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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Pancreas Of Coxsackievirus-Infected Dams And Their Challenged Pups: A Complex Issue, Sona Sarmirova, Maria Borsanyiova, Brigita Benkoova, Michaela Pospisilova, Rajkumar Rajasekaran, Katarina Berakova, Pavol Gomolcak, Jay Reddy, Shubhada Bopegamage Jan 2019

Pancreas Of Coxsackievirus-Infected Dams And Their Challenged Pups: A Complex Issue, Sona Sarmirova, Maria Borsanyiova, Brigita Benkoova, Michaela Pospisilova, Rajkumar Rajasekaran, Katarina Berakova, Pavol Gomolcak, Jay Reddy, Shubhada Bopegamage

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Enteroviral infections are frequent, often asymptomatic in humans and during gravidity. The present study is an extension of our previous investigations where we had shown pancreatitis in challenged pups of CVB4-E2-infected dams. Present investigation describes the effect of gestational infection with this virus on the pancreas of both dams and their challenged pups. Gravid CD1 outbred mice were orally infected with CVB4-E2 virus at different gestation times. Pups were challenged orally with the same virus after 25 days of birth. Organs were collected at selected intervals postinfection (p.i.), and replicating virus and viral-RNA copies were analyzed. Additional readouts included ...


Targeting The Brd4/Foxo3a/Cdk6 Axis Sensitizes Akt Inhibition In Luminal Breast Cancer, Jingyi Liu, Weijie Guo, Zhibing Duan, Lei Zeng, Yadi Wu, Yule Chen, Fang Tai, Yifan Wang, Yiwei Lin, Qiang Zhang, Yanling He, Jiong Deng, Rachel L. Stewart, Chi Wang, Pengnian Charles Lin, Saghi Ghaffari, B. Mark Evers, Suling Liu, Ming-Ming Zhou, Binhua P. Zhou, Jian Shi Dec 2018

Targeting The Brd4/Foxo3a/Cdk6 Axis Sensitizes Akt Inhibition In Luminal Breast Cancer, Jingyi Liu, Weijie Guo, Zhibing Duan, Lei Zeng, Yadi Wu, Yule Chen, Fang Tai, Yifan Wang, Yiwei Lin, Qiang Zhang, Yanling He, Jiong Deng, Rachel L. Stewart, Chi Wang, Pengnian Charles Lin, Saghi Ghaffari, B. Mark Evers, Suling Liu, Ming-Ming Zhou, Binhua P. Zhou, Jian Shi

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

BRD4 assembles transcriptional machinery at gene super-enhancer regions and governs the expression of genes that are critical for cancer progression. However, it remains unclear whether BRD4-mediated gene transcription is required for tumor cells to develop drug resistance. Our data show that prolonged treatment of luminal breast cancer cells with AKT inhibitors induces FOXO3a dephosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and disrupts its association with SirT6, eventually leading to FOXO3a acetylation as well as BRD4 recognition. Acetylated FOXO3a recognizes the BD2 domain of BRD4, recruits the BRD4/RNAPII complex to the CDK6 gene promoter, and induces its transcription. Pharmacological inhibition of either BRD4/FOXO3a ...


Histone Citrullination Represses Mirna Expression Resulting In Increased Oncogene Mrnas In Somatolactotrope Cells., Stanley B Devore, Coleman H. Young, Guangyuan Li, Anitha Sundararajan, Thiruvarangan Ramaraj, Joann Mudge, Faye Schilkey, Aaron Muth, Paul R. Thompson, Brian D. Cherrington Sep 2018

Histone Citrullination Represses Mirna Expression Resulting In Increased Oncogene Mrnas In Somatolactotrope Cells., Stanley B Devore, Coleman H. Young, Guangyuan Li, Anitha Sundararajan, Thiruvarangan Ramaraj, Joann Mudge, Faye Schilkey, Aaron Muth, Paul R. Thompson, Brian D. Cherrington

University of Massachusetts Medical School Publications

Peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) enzymes convert histone arginine residues into citrulline to modulate chromatin organization and gene expression. Although PADs are expressed in anterior pituitary gland cells, their functional role and expression in pituitary adenomas is unknown. To begin to address these questions, we first examined normal human pituitaries and pituitary adenomas and found that PAD2, PAD4 and citrullinated histones are highest in prolactinomas and somatoprolactinomas. In the somatoprolactinoma-derived GH3 cell line, PADs citrullinate histone H3, which is attenuated by a pan-PAD inhibitor. RNA-sequencing and ChIP studies show that the expression of microRNAs let-7c-2, miR-23b and miR-29c is suppressed by histone ...


