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Articles 1 - 30 of 143

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Molecular Relatedness Of Two Distinct Type Iv Crispr-Associated (Cas) Proteins, Matt Armbrust Mar 2019

Molecular Relatedness Of Two Distinct Type Iv Crispr-Associated (Cas) Proteins, Matt Armbrust

Research on Capitol Hill

CRISPR-Cas systems are prokaryotic adaptive immune systems. Bacteria use CRISPR systems as a defense against foreign nucleic acid invasion such as phage infection.


Expression, Purification, And Inhibition Profile Of Dihydrofolate Reductase From The Filarial Nematode Wuchereria Bancrofti, Andrew M. Tobias, Dea Toska, Keith Lange, Tyler Eck, Rohit Bhat, Cheryl A. Janson, David P. Rotella, Ueli Gubler, Nina M. Goodey May 2018

Expression, Purification, And Inhibition Profile Of Dihydrofolate Reductase From The Filarial Nematode Wuchereria Bancrofti, Andrew M. Tobias, Dea Toska, Keith Lange, Tyler Eck, Rohit Bhat, Cheryl A. Janson, David P. Rotella, Ueli Gubler, Nina M. Goodey

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

Filariasis is a tropical disease caused by the parasitic nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi. Known inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) have been previously shown to kill Brugia malayi nematodes and to inhibit Brugia malayi DHFR (BmDHFR) at nanomolar concentrations. These data suggest that BmDHFR is a potential target for the treatment of filariasis. Here, protocols for cloning, expression and purification of Wuchereria bancrofti DHFR (WbDHFR) were developed. The Uniprot entry J9F199-1 predicts a 172 amino acid protein for WbDHFR but alignment of this sequence to the previously described BmDHFR shows that this WbDHFR sequence lacks a crucial, conserved 13 ...


Complete Sequencing And Comparative Analysis Of The Genomes Of The First Magnetotactic Gammaproteobacteria Isolated In Pure Culture: Strains Bw-2 And Ss-5, Corey Geurink Dec 2017

Complete Sequencing And Comparative Analysis Of The Genomes Of The First Magnetotactic Gammaproteobacteria Isolated In Pure Culture: Strains Bw-2 And Ss-5, Corey Geurink

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The genomes of the first two discovered magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) belonging to the ammaproteobacteria, strains BW-2 and SS-51, were sequenced, sealed, annotated and compared to MTB of other phylogenetic groups. Cells of both strains are rod-shaped and biomineralize cuboctahedral and elongated octahedral crystals of magnetite, respectively, that are enveloped in a protein-embedded, lipid-bilayer membrane referred to as the magnetosome membrane or vesicle. The crystals and their associated membranes are known as magnetosomes. Magnetosome crystals consist of either magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4) and, because of their specific mineral compositions, crystal morphologies and sizes, the biomineralization processes involved in magnetosome formation ...


Primate Proteomic Composition Of Seminal Plasma And Prostate-Specific Transglutaminase Activity In Relation To Sexual Selection., Amanda M.C. Zielen Jan 2017

Primate Proteomic Composition Of Seminal Plasma And Prostate-Specific Transglutaminase Activity In Relation To Sexual Selection., Amanda M.C. Zielen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Humans (Homo sapiens), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) have diverse mating systems with varying levels of sperm competition. Several seminal plasma genes have been claimed to evolve under positive selection, while others are altered or lost. This study aims to identify biologically relevant differences among seminal plasma proteomes of primates in relation to mating systems and previous genomic studies. Seminal plasma from three individuals of each species were run in triplicate in shotgun liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and confirmed with Western blots. Over 7,000 peptides were identified across all individuals; 168 proteins were identified ...


