A. Wilson, Torsten Schwede Jan 2015

Some Of The Most Interesting Casp11 Targets Through The Eyes Of Their Authors, Andriy Kryshtafovych, John Moult, Arnaud Basle, Alex Burgin, Timonthy K. Craig, Robert A. Edwards, Deborah Fass, Marcus D. Hartmann, Mateusz Korycinski, Richard J. Lewis, Donald Lorimer, Andrei N. Lupas, Janet Newman, Thomas S. Peat, Kurt H. Piepenbrink, Janani Prahlad, Mark J. Van Raaij, Forest Rohwer, Anca M. Segall, Victor Seguritan, Eric J. Sundberg, Abhimanyu K. Singh, Mark A. Wilson, Torsten Schwede

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The Critical Assessment of protein Structure Prediction (CASP) experiment would not have been possible without the prediction targets provided by the experimental structural biology community. In this article, selected crystallographers providing targets for the CASP11 experiment discuss the functional and biological significance of the target proteins, highlight their most interesting structural features, and assess whether these features were correctly reproduced in the predictions submitted to CASP11.


Dysfunctional Conformational Dynamics Of Protein Kinase A Induced By A Lethal Mutant Of Phospholamban Hinder Phosphorylation, Jonggul Kim, Larry R. Masterson, Alessandro Cembran, Raffaello Verardi, Lei Shi, Jiali Gao, Susan S. Taylor, Gianluigi Veglia Dec 2014

Dysfunctional Conformational Dynamics Of Protein Kinase A Induced By A Lethal Mutant Of Phospholamban Hinder Phosphorylation, Jonggul Kim, Larry R. Masterson, Alessandro Cembran, Raffaello Verardi, Lei Shi, Jiali Gao, Susan S. Taylor, Gianluigi Veglia

Larry Masterson

In the heart, phospholamban regulates Ca2+-ATPase function, controlling cardiac output. A single deletion (R14del) in the phospholamban recognition sequence kinase A is linked to the progression of familial dilated cardiomyopathy, a leading cause of death worldwide. Here, we provide the molecular mechanism for the sluggish phosphorylation of R14del by protein kinase A. We found that the R14 deletion affects the organization of the active site, which remains partially open and quite dynamic, preventing the formation of catalytically committed complex. We conclude that well-tuned structural and dynamic interplay between kinase and substrate is crucial for efficient phosphorylation. These results ...


Mechanistics Of Prothymosin Alpha And Nrf2 In The Keap1-Nrf2 Mediated Oxidative Stress Response, Halema Khan Aug 2014

Mechanistics Of Prothymosin Alpha And Nrf2 In The Keap1-Nrf2 Mediated Oxidative Stress Response, Halema Khan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In an effort to dissect the mechanism of interaction of IDPs, in this thesis we focus on Prothymosin a (ProTa) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), intrinsically disordered proteins, in the Nrf2 mediated oxidative stress response. Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) is an inhibitor of Nrf2, a key transcription factor of cytoprotective genes. Under unstressed conditions, Keap1 interacts with Nrf2 in the cytoplasm via its Kelch domain and suppresses Nrf2 activity. During oxidative stress, Nrf2 is released from Keap1 and is shuttled to the nucleus, where it initiates pro cell survival gene transcription. ProTa also interacts with the ...


Effects Of Statin Drugs And Tocotrienol Rich Fraction Supplementation In Chronic Hemodialysis Patients And Metabolomic Profile, Eno Latifi Jan 2014

Effects Of Statin Drugs And Tocotrienol Rich Fraction Supplementation In Chronic Hemodialysis Patients And Metabolomic Profile, Eno Latifi

Wayne State University Theses

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is known as a heterogeneous disorder which currently is on the rise and lately has been classified as a public health issues in the United State and worldwide. CKD is an irreversible and progressive disease which can lead to kidney failure, and this is depicted by the advanced stage of the disorder when it reaches the point, that is classified as end stage of renal disease (ESRD) (Stage 5 of CKD) (eGRF <15 mL/min/ 1.73 m2 working capacity), where both organs are in a total or permanent kidney failure. End-Stage renal disease patients, on hemodialysis have been associated to experience an accelerated form of atherosclerosis, which is induced by inflammation, impairment of antioxidant system and elevated oxidative stress. Since the problem effecting ESRD patients is multifactorial, the objective of this investigation is to explore and look at the effects of supplementing with vitamin E-tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF), a micronutrient which has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and lipid lower capabilities into tackling these comorbid conditions experienced by this population. Therefore the aims of this investigation will be to explore changes in lipid profiles, inflammatory markers, and oxidative status, as well as look at any changes in metabolomic profiles. It was hypothesized that by supplementing with TRF a vitamin E, for 16 weeks in ESRD patients undergoing hemodialysis, it may help reverse and/or improve, oxidative status, inflammatory markers, increase antioxidants status and improve lipid profiles.

The study was double-blinded, randomized, parallel, placebo-controlled design trial, of 81 adult patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis at Great Lake Dialysis Clinic, Detroit MI, where ...


The Development And Applications Of Nmr Metabolomics Analysis Of Bacterial Metabolomes, Steven M. Halouska Dec 2013

The Development And Applications Of Nmr Metabolomics Analysis Of Bacterial Metabolomes, Steven M. Halouska

Student Research Projects, Dissertations, and Theses - Chemistry Department

Metabolomics is a relatively new field that involves the study of metabolic responses that are occurring within a biological system. Metabolite profiles of an organism, tissue extract, and biofluids are important indicators to determine the physiological state of a biological profile. Comparison of such profiles from different phenotypes can be used to identify specific metabolic changes leading to the understanding of metabolic pathways, disease progression, drug toxicity and efficacy, and cellular responses to different intracellular and extracellular conditions. Metabolomics investigations often use sophisticated analytical techniques such as NMR spectroscopy to provide an unbiased and comprehensive approach to evaluate metabolic perturbation ...