Structure Of The Mouse Trpc4 Ion Channel, Jingjing Duan, Jian Li, Bo Zeng, Gui-Lan Chen, Xiaogang Peng, Yixing Zhang, Jianbin Wang, David E. Clapham, Zongli Li, Jin Zhang Aug 2018

Structure Of The Mouse Trpc4 Ion Channel, Jingjing Duan, Jian Li, Bo Zeng, Gui-Lan Chen, Xiaogang Peng, Yixing Zhang, Jianbin Wang, David E. Clapham, Zongli Li, Jin Zhang

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels conduct cations into cells. They mediate functions ranging from neuronally mediated hot and cold sensation to intracellular organellar and primary ciliary signaling. Here we report a cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of TRPC4 in its unliganded (apo) state to an overall resolution of 3.3 Å. The structure reveals a unique architecture with a long pore loop stabilized by a disulfide bond. Beyond the shared tetrameric six-transmembrane fold, the TRPC4 structure deviates from other TRP channels with a unique cytosolic domain. This unique cytosolic N-terminal domain forms extensive aromatic contacts with the ...


All-In-One Adeno-Associated Virus Delivery And Genome Editing By Neisseria Meningitidis Cas9 In Vivo, Raed Ibraheim, Chun-Qing Song, Aamir Mir, Nadia Amrani, Wen Xue, Erik J. Sontheimer May 2018

All-In-One Adeno-Associated Virus Delivery And Genome Editing By Neisseria Meningitidis Cas9 In Vivo, Raed Ibraheim, Chun-Qing Song, Aamir Mir, Nadia Amrani, Wen Xue, Erik J. Sontheimer

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) have recently opened a new avenue for gene therapy. Cas9 nuclease guided by a single-guide RNA (sgRNA) has been extensively used for genome editing. Currently, three Cas9 orthologs have been adapted forin vivo genome engineering applications: SpyCas9, SauCas9 and CjeCas9. However, additional in vivo editing platforms are needed, in part to enable a greater range of sequences to be accessed via viral vectors, especially those in which Cas9 and sgRNA are combined into a single vector genome. Here, we present an additional in vivo editing platform using Neisseria ...


Kruppel-Like Factor 4-Dependent Staufen1-Mediated Mrna Decay Regulates Cortical Neurogenesis, Byoung-San Moon, Jinlun Bai, Mingyang Cai, Chunming Liu, Jiandang Shi, Wange Lu Jan 2018

Kruppel-Like Factor 4-Dependent Staufen1-Mediated Mrna Decay Regulates Cortical Neurogenesis, Byoung-San Moon, Jinlun Bai, Mingyang Cai, Chunming Liu, Jiandang Shi, Wange Lu

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Kruppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) is a zinc-finger-containing protein that plays a critical role in diverse cellular physiology. While most of these functions attribute to its role as a transcription factor, it is postulated that Klf4 may play a role other than transcriptional regulation. Here we demonstrate that Klf4 loss in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) leads to increased neurogenesis and reduced self-renewal in mice. In addition, Klf4 interacts with RNA-binding protein Staufen1 (Stau1) and RNA helicase Ddx5/17. They function together as a complex to maintain NPC self-renewal. We report that Klf4 promotes Stau1 recruitment to the 3′-untranslated region of ...


Deficiency Of Klf4 Compromises The Lung Function In An Acute Mouse Model Of Allergic Asthma, Jeanette A. Nimpong, Wintana Gebregziabher, Udai P. Singh, Prakash Nagarkatti, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Johnie Hodge, Chunming Liu, Daping Fan, Walden Ai Nov 2017

Deficiency Of Klf4 Compromises The Lung Function In An Acute Mouse Model Of Allergic Asthma, Jeanette A. Nimpong, Wintana Gebregziabher, Udai P. Singh, Prakash Nagarkatti, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Johnie Hodge, Chunming Liu, Daping Fan, Walden Ai

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways and the mechanisms are not fully understood. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous group of monocytes, granulocyte and myeloid cells at early stage of differentiation. They possess phenotypic plasticity and regulate airway inflammation. We recently reported that Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) regulates MDSC differentiation into fibrocytes, emerging effectors in chronic inflammation. However, the role of KLF4 in asthma is not known. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an epithelial cell-derived cytokine and a key initiator of allergic airway inflammation. Given the fact that TSLP promotes Th2 cytokine production that increases MDSC ...


Tox Regulates Growth, Dna Repair, And Genomic Instability In T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Riadh Lobbardi, Jordan Pinder, Barbara Martinez-Pastor, Marina Theodorou, Jessica S. Blackburn, Brian J. Abraham, Yuka Namiki, Marc Mansour, Nouran S. Abdelfattah, Aleksey Molodtsov, Gabriela Alexe, Debra Toiber, Manon De Waard, Esha Jain, Myriam Boukhali, Mattia Lion, Deepak Bhere, Khalid Shah, Alejandro Gutierrez, Kimberly Stegmaier, Lewis B. Silverman, Ruslan I. Sadreyev, John M. Asara, Marjorie A. Oettinger, Wilhelm Haas, A. Thomas Look, Richard A. Young, Raul Mostoslavsky, Graham Dellaire, David M. Langenau Nov 2017