Activation-Triggered Subunit Exchange Between Camkii Holoenzymes Facilitates The Spread Of Kinase Activity, Margaret M. Stratton, I H. Lee, M Bhattacharyya, S M. Christensen, L H. Chao, H Schulman, J T. Groves, J Kuriyan Sep 2016

Activation-Triggered Subunit Exchange Between Camkii Holoenzymes Facilitates The Spread Of Kinase Activity, Margaret M. Stratton, I H. Lee, M Bhattacharyya, S M. Christensen, L H. Chao, H Schulman, J T. Groves, J Kuriyan

Margaret Stratton

The activation of the dodecameric Ca2+/calmodulin dependent kinase II (CaMKII) holoenzyme is critical for memory formation. We now report that CaMKII has a remarkable property, which is that activation of the holoenzyme triggers the exchange of subunits between holoenzymes, including unactivated ones, enabling the calcium-independent phosphorylation of new subunits. We show, using a single-molecule TIRF microscopy technique, that the exchange process is triggered by the activation of CaMKII, and that exchange is modulated by phosphorylation of two residues in the calmodulin-binding segment, Thr 305 and Thr 306. Based on these results, and on the analysis of molecular dynamics simulations ...


Mechanism Of Lysine 48 Selectivity During Polyubiquitin Chain Formation By The Ube2r1/2 Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme, Spencer Hill, Joseph S. Harrison, Steven M. Lewis, Brian Kuhlman, Gary Kleiger Jun 2016

Mechanism Of Lysine 48 Selectivity During Polyubiquitin Chain Formation By The Ube2r1/2 Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme, Spencer Hill, Joseph S. Harrison, Steven M. Lewis, Brian Kuhlman, Gary Kleiger

College of the Pacific Faculty Articles

Lysine selectivity is of critical importance during polyubiquitin chain formation because the identity of the lysine controls the biological outcome. Ubiquitins are covalently linked in polyubiquitin chains through one of seven lysine residues on its surface and the C terminus of adjacent protomers. Lys 48-linked polyubiquitin chains signal for protein degradation; however, the structural basis for Lys 48 selectivity remains largely unknown. The ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ube2R1/2 has exquisite specificity for Lys 48, and computational docking of Ube2R1/2 and ubiquitin predicts that Lys 48 is guided to the active site through a key electrostatic interaction between Arg 54 on ...


Molecular Mechanism Of Activation-Triggered Subunit Exchange In Human Camkii, M Bhattacharyya, Margaret M. Stratton, Catherine Going, Yongjian Huang, Ethan Mcspadden, Anna Elleman, Pawel Burkhwat, Tiago Barros, Evan Williams, John Kuriyan Jan 2016

Molecular Mechanism Of Activation-Triggered Subunit Exchange In Human Camkii, M Bhattacharyya, Margaret M. Stratton, Catherine Going, Yongjian Huang, Ethan Mcspadden, Anna Elleman, Pawel Burkhwat, Tiago Barros, Evan Williams, John Kuriyan

Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Department Faculty Publication Series

Activation triggers the exchange of subunits in Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), an oligomeric enzyme that is critical for learning, memory, and cardiac function. The mechanism by which subunit exchange occurs remains elusive. We show that the human CaMKII holoenzyme exists in dodecameric and tetradecameric forms, and that the calmodulin (CaM)-binding element of CaMKII can bind to the hub of the holoenzyme and destabilize it to release dimers. The structures of CaMKII from two distantly diverged organisms suggest that the CaM-binding element of activated CaMKII acts as a wedge by docking at intersubunit interfaces in the hub. This ...


Genomic And Experimental Evidence For Multiple Metabolic Functions In The Rida/Yjgf/Yer057c/Uk114 (Rid) Protein Family, Thomas D. Niehaus, Svetlana Gerdes, Kelsey Hodge-Hanson, Aleksey Zhukov, Arthur J L Cooper, Mona Elbadawi-Sidhu May 2015

Genomic And Experimental Evidence For Multiple Metabolic Functions In The Rida/Yjgf/Yer057c/Uk114 (Rid) Protein Family, Thomas D. Niehaus, Svetlana Gerdes, Kelsey Hodge-Hanson, Aleksey Zhukov, Arthur J L Cooper, Mona Elbadawi-Sidhu

NYMC Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: It is now recognized that enzymatic or chemical side-reactions can convert normal metabolites to useless or toxic ones and that a suite of enzymes exists to mitigate such metabolite damage. Examples are the reactive imine/enamine intermediates produced by threonine dehydratase, which damage the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate cofactor of various enzymes causing inactivation. This damage is pre-empted by RidA proteins, which hydrolyze the imines before they do harm. RidA proteins belong to the YjgF/YER057c/UK114 family (here renamed the Rid family). Most other members of this diverse and ubiquitous family lack defined functions.

RESULTS: Phylogenetic analysis divided the ...


Investigations Into The Molecular Mechanisms Of Bacterial Pathogen-Host Interactions: Construction Of A Dual Plasmid System For Incorporation Of Unnatural Amino Acids Into Pseudomonas Syringae Pv. Tomato Dc3000, Scotty D. Raber May 2015

Investigations Into The Molecular Mechanisms Of Bacterial Pathogen-Host Interactions: Construction Of A Dual Plasmid System For Incorporation Of Unnatural Amino Acids Into Pseudomonas Syringae Pv. Tomato Dc3000, Scotty D. Raber

Student Research Projects, Dissertations, and Theses - Chemistry Department

A dual plasmid system for the incorporation of unnatural amino acids into plant pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, has been designed. This invention is expected to allow (a) mutations of proteins synthesized by the bacterium, P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000, that can capture molecular targets, especially for such modified proteins secreted by the phytopathogen into the host plant cells of A. thaliana and S. lycopersicum, (b) expression of biological probes in the bacterial species to monitor changes in redox, nutritional, and other small molecule states over pre-, post- and in situ disease stages, and (c) secretion of such biological ...


Molecular Effects Of Cancer-Associated Somatic Mutations On The Structural And Target Recognition Properties Of Keap1., Halema Khan, Ryan C Killoran, Anne Brickenden, Jingsong Fan, Daiwen Yang, Wing-Yiu Choy Apr 2015

Molecular Effects Of Cancer-Associated Somatic Mutations On The Structural And Target Recognition Properties Of Keap1., Halema Khan, Ryan C Killoran, Anne Brickenden, Jingsong Fan, Daiwen Yang, Wing-Yiu Choy

Biochemistry Publications

Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) plays an important regulatory role in the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-dependent oxidative stress response pathway. It functions as a repressor of Nrf2, a key transcription factor that initiates the expression of cytoprotective enzymes during oxidative stress to protect cells from damage caused by reactive oxygen species. Recent studies show that mutations of Keap1 can lead to aberrant activation of the antioxidant pathway, which is associated with different types of cancers. To gain a mechanistic understanding of the links between Keap1 mutations and cancer pathogenesis, we have investigated the molecular effects of ...


Fap206 Is A Microtubule-Docking Adapter For Ciliary Radial Spoke 2 And Dynein C, Krishna K. Vasudevan, Kangkang Song, Lea M. Alford, Winfield Sale, Erin E. Dymek, Elizabeth F. Smith, Todd Hennessey, Ewa Joachimiak, Paulina Urbanska, Dorota Wloga, William Dentler, Daniela Nicastro, Jacek Gaertig Dec 2014

Fap206 Is A Microtubule-Docking Adapter For Ciliary Radial Spoke 2 And Dynein C, Krishna K. Vasudevan, Kangkang Song, Lea M. Alford, Winfield Sale, Erin E. Dymek, Elizabeth F. Smith, Todd Hennessey, Ewa Joachimiak, Paulina Urbanska, Dorota Wloga, William Dentler, Daniela Nicastro, Jacek Gaertig

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Radial spokes are conserved macromolecular complexes that are essential for ciliary motility. A triplet of three radial spokes, RS1, RS2, and RS3, repeats every 96 nm along the doublet microtubules. Each spoke has a distinct base that docks to the doublet and is linked to different inner dynein arms. Little is known about the assembly and functions of individual radial spokes. A knockout of the conserved ciliary protein FAP206 in the ciliate Tetrahymena resulted in slow cell motility. Cryo–electron tomography showed that in the absence of FAP206, the 96-nm repeats lacked RS2 and dynein c. Occasionally, RS2 assembled but ...