Tox Regulates Growth, Dna Repair, And Genomic Instability In T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Riadh Lobbardi, Jordan Pinder, Barbara Martinez-Pastor, Marina Theodorou, Jessica S. Blackburn, Brian J. Abraham, Yuka Namiki, Marc Mansour, Nouran S. Abdelfattah, Aleksey Molodtsov, Gabriela Alexe, Debra Toiber, Manon De Waard, Esha Jain, Myriam Boukhali, Mattia Lion, Deepak Bhere, Khalid Shah, Alejandro Gutierrez, Kimberly Stegmaier, Lewis B. Silverman, Ruslan I. Sadreyev, John M. Asara, Marjorie A. Oettinger, Wilhelm Haas, A. Thomas Look, Richard A. Young, Raul Mostoslavsky, Graham Dellaire, David M. Langenau

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive malignancy of thymocytes. Using a transgenic screen in zebrafish, thymocyte selection–associated high mobility group box protein (TOX) was uncovered as a collaborating oncogenic driver that accelerated T-ALL onset by expanding the initiating pool of transformed clones and elevating genomic instability. TOX is highly expressed in a majority of human T-ALL and is required for proliferation and continued xenograft growth in mice. Using a wide array of functional analyses, we uncovered that TOX binds directly to KU70/80 and suppresses recruitment of this complex to DNA breaks to inhibit nonhomologous end joining ...


Nanoparticle Delivery Of Mir-34a Eradicates Long-Term-Cultured Breast Cancer Stem Cells Via Targeting C22orf28 Directly, Xiaoti Lin, Weiyu Chen, Fengqin Wei, Binhua P. Zhou, Mien-Chie Hung, Xiaoming Xie Oct 2017

Nanoparticle Delivery Of Mir-34a Eradicates Long-Term-Cultured Breast Cancer Stem Cells Via Targeting C22orf28 Directly, Xiaoti Lin, Weiyu Chen, Fengqin Wei, Binhua P. Zhou, Mien-Chie Hung, Xiaoming Xie

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Rationale: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been implicated as the seeds of therapeutic resistance and metastasis, due to their unique abilities of self-renew, wide differentiation potentials and resistance to most conventional therapies. It is a proactive strategy for cancer therapy to eradicate CSCs. Methods: Tumor tissue-derived breast CSCs (BCSC), including XM322 and XM607, were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS); while cell line-derived BCSC, including MDA-MB-231.SC and MCF-7.SC, were purified by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS). Analyses of microRNA and mRNA expression array profiles were performed in multiple breast cell lines. The mentioned nanoparticles were constructed following the standard ...


The Activity Of The Serotonin Receptor 2c Is Regulated By Alternative Splicing, Stefan Stamm, Samuel B. Gruber, Alexander G. Rabchevsky, Ronald B. Emeson Sep 2017

The Activity Of The Serotonin Receptor 2c Is Regulated By Alternative Splicing, Stefan Stamm, Samuel B. Gruber, Alexander G. Rabchevsky, Ronald B. Emeson

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The central nervous system-specific serotonin receptor 2C (5HT2C) controls key physiological functions, such as food intake, anxiety, and motoneuron activity. Its deregulation is involved in depression, suicidal behavior, and spasticity, making it the target for antipsychotic drugs, appetite controlling substances, and possibly anti-spasm agents. Through alternative pre-mRNA splicing and RNA editing, the 5HT2C gene generates at least 33 mRNA isoforms encoding 25 proteins. The 5HT2C is a G-protein coupled receptor that signals through phospholipase C, influencing the expression of immediate/early genes like c-fos. Most 5HT2C isoforms show constitutive activity, i.e., signal without ligand binding. The constitutive activity of ...


Progressive Age-Dependence And Frequency Difference In The Effect Of Gap Junctions On Active Cochlear Amplification And Hearing, Liang Zong, Jin Chen, Yan Zhu, Hong-Bo Zhao Jul 2017

Progressive Age-Dependence And Frequency Difference In The Effect Of Gap Junctions On Active Cochlear Amplification And Hearing, Liang Zong, Jin Chen, Yan Zhu, Hong-Bo Zhao

Otolaryngology--Head & Neck Surgery Faculty Publications

Mutations of Connexin 26 (Cx26, GJB2), which is a predominant gap junction isoform in the cochlea, can induce high incidence of nonsyndromic hearing loss. We previously found that targeted-deletion of Cx26 in supporting Deiters cells and outer pillar cells in the cochlea can influence outer hair cell (OHC) electromotility and reduce active cochlear amplification leading to hearing loss, even though there are no gap junction connexin expressions in the auditory sensory hair cells. Here, we further report that hearing loss and the reduction of active amplification in the Cx26 targeted-deletion mice are progressive and different at high and low frequency ...


Chloroformate Derivatization For Tracing The Fate Of Amino Acids In Cells And Tissues By Multiple Stable Isotope Resolved Metabolomics (Msirm), Ye Yang, Teresa W. -M. Fan, Andrew N. Lane, Richard M. Higashi Jul 2017

Chloroformate Derivatization For Tracing The Fate Of Amino Acids In Cells And Tissues By Multiple Stable Isotope Resolved Metabolomics (Msirm), Ye Yang, Teresa W. -M. Fan, Andrew N. Lane, Richard M. Higashi

Center for Environmental and Systems Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Amino acids have crucial roles in central metabolism, both anabolic and catabolic. To elucidate these roles, steady-state concentrations of amino acids alone are insufficient, as each amino acid participates in multiple pathways and functions in a complex network, which can also be compartmentalized. Stable Isotope-Resolved Metabolomics (SIRM) is an approach that uses atom-resolved tracking of metabolites through biochemical transformations in cells, tissues, or whole organisms. Using different elemental stable isotopes to label multiple metabolite precursors makes it possible to resolve simultaneously the utilization of these precursors in a single experiment. Conversely, a single precursor labeled with two (or more) different ...


Respective Contributions Of Single And Compound Granule Fusion To Secretion By Activated Platelets, Anita Eckly, Jean-Yves Rinckel, Fabienne Proamer, Neslihan Ulas, Smita Joshi, Sidney W. Whiteheart, Christian Gachet Nov 2016

Respective Contributions Of Single And Compound Granule Fusion To Secretion By Activated Platelets, Anita Eckly, Jean-Yves Rinckel, Fabienne Proamer, Neslihan Ulas, Smita Joshi, Sidney W. Whiteheart, Christian Gachet

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Although granule secretion is pivotal in many platelet responses, the fusion routes of α and δ granule release remain uncertain. We used a 3D reconstruction approach based on electron microscopy to visualize the spatial organization of granules in unstimulated and activated platelets. Two modes of exocytosis were identified: a single mode that leads to release of the contents of individual granules and a compound mode that leads to the formation of granule-to-granule fusion, resulting in the formation of large multigranular compartments. Both modes occur during the course of platelet secretion. Single fusion events are more visible at lower levels of ...


Intraflagellar Transport Protein Ift20 Is Essential For Male Fertility And Spermiogenesis In Mice, Zhengang Zhang, Wei Li, Yong Zhang, Ling Zhang, Maria E. Teves, Hong Liu, Jerome F. Strauss 3rd, Gregory J. Pazour, James A. Foster, Rex A. Hess, Zhibing Zhang Nov 2016

Intraflagellar Transport Protein Ift20 Is Essential For Male Fertility And Spermiogenesis In Mice, Zhengang Zhang, Wei Li, Yong Zhang, Ling Zhang, Maria E. Teves, Hong Liu, Jerome F. Strauss 3rd, Gregory J. Pazour, James A. Foster, Rex A. Hess, Zhibing Zhang

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is a conserved mechanism thought to be essential for the assembly and maintenance of cilia and flagella. However, little is known about its role in mammalian sperm flagella formation. To fill this gap, we disrupted the Ift20 gene in male germ cells. Homozygous mutant mice were infertile with significantly reduced sperm counts and motility. In addition, abnormally shaped elongating spermatid heads and bulbous round spermatids were found in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules. Electron microscopy revealed increased cytoplasmic vesicles, fiber-like structures, abnormal accumulation of mitochondria and a decrease in mature lysosomes. The few developed sperm had ...


Pleckstrin Homology (Ph) Domain Leucine-Rich Repeat Protein Phosphatase Controls Cell Polarity By Negatively Regulating The Activity Of Atypical Protein Kinase C, Xiaopeng Xiong, Xin Li, Yang-An Wen, Tianyan Gao Oct 2016

Pleckstrin Homology (Ph) Domain Leucine-Rich Repeat Protein Phosphatase Controls Cell Polarity By Negatively Regulating The Activity Of Atypical Protein Kinase C, Xiaopeng Xiong, Xin Li, Yang-An Wen, Tianyan Gao

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

The proper establishment of epithelial polarity allows cells to sense and respond to signals that arise from the microenvironment in a spatiotemporally controlled manner. Atypical PKCs (aPKCs) are implicated as key regulators of epithelial polarity. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the negative regulation of aPKCs remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase (PHLPP), a novel family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases, plays an important role in regulating epithelial polarity by controlling the phosphorylation of both aPKC isoforms. Altered expression of PHLPP1 or PHLPP2 disrupted polarization of Caco2 cells grown in 3D cell ...