Structural Basis For Activation Of Calcineurin By Calmodulin, Julie Rumi-Masante, Farai I. Rusinga, Terrence E. Lester, Tori B. Dunlap, Todd D. Williams, A. Keith Dunker, David D. Weis, Trevor P. Creamer Oct 2014

Structural Basis For Activation Of Calcineurin By Calmodulin, Julie Rumi-Masante, Farai I. Rusinga, Terrence E. Lester, Tori B. Dunlap, Todd D. Williams, A. Keith Dunker, David D. Weis, Trevor P. Creamer

Trevor P. Creamer

The highly conserved phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) plays vital roles in numerous processes including T-cell activation, development and function of the central nervous system, and cardiac growth. It is activated by the calcium sensor calmodulin (CaM). CaM binds to a regulatory domain (RD) within CaN, causing a conformational change that displaces an autoinhibitory domain (AID) from the active site, resulting in activation of the phosphatase. This is the same general mechanism by which CaM activates CaM-dependent protein kinases. Previously published data have hinted that the RD of CaN is intrinsically disordered. In this work, we demonstrate that the RD is unstructured ...


Huwe1 Is A Molecular Link Controlling Raf-1 Activity Supported By The Shoc2 Scaffold, Eun Ryoung Jang, Ping Shi, Jamal Bryant, Jing Chen, Vikas Dukhande, Matthew S. Gentry, Hyein Jang, Myoungkun Jeoung, Emilia Galperin Oct 2014

Huwe1 Is A Molecular Link Controlling Raf-1 Activity Supported By The Shoc2 Scaffold, Eun Ryoung Jang, Ping Shi, Jamal Bryant, Jing Chen, Vikas Dukhande, Matthew S. Gentry, Hyein Jang, Myoungkun Jeoung, Emilia Galperin

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Scaffold proteins play a critical role in controlling the activity of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway. Shoc2 is a leucine-rich repeat scaffold protein that acts as a positive modulator of ERK1/2 signaling. However, the precise mechanism by which Shoc2 modulates the activity of the ERK1/2 pathway is unclear. Here we report the identification of the E3 ubiquitin ligase HUWE1 as a binding partner and regulator of Shoc2 function. HUWE1 mediates ubiquitination and, consequently, the levels of Shoc2. Additionally, we show that both Shoc2 and HUWE1 are necessary to control the levels and ubiquitination of ...


Characterizing Populations Of Non-Coding Rnas In Karenia Brevis At Different Times Of The Diel Cycle, Scott Boyd Anglin Aug 2014

Characterizing Populations Of Non-Coding Rnas In Karenia Brevis At Different Times Of The Diel Cycle, Scott Boyd Anglin

Master's Theses

Karenia brevis is a mixotrophic, marine dinoflagellate found in the Gulf of Mexico that generates periodic, if not annual, harmful algal blooms (also known as “red tides”) in certain coastal areas. In an effort to better understand the biology of this organism, a functional genomics project has been initiated. As part of that project, it has been determined that a significant number of natural antisense transcripts (NATs) as well as double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules exist within the transcriptome of K. brevis. I hypothesize that the non-coding NATs, similar to microRNAs (miRNAs) in other organisms play a role in regulating gene ...


Megadalton-Node Assembly By Binding Of Skb1 To The Membrane Anchor Slf1, Lin L. Deng, Ruth Kabeche, Ning Wang, Jian-Qiu Wu, James B. Moseley Jul 2014

Megadalton-Node Assembly By Binding Of Skb1 To The Membrane Anchor Slf1, Lin L. Deng, Ruth Kabeche, Ning Wang, Jian-Qiu Wu, James B. Moseley

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

The plasma membrane contains both dynamic and static microdomains. Given the growing appreciation of cortical microdomains in cell biology, it is important to determine the organizational principles that underlie assembly of compartmentalized structures at the plasma membrane. The fission yeast plasma membrane is highly compartmentalized by distinct sets of cortical nodes, which control signaling for cell cycle progression and cytokinesis. The mitotic inhibitor Skb1 localizes to a set of cortical nodes that provide spatial control over signaling for entry into mitosis. However, it has been unclear whether these nodes contain other proteins and how they might be organized and tethered ...