Lipophosphoglycans From Leishmania Amazonensis Strains Display Immunomodulatory Properties Via Tlr4 And Do Not Affect Sand Fly Infection, Paula M. Nogueira, Rafael R. Assis, Ana C. Torrecilhas, Elvira M. Saraiva, Natália L. Pessoa, Marco A. Campos, Eric F. Marialva, Cláudia M. Ríos-Velasquez, Felipe A. Pessoa, Nágila F. Secundino, Jerônimo N. Rugani, Elsa Nieves, Salvatore J. Turco, Maria N. Melo, Rodrigo P. Soares Aug 2016

Lipophosphoglycans From Leishmania Amazonensis Strains Display Immunomodulatory Properties Via Tlr4 And Do Not Affect Sand Fly Infection, Paula M. Nogueira, Rafael R. Assis, Ana C. Torrecilhas, Elvira M. Saraiva, Natália L. Pessoa, Marco A. Campos, Eric F. Marialva, Cláudia M. Ríos-Velasquez, Felipe A. Pessoa, Nágila F. Secundino, Jerônimo N. Rugani, Elsa Nieves, Salvatore J. Turco, Maria N. Melo, Rodrigo P. Soares

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The immunomodulatory properties of lipophosphoglycans (LPG) from New World species of Leishmania have been assessed in Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis, the causative agents of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively. This glycoconjugate is highly polymorphic among species with variation in sugars that branch off the conserved Gal(β1,4)Man(α1)-PO4 backbone of repeat units. Here, the immunomodulatory activity of LPGs from Leishmania amazonensis, the causative agent of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, was evaluated in two strains from Brazil. One strain (PH8) was originally isolated from the sand fly and the other (Josefa) was isolated from a human case ...


Red-Shifted Aequorin Variants Incorporating Non-Canonical Amino Acids: Applications In In Vivo Imaging, Kristen M. Grinstead, Laura Rowe, Mark Ensor, Smita Joel, Pirouz Daftarian, Emre Dikici, Jean-Marc Zingg, Sylvia Daunert Jul 2016

Red-Shifted Aequorin Variants Incorporating Non-Canonical Amino Acids: Applications In In Vivo Imaging, Kristen M. Grinstead, Laura Rowe, Mark Ensor, Smita Joel, Pirouz Daftarian, Emre Dikici, Jean-Marc Zingg, Sylvia Daunert

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

The increased importance of in vivo diagnostics has posed new demands for imaging technologies. In that regard, there is a need for imaging molecules capable of expanding the applications of current state-of-the-art imaging in vivo diagnostics. To that end, there is a desire for new reporter molecules capable of providing strong signals, are non-toxic, and can be tailored to diagnose or monitor the progression of a number of diseases. Aequorin is a non-toxic photoprotein that can be used as a sensitive marker for bioluminescence in vivo imaging. The sensitivity of aequorin is due to the fact that bioluminescence is a ...


Ubr3, A Novel Modulator Of Hh Signaling Affects The Degradation Of Costal-2 And Kif7 Through Poly-Ubiquitination, Tongchao Li, Junkai Fan, Bernardo Blanco-Sánchez, Nikolaos Giagtzoglou, Guang Lin, Shinya Yamamoto, Manish Jaiswal, Kuchuan Chen, Jie Zhang, Wei Wei, Michael T. Lewis, Andrew K. Groves, Monte Westerfield, Jianhang Jia, Hugo J. Bellen May 2016

Ubr3, A Novel Modulator Of Hh Signaling Affects The Degradation Of Costal-2 And Kif7 Through Poly-Ubiquitination, Tongchao Li, Junkai Fan, Bernardo Blanco-Sánchez, Nikolaos Giagtzoglou, Guang Lin, Shinya Yamamoto, Manish Jaiswal, Kuchuan Chen, Jie Zhang, Wei Wei, Michael T. Lewis, Andrew K. Groves, Monte Westerfield, Jianhang Jia, Hugo J. Bellen

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Hedgehog (Hh) signaling regulates multiple aspects of metazoan development and tissue homeostasis, and is constitutively active in numerous cancers. We identified Ubr3, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, as a novel, positive regulator of Hh signaling in Drosophila and vertebrates. Hh signaling regulates the Ubr3-mediated poly-ubiquitination and degradation of Cos2, a central component of Hh signaling. In developing Drosophila eye discs, loss of ubr3 leads to a delayed differentiation of photoreceptors and a reduction in Hh signaling. In zebrafish, loss of Ubr3 causes a decrease in Shh signaling in the developing eyes, somites, and sensory neurons. However, not all tissues that require ...


Stabilin-Mediated Cellular Internalization Of Phosphorothioate-Modified Antisense Oligonucleotides (Asos), Colton M. Miller, Aaron J. Donner, Emma K. Blank, Andrew W. Egger, Brianna M. Kellar, Punit P. Seth, Edward N. Harris Apr 2016

Stabilin-Mediated Cellular Internalization Of Phosphorothioate-Modified Antisense Oligonucleotides (Asos), Colton M. Miller, Aaron J. Donner, Emma K. Blank, Andrew W. Egger, Brianna M. Kellar, Punit P. Seth, Edward N. Harris

UCARE Research Products

Introduction: Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are short chemically modified oligonucleotides (5-7.4 kDa) that can produce a pharmacological effect by binding to RNA and affecting intermediary metabolism. Over 35 phosphorothioate (PS) ASOs are at various stages of clinical development for use as therapeutic agents and pharmacological tools. Antisense therapy is a progressing area of research, as these small strands of nucleotide oligomers can be produced to silence genes that aggravate chronic disorders or infections. An important distinction for ASOs compared to DNA is the substitution of the phosphodiester (PO) backbone with the PS modification. This sulfur substitution allows for these polar ...