Quantum Mechanical Study Of Weak Molecular Interactions, Upendra Adhikari May 2014

Quantum Mechanical Study Of Weak Molecular Interactions, Upendra Adhikari

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Noncovalent interactions have a long history and have received huge attention since their discovery almost a century ago. The prevalence of noncovalent interactions can be seen in the formation of simple dimers to structural and functional modification of large biomolecules. Even though plenty of experimental and theoretical studies are performed to understand various noncovalent interactions, the nature and variety of those interactions are still subject of study. And still they are receiving tremendous attention due to their significant role in the stability and conformation of biomolecules, catalysis of organic and inorganic reactions, crystal packing and material design. This dissertation explores ...


Redox-Dependent Stability, Protonation, And Reactivity Of Cysteine-Bound Heme Proteins, Fangfang Zhong, George P. Lisi, Daniel P. Collins, John H. Dawson, Ekaterina V. Pletneva Jan 2014

Redox-Dependent Stability, Protonation, And Reactivity Of Cysteine-Bound Heme Proteins, Fangfang Zhong, George P. Lisi, Daniel P. Collins, John H. Dawson, Ekaterina V. Pletneva

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Cysteine-bound hemes are key components of many enzymes and biological sensors. Protonation (deprotonation) of the Cys ligand often accompanies redox transformations of these centers. To characterize these phenomena, we have engineered a series of Thr78Cys/Lys79Gly/Met80X mutants of yeast cytochrome c (cyt c) in which Cys78 becomes one of the axial ligands to the heme. At neutral pH, the protonation state of the coordinated Cys differs for the ferric and ferrous heme species, with Cys binding as a thiolate and a thiol, respectively. Analysis of redox-dependent stability and alkaline transitions of these model proteins, as well as comparisons to ...


Activation-Triggered Subunit Exchange Between Camkii Holoenzymes Facilitates The Spread Of Kinase Activity, Margaret M. Stratton, I H. Lee, M Bhattacharyya, S M. Christensen, L H. Chao, H Schulman, J T. Groves, J Kuriyan Jan 2014

Activation-Triggered Subunit Exchange Between Camkii Holoenzymes Facilitates The Spread Of Kinase Activity, Margaret M. Stratton, I H. Lee, M Bhattacharyya, S M. Christensen, L H. Chao, H Schulman, J T. Groves, J Kuriyan

Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Department Faculty Publication Series

The activation of the dodecameric Ca2+/calmodulin dependent kinase II (CaMKII) holoenzyme is critical for memory formation. We now report that CaMKII has a remarkable property, which is that activation of the holoenzyme triggers the exchange of subunits between holoenzymes, including unactivated ones, enabling the calcium-independent phosphorylation of new subunits. We show, using a single-molecule TIRF microscopy technique, that the exchange process is triggered by the activation of CaMKII, and that exchange is modulated by phosphorylation of two residues in the calmodulin-binding segment, Thr 305 and Thr 306. Based on these results, and on the analysis of molecular dynamics simulations ...


Characterizing Dsrna Production In Virus-Infected Fish Cells, Amal Brek Aloufi Jan 2014

Characterizing Dsrna Production In Virus-Infected Fish Cells, Amal Brek Aloufi

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Viral dsRNA is produced by almost all viruses sometime during their replicative cycle. These viral nucleic acids are potent inducers of both innate and adaptive immune responses, and are therefore considered important immuno-modulators. Previous studies have shown that viruses produce dsRNA when replicating in mammalian cells; however, to date no one has demonstrated viral dsRNA production in virus infected fish cells. Therefore, the goal of this study is to investigate dsRNA production by fish viruses in fish cells, verifying production and performing initial characterization of the dsRNA molecules being produced. Three different rainbow trout cell lines were used in this ...