Arf6 Controls Platelet Spreading And Clot Retraction Via Integrin ΑIibΒ3 Trafficking, Yunjie Huang, Smita Joshi, Binggang Xiang, Yasunori Kanaho, Zhenyu Li, Beth A. Bouchard, Carole L. Moncman, Sidney W. Whiteheart Mar 2016

Arf6 Controls Platelet Spreading And Clot Retraction Via Integrin ΑIibΒ3 Trafficking, Yunjie Huang, Smita Joshi, Binggang Xiang, Yasunori Kanaho, Zhenyu Li, Beth A. Bouchard, Carole L. Moncman, Sidney W. Whiteheart

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Platelet and megakaryocyte endocytosis is important for loading certain granule cargo (ie, fibrinogen [Fg] and vascular endothelial growth factor); however, the mechanisms of platelet endocytosis and its functional acute effects are understudied. Adenosine 5'-diphosphate–ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) is a small guanosine triphosphate–binding protein that regulates endocytic trafficking, especially of integrins. To study platelet endocytosis, we generated platelet-specific Arf6 knockout (KO) mice. Arf6 KO platelets had less associated Fg suggesting that Arf6 affects αIIbβ3-mediated Fg uptake and/or storage. Other cargo was unaffected. To measure Fg uptake, mice were injected with biotinylated- or fluorescein ...


Effect Of Hydroxychloroquine And Characterization Of Autophagy In A Mouse Model Of Endometriosis, A. Ruiz, S. Rockfield, N. Taran, E. Haller, Robert Engelman, I Flores, P Panina-Bordignon, Meera Nanjundan Jan 2016

Effect Of Hydroxychloroquine And Characterization Of Autophagy In A Mouse Model Of Endometriosis, A. Ruiz, S. Rockfield, N. Taran, E. Haller, Robert Engelman, I Flores, P Panina-Bordignon, Meera Nanjundan

Cell Biology, Microbiology, and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

In endometriosis, the increased survival potential of shed endometrial cells (which normally undergo anoikis) is suggested to promote lesion development. One mechanism that may alter anoikis is autophagy. Using an autophagic flux inhibitor hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), we identified that it reduces the in vitro survival capacity of human endometriotic and endometrial T-HESC cells. We also identified that HCQ could decrease lesion numbers and disrupt lesion histopathology, as well as increase the levels of peritoneal macrophages and the IP-10 (10 kDa interferon-γ-induced protein) chemokine in a mouse model of endometriosis. We noted that RNA levels of a subset of autophagic ...


It Is All About (U)Biquitin: Role Of Altered Ubiquitin-Proteasome System And Uchl1 In Alzheimer Disease, Antonella Tramutola, Fabio Di Domenico, Eugenio Barone, Marzia Perluigi, D. Allan Butterfield Jan 2016

It Is All About (U)Biquitin: Role Of Altered Ubiquitin-Proteasome System And Uchl1 In Alzheimer Disease, Antonella Tramutola, Fabio Di Domenico, Eugenio Barone, Marzia Perluigi, D. Allan Butterfield

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Free radical-mediated damage to macromolecules and the resulting oxidative modification of different cellular components are a common feature of aging, and this process becomes much more pronounced in age-associated pathologies, including Alzheimer disease (AD). In particular, proteins are particularly sensitive to oxidative stress-induced damage and these irreversible modifications lead to the alteration of protein structure and function. In order to maintain cell homeostasis, these oxidized/damaged proteins have to be removed in order to prevent their toxic accumulation. It is generally accepted that the age-related accumulation of “aberrant” proteins results from both the increased occurrence of damage and the decreased ...


A Cytosolic Multiprotein Complex Containing P85Α Is Required For Β-Catenin Activation In Colitis And Colitis-Associated Cancer, Tatiana Goretsky, Emily M. Bradford, Hyunji Ryu, Maryam Tahir, Mary Pat Moyer, Tianyan Gao, Linheng Li, Terrence A. Barrett Nov 2015

A Cytosolic Multiprotein Complex Containing P85Α Is Required For Β-Catenin Activation In Colitis And Colitis-Associated Cancer, Tatiana Goretsky, Emily M. Bradford, Hyunji Ryu, Maryam Tahir, Mary Pat Moyer, Tianyan Gao, Linheng Li, Terrence A. Barrett

Internal Medicine Faculty Publications

Wnt/β-catenin signaling is required for crypt structure maintenance. We previously observed nuclear accumulation of Ser-552 phosphorylated β-catenin (pβ-CatSer-552) in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) during colitis and colitis-associated cancer. Data here delineate a novel multiprotein cytosolic complex (MCC) involved in β-catenin signaling in the intestine. The MCC contains p85α, the class IA subunit of PI3K, along with β-catenin, 14-3-3ζ, Akt, and p110α. MCC levels in IEC increase in colitis and colitis-associated cancer patients. IEC-specific p85α-deficient (p85ΔIEC) mice develop more severe dextran sodium sulfate colitis due to delayed ...


Autophagy Is Induced Upon Platelet Activation And Is Essential For Hemostasis And Thrombosis, Madhu M. Ouseph, Yunjie Huang, Meenakshi Banerjee, Smita Joshi, Laura Macdonald, Yu Zhong, Huijuan Liu, Xianting Li, Binggang Xiang, Guoying Zhang, Masaaki Komatsu, Zhenyu Yue, Zhenyu Li, Brian Storrie, Sidney W. Whiteheart, Qing Jun Wang Sep 2015

Autophagy Is Induced Upon Platelet Activation And Is Essential For Hemostasis And Thrombosis, Madhu M. Ouseph, Yunjie Huang, Meenakshi Banerjee, Smita Joshi, Laura Macdonald, Yu Zhong, Huijuan Liu, Xianting Li, Binggang Xiang, Guoying Zhang, Masaaki Komatsu, Zhenyu Yue, Zhenyu Li, Brian Storrie, Sidney W. Whiteheart, Qing Jun Wang

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Autophagy is important for maintaining cellular homeostasis, and thus its deficiency is implicated in a broad spectrum of human diseases. Its role in platelet function has only recently been examined. Our biochemical and imaging studies demonstrate that the core autophagy machinery exists in platelets, and that autophagy is constitutively active in resting platelets. Moreover, autophagy is induced upon platelet activation, as indicated by agonist-induced loss of the autophagy marker LC3II. Additional experiments, using inhibitors of platelet activation, proteases, and lysosomal acidification, as well as platelets from knockout mouse strains, show that agonist-induced LC3II loss is a consequence of platelet signaling ...


Transcriptional Activity Of The Islet Β Cell Factor Pdx1 Is Augmented By Lysine Methylation Catalyzed By The Methyltransferase Set7/9, Aarthi V. Maganti, Bernhard Maier, Sarah A. Tersey, Megan L. Sampley, Amber L. Mosley, Sabire Özcan, Boobalan Pachaiyappan, Patrick M. Woster, Chad S. Hunter, Roland Stein, Raghavendra G. Mirmira Apr 2015

Transcriptional Activity Of The Islet Β Cell Factor Pdx1 Is Augmented By Lysine Methylation Catalyzed By The Methyltransferase Set7/9, Aarthi V. Maganti, Bernhard Maier, Sarah A. Tersey, Megan L. Sampley, Amber L. Mosley, Sabire Özcan, Boobalan Pachaiyappan, Patrick M. Woster, Chad S. Hunter, Roland Stein, Raghavendra G. Mirmira

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The transcription factor Pdx1 is crucial to islet β cell function and regulates target genes in part through interaction with coregulatory factors. Set7/9 is a Lys methyltransferase that interacts with Pdx1. Here we tested the hypothesis that Lys methylation of Pdx1 by Set7/9 augments Pdx1 transcriptional activity. Using mass spectrometry and mutational analysis of purified proteins, we found that Set7/9 methylates the N-terminal residues Lys-123 and Lys-131 of Pdx1. Methylation of these residues occurred only in the context of intact, full-length Pdx1, suggesting a specific requirement of secondary and/or tertiary structural elements for catalysis by Set7 ...


Trail-Based High Throughput Screening Reveals A Link Between Trail-Mediated Apoptosis And Glutathione Reductase, A Key Component Of Oxidative Stress Response., Dmitri Rozanov, Anton Cheltsov, Eduard Sergienko, Stefan Vasile, Vladislav Golubkov, Alexander E Aleshin, Trevor Levin, Elie Traer, Byron Hann, Julia Freimuth, Nikita Alexeev, Max A Alekseyev, Sergey P Budko, Hans Peter Bächinger, Paul Spellman Jan 2015

Trail-Based High Throughput Screening Reveals A Link Between Trail-Mediated Apoptosis And Glutathione Reductase, A Key Component Of Oxidative Stress Response., Dmitri Rozanov, Anton Cheltsov, Eduard Sergienko, Stefan Vasile, Vladislav Golubkov, Alexander E Aleshin, Trevor Levin, Elie Traer, Byron Hann, Julia Freimuth, Nikita Alexeev, Max A Alekseyev, Sergey P Budko, Hans Peter Bächinger, Paul Spellman

Computational Biology Institute

A high throughput screen for compounds that induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis identified ML100 as an active chemical probe, which potentiated TRAIL activity in prostate carcinoma PPC-1 and melanoma MDA-MB-435 cells. Follow-up in silico modeling and profiling in cell-based assays allowed us to identify NSC130362, pharmacophore analog of ML100 that induced 65-95% cytotoxicity in cancer cells and did not affect the viability of human primary hepatocytes. In agreement with the activation of the apoptotic pathway, both ML100 and NSC130362 synergistically with TRAIL induced caspase-3/7 activity in MDA-MB-435 cells. Subsequent affinity chromatography and inhibition studies convincingly demonstrated that glutathione reductase (GSR), a ...