Investigation Of The Cellular And Molecular Mechanisms Of Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects, Hayley Furlong Jan 2014

Investigation Of The Cellular And Molecular Mechanisms Of Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects, Hayley Furlong

Doctoral

The overall aim of this study was to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in radiation-induced bystander effects in HaCaT cells, predominantly at low-doses of irradiation. They do not follow the original dose-response theory and exhibit a unique cascade of signalling events, which are under intense investigation for radiation risk purposes. An in vitro system was first used to observe the bystander effect, comparing two cell viability assays while measuring apoptotic cell death in these known reporter HaCaT cells and established the most sensitive assay for bystander responses Downstream bystander signalling events were then investigated through gene expression studies ...


Computational De Novo Design And Characterization Of A Protein That Selectively Binds A Highly Hyperpolarizable Abiological Chromophore, H Christopher Fry, Andreas Lehmann, Louise E. Sinks, Inge Asselberghs, Andrey Tronin, Venkata Krishnan, J Kent Blasie, Koen Clays, William F. Degrado, Jeffery G. Saven, Michael J. Therien Sep 2013

Computational De Novo Design And Characterization Of A Protein That Selectively Binds A Highly Hyperpolarizable Abiological Chromophore, H Christopher Fry, Andreas Lehmann, Louise E. Sinks, Inge Asselberghs, Andrey Tronin, Venkata Krishnan, J Kent Blasie, Koen Clays, William F. Degrado, Jeffery G. Saven, Michael J. Therien

Departmental Papers (Chemistry)

This work reports the first example of a single-chain protein computationally designed to contain four α-helical segments and fold to form a four-helix bundle encapsulating a supramolecular abiological chromophore that possesses exceptional nonlinear optical properties. The 109-residue protein, designated SCRPZ-1, binds and disperses an insoluble hyperpolarizable chromophore, ruthenium(II) [5-(4'-ethynyl-(2,2';6',2″-terpyridinyl))-10,20-bis(phenyl)porphinato]zinc(II)-(2,2';6',2″-terpyridine)(2+) (RuPZn) in aqueous buffer solution at a 1:1 stoichiometry. A 1:1 binding stoichiometry of the holoprotein is supported by electronic absorption and circular dichroism spectra, as well as equilibrium ...


Assembly Of The Type Ii Secretion System Such As Found In Vibrio Cholerae Depends On The Novel Pilotin Asps, Rhys A. Dunstan, Eva Heinz, Lakshmi C. Wijeyewickrema, Robert N. Pike, Anthony W. Purcell, Timothy J. Evans, Judyta Praszkier, Roy M. Robins-Browne, Richard A. Strugnell, Konstantin V. Korotkov, Trevor Lithgow Jan 2013

Assembly Of The Type Ii Secretion System Such As Found In Vibrio Cholerae Depends On The Novel Pilotin Asps, Rhys A. Dunstan, Eva Heinz, Lakshmi C. Wijeyewickrema, Robert N. Pike, Anthony W. Purcell, Timothy J. Evans, Judyta Praszkier, Roy M. Robins-Browne, Richard A. Strugnell, Konstantin V. Korotkov, Trevor Lithgow

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The Type II Secretion System (T2SS) is a molecular machine that drives the secretion of fully-folded protein substrates across the bacterial outer membrane. A key element in the machinery is the secretin: an integral, multimeric outer membrane protein that forms the secretion pore. We show that three distinct forms of T2SSs can be distinguished based on the sequence characteristics of their secretin pores. Detailed comparative analysis of two of these, the Klebsiella-type and Vibrio-type, showed them to be further distinguished by the pilotin that mediates their transport and assembly into the outer membrane. We have determined the crystal structure of ...


Cysteine 904 Is Required For Maximal Insulin Degrading Enzyme Activity And Polyanion Activation, Eun Suk Song, Manana Melikishvili, Michael G. Fried, Maria A. Juliano, Luiz Juliano, David W. Rodgers, Louis B. Hersh Oct 2012

Cysteine 904 Is Required For Maximal Insulin Degrading Enzyme Activity And Polyanion Activation, Eun Suk Song, Manana Melikishvili, Michael G. Fried, Maria A. Juliano, Luiz Juliano, David W. Rodgers, Louis B. Hersh

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Cysteine residues in insulin degrading enzyme have been reported as non-critical for its activity. We found that converting the twelve cysteine residues in rat insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) to serines resulted in a cysteine-free form of the enzyme with reduced activity and decreased activation by polyanions. Mutation of each cysteine residue individually revealed cysteine 904 as the key residue required for maximal activity and polyanion activation, although other cysteines affect polyanion binding to a lesser extent. Based on the structure of IDE, Asn 575 was identified as a potential hydrogen bond partner for Cys904 and mutation of this residue also ...


Development Of A Protocol To Measure Gene Expression In The Mouse Tibia, Daniel Hoover Jun 2012

Development Of A Protocol To Measure Gene Expression In The Mouse Tibia, Daniel Hoover

Biomedical Engineering

Numerous molecular factors active in bone tissue direct fracture repair and remodeling which can be altered by disease conditions such as Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) and Osteoporosis. Methods of molecular biology are commonly applied to investigate the expression and role of these molecular factors. This project presents a robust three-step protocol for examining gene expression in the mouse tibia. The protocol begins with isolating RNA from a flash frozen tibia sample. The isolated RNA is reverse transcribed into cDNA. Finally, PCR is performed to indentify expressed genes. Establishing this protocol will allow further research into the mechanisms of bone remodeling ...


Structural Basis For Activation Of Calcineurin By Calmodulin, Julie Rumi-Masante, Farai I. Rusinga, Terrence E. Lester, Tori B. Dunlap, Todd D. Williams, A. Keith Dunker, David D. Weis, Trevor P. Creamer Jan 2012

Structural Basis For Activation Of Calcineurin By Calmodulin, Julie Rumi-Masante, Farai I. Rusinga, Terrence E. Lester, Tori B. Dunlap, Todd D. Williams, A. Keith Dunker, David D. Weis, Trevor P. Creamer

Center for Structural Biology Faculty Publications

The highly conserved phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) plays vital roles in numerous processes including T-cell activation, development and function of the central nervous system, and cardiac growth. It is activated by the calcium sensor calmodulin (CaM). CaM binds to a regulatory domain (RD) within CaN, causing a conformational change that displaces an autoinhibitory domain (AID) from the active site, resulting in activation of the phosphatase. This is the same general mechanism by which CaM activates CaM-dependent protein kinases. Previously published data have hinted that the RD of CaN is intrinsically disordered. In this work, we demonstrate that the RD is unstructured ...


Lafora Disease E3-Ubiquitin Ligase Malin Is Related To Trim32 At Both The Phylogenetic And Functional Level, Carlos Romá-Mateo, Daniel Moreno, Santiago Vernia, Teresa Rubio, Travis M. Bridges, Matthew S. Gentry, Pascual Sanz Jul 2011

Lafora Disease E3-Ubiquitin Ligase Malin Is Related To Trim32 At Both The Phylogenetic And Functional Level, Carlos Romá-Mateo, Daniel Moreno, Santiago Vernia, Teresa Rubio, Travis M. Bridges, Matthew S. Gentry, Pascual Sanz

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Malin is an E3-ubiquitin ligase that is mutated in Lafora disease, a fatal form of progressive myoclonus epilepsy. In order to perform its function, malin forms a functional complex with laforin, a glucan phosphatase that facilitates targeting of malin to its corresponding substrates. While laforin phylogeny has been studied, there are no data on the evolutionary lineage of malin.

RESULTS: After an extensive search for malin orthologs, we found that malin is present in all vertebrate species and a cephalochordate, in contrast with the broader species distribution previously reported for laforin. These data suggest that in addition to forming ...