Mtorc2 Is Required For Rit-Mediated Oxidative Stress Resistance, Weikang Cai, Douglas A. Andres Dec 2014

Mtorc2 Is Required For Rit-Mediated Oxidative Stress Resistance, Weikang Cai, Douglas A. Andres

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Rit, a member of the Ras family of GTPases, has been shown to promote cell survival in response to oxidative stress, in part by directing an evolutionarily conserved p38 MAPK-Akt survival cascade. Aberrant Rit signaling has recently been implicated as a driver mutation in human cancer, adding importance to the characterization of critical Rit effector pathways. However, the mechanism by which Rit-p38 signaling regulated Akt activity was unknown. Here, we identify mTORC2 as a critical downstream mediator of Rit-dependent survival signaling in response to reactive oxygen species (ROS) stress. Rit interacts with Sin1 (MAPKAP1), and Rit loss compromises ROS-dependent mTORC2 ...


Transcription Of The Streptococcus Pyogenes Hyaluronic Acid Capsule Biosynthesis Operon Is Regulated By Previously Unknown Upstream Elements, Marina Falaleeva, Oliwia W. Zurek, Robert L. Watkins, Robert W. Reed, Hadeel Ali, Paul Sumby, Jovanka M. Voyich, Natalia Korotkova Dec 2014

Transcription Of The Streptococcus Pyogenes Hyaluronic Acid Capsule Biosynthesis Operon Is Regulated By Previously Unknown Upstream Elements, Marina Falaleeva, Oliwia W. Zurek, Robert L. Watkins, Robert W. Reed, Hadeel Ali, Paul Sumby, Jovanka M. Voyich, Natalia Korotkova

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The important human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus [GAS]) produces a hyaluronic acid (HA) capsule that plays critical roles in immune evasion. Previous studies showed that the hasABC operon encoding the capsule biosynthesis enzymes is under the control of a single promoter, P1, which is negatively regulated by the two-component regulatory system CovR/S. In this work, we characterize the sequence upstream of P1 and identify a novel regulatory region controlling transcription of the capsule biosynthesis operon in the M1 serotype strain MGAS2221. This region consists of a promoter, P2, which initiates transcription of a novel small RNA, HasS ...


Deficiency Of Kruppel-Like Factor Klf4 In Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Inhibits Tumor Pulmonary Metastasis In Mice Accompanied By Decreased Fibrocytes, Y. Shi, L. Ou, S. Han, M. Li, M. M. O. Pena, E. A. Pena, Chunming Liu, M. Nagarkatti, D. Fan, W. Ai Nov 2014

Deficiency Of Kruppel-Like Factor Klf4 In Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Inhibits Tumor Pulmonary Metastasis In Mice Accompanied By Decreased Fibrocytes, Y. Shi, L. Ou, S. Han, M. Li, M. M. O. Pena, E. A. Pena, Chunming Liu, M. Nagarkatti, D. Fan, W. Ai

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The importance of immunosuppressive myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) bearing monocyte markers in tumor metastasis has been well established. Recently, it was reported that these cells possess phenotypic plasticity and differentiate into fibrocytes, very distinct cells that are precursors of tumorigenic myofibroblasts. However, the importance of this transdifferentiation in tumor metastasis has not been explored. Here, we describe the role of MDSC-derived fibrocytes in tumor metastasis that is regulated by Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), a transcription factor that is critical to monocyte differentiation and to promotion of cancer development. Using mouse metastasis models of melanoma and breast cancer, we found that ...


The Formin Fmnl3 Assembles Plasma Membrane Protrusions That Participate In Cell–Cell Adhesion, Timothy J. Gauvin, Lorna E. Young, Henry N. Higgs Nov 2014

The Formin Fmnl3 Assembles Plasma Membrane Protrusions That Participate In Cell–Cell Adhesion, Timothy J. Gauvin, Lorna E. Young, Henry N. Higgs

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

FMNL3 is a vertebrate-specific formin protein previously shown to play a role in angiogenesis and cell migration. Here we define the cellular localization of endogenous FMNL3, the dynamics of GFP-tagged FMNL3 during cell migration, and the effects of FMNL3 suppression in mammalian culture cells. The majority of FMNL3 localizes in a punctate pattern, with >95% of these puncta being indistinguishable from the plasma membrane by fluorescence microscopy. A small number of dynamic cytoplasmic FMNL3 patches also exist, which enrich near cell–cell contact sites and fuse with the plasma membrane at these sites. These cytoplasmic puncta appear to be part ...