Identification Of The Allosteric Regulatory Site Of Insulysin, Nicholas Noinaj, Sonia K. Bhasin, Eun Suk Song, Kirsten E. Scoggin, Maria A. Juliano, Luiz Juliano, Louis B. Hersh, David W. Rodgers Jun 2011

Identification Of The Allosteric Regulatory Site Of Insulysin, Nicholas Noinaj, Sonia K. Bhasin, Eun Suk Song, Kirsten E. Scoggin, Maria A. Juliano, Luiz Juliano, Louis B. Hersh, David W. Rodgers

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) is responsible for the metabolism of insulin and plays a role in clearance of the Aβ peptide associated with Alzheimer's disease. Unlike most proteolytic enzymes, IDE, which consists of four structurally related domains and exists primarily as a dimer, exhibits allosteric kinetics, being activated by both small substrate peptides and polyphosphates such as ATP.

PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The crystal structure of a catalytically compromised mutant of IDE has electron density for peptide ligands bound at the active site in domain 1 and a distal site in domain 2. Mutating residues in the distal site eliminates ...


Converting A Protein Into A Switch For Biosensing And Functional Regulation, Margaret M. Stratton, S N. Loh Jan 2011

Converting A Protein Into A Switch For Biosensing And Functional Regulation, Margaret M. Stratton, S N. Loh

Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Department Faculty Publication Series

Proteins that switch conformations in response to a signaling event (e.g., ligand binding or chemical modification) present a unique solution to the design of reagent-free biosensors as well as molecules whose biological functions are regulated in useful ways. The principal roadblock in the path to develop such molecules is that the majority of natural proteins do not change conformation upon binding their cognate ligands or becoming chemically modified. Herein, we review recent protein engineering efforts to introduce switching properties into binding proteins. By co-opting natural allosteric coupling, joining proteins in creative ways and formulating altogether new switching mechanisms, researchers ...


Direct Cloning Of Double-Stranded Rnas From Rnase Protection Analysis Reveals Processing Patterns Of C/D Box Snornas And Provides Evidence For Widespread Antisense Transcript Expression, Manli Shen, Eduardo Eyras, Jie Wu, Amit Khanna, Serene Josiah, Mathieu Rederstorff, Michael Q. Zhang, Stefan Stamm Jan 2011

Direct Cloning Of Double-Stranded Rnas From Rnase Protection Analysis Reveals Processing Patterns Of C/D Box Snornas And Provides Evidence For Widespread Antisense Transcript Expression, Manli Shen, Eduardo Eyras, Jie Wu, Amit Khanna, Serene Josiah, Mathieu Rederstorff, Michael Q. Zhang, Stefan Stamm

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

We describe a new method that allows cloning of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) that are generated in RNase protection experiments. We demonstrate that the mouse C/D box snoRNA MBII-85 (SNORD116) is processed into at least five shorter RNAs using processing sites near known functional elements of C/D box snoRNAs. Surprisingly, the majority of cloned RNAs from RNase protection experiments were derived from endogenous cellular RNA, indicating widespread antisense expression. The cloned dsRNAs could be mapped to genome areas that show RNA expression on both DNA strands and partially overlapped with experimentally determined argonaute-binding sites. The data suggest a conserved ...


Mechanism Of N-Methylation By The Trna M1g37 Methyltransferase Trm5., Thomas Christian, Georges Lahoud, Cuiping Liu, Katherine Hoffmann, John J Perona, Ya-Ming Hou Dec 2010

Mechanism Of N-Methylation By The Trna M1g37 Methyltransferase Trm5., Thomas Christian, Georges Lahoud, Cuiping Liu, Katherine Hoffmann, John J Perona, Ya-Ming Hou

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Trm5 is a eukaryal and archaeal tRNA methyltransferase that catalyzes methyl transfer from S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) to the N(1) position of G37 directly 3' to the anticodon. While the biological role of m(1)G37 in enhancing translational fidelity is well established, the catalytic mechanism of Trm5 has remained obscure. To address the mechanism of Trm5 and more broadly the mechanism of N-methylation to nucleobases, we examined the pH-activity profile of an archaeal Trm5 enzyme, and performed structure-guided mutational analysis. The data reveal a marked dependence of enzyme-catalyzed methyl transfer on hydrogen ion equilibria: the single-turnover rate constant for methylation ...