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Mass spectrometry

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Articles 1 - 30 of 65

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Analysis Of Bioactive Proteins In Emd That Modulate Adhesion Of Gingival Fibroblast To Improve Bio-Integration Of Dental Implants, David Zuanazzi Machado Jr Mar 2019

Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Analysis Of Bioactive Proteins In Emd That Modulate Adhesion Of Gingival Fibroblast To Improve Bio-Integration Of Dental Implants, David Zuanazzi Machado Jr

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Titanium implants are used in dental practice to replace damaged or lost teeth. The implant needs to integrate with the surrounding gingiva to protect it against bacterial invasion that leads to implant loss. The biointegration is dependent on the implant surface that interacts with proteins from biological fluids to modulate tissues response. Tailoring the surface with specific proteins from the enamel matrix derivative (EMD) would be beneficial to improve the implant-gingiva interface since EMD can affect various cells including gingival fibroblasts. A surface-affinity approach using three different titanium surfaces and saliva was utilized as a model in combination with tandem ...


Evaluating Methods Of Obtaining Male Pheromone From Hymenochirus Sp. Using Analytical Chemistry, Vincent Wing-Kun Leung Jan 2019

Evaluating Methods Of Obtaining Male Pheromone From Hymenochirus Sp. Using Analytical Chemistry, Vincent Wing-Kun Leung

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

Male Hymenochirus sp. frogs are known to release pheromone that attracts females of the same species. Four methods for collecting secretions containing pheromone in Hymenochirus sp. were tested: norepinephrine injection, gonadotropin-releasing hormone injection, homogenization of gland tissue, and electrostimulation of the skin over the breeding gland area. The samples collected were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry. The HPLC chromatograph for the male norepinephrine sample contained a peak at 6.4 min that was not in the female norepinephrine sample HPLC chromatograph. The male norepinephrine sample mass spectrum had a peak of m/z 292.0 not ...


Mass Spectrometry: An Ideal Method For Rna Modification Analysis, Samuel Peter Wein Jan 2019

Mass Spectrometry: An Ideal Method For Rna Modification Analysis, Samuel Peter Wein

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Currently there is no good way to measure and find the exact location of multiple RNA modifications. Existing technology can effectively find single varieties of modifications, but cannot identify co-occurrence. As the field of proteomics has shown, mass spectrometry is a powerful and versatile technique assessing broad ranges of chemical modifications in the context of the cellular environment. In this project I used our expertise in proteomics to build a mass spectrometry based platform for identifying RNA modifications. I have since set up both software and analytical platforms querying RNA modifications, and used this platform to survey human tRNA samples ...


The First In Vivo Human Methionine Sulfide Proteome And The Impact Of Smoking, Abdullah Qassab Dec 2018

The First In Vivo Human Methionine Sulfide Proteome And The Impact Of Smoking, Abdullah Qassab

Theses and Dissertations

Reactive oxygen species are naturally generated within the human body and they are known to modulate signaling pathway and mediate other physiological activities. However, excessive generation of ROS and the inability of body defense system in detoxifying them results in the so called “oxidative stress”. Methionine has powerful antioxidant properties due to the presence of electronegative sulfur in its structure. Therefore, Met is readily oxidized, and methionine sulfoxide has been linked to several pathological conditions.

The urinary proteome is an attractive candidate for the discovery of biomarkers to diagnose and classify health conditions because of the non-invasive collection procedure. However ...


Bayesian Analytical Approaches For Metabolomics : A Novel Method For Molecular Structure-Informed Metabolite Interaction Modeling, A Novel Diagnostic Model For Differentiating Myocardial Infarction Type, And Approaches For Compound Identification Given Mass Spectrometry Data., Patrick J. Trainor Aug 2018

Bayesian Analytical Approaches For Metabolomics : A Novel Method For Molecular Structure-Informed Metabolite Interaction Modeling, A Novel Diagnostic Model For Differentiating Myocardial Infarction Type, And Approaches For Compound Identification Given Mass Spectrometry Data., Patrick J. Trainor

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Metabolomics, the study of small molecules in biological systems, has enjoyed great success in enabling researchers to examine disease-associated metabolic dysregulation and has been utilized for the discovery biomarkers of disease and phenotypic states. In spite of recent technological advances in the analytical platforms utilized in metabolomics and the proliferation of tools for the analysis of metabolomics data, significant challenges in metabolomics data analyses remain. In this dissertation, we present three of these challenges and Bayesian methodological solutions for each. In the first part we develop a new methodology to serve a basis for making higher order inferences in metabolomics ...


Rna Binding Proteins Co-Localize With Small Tau Inclusions In Tauopathy, Brandon F. Maziuk, Daniel J. Apicco, Anna Lourdes Cruz, Lulu Jiang, Peter E. A. Ash, Edroaldo Lummertz. Da Rocha, Cheng Zhang, Wai Haung Yu, John D. Leszyk, Jose F. Abisambra, Hu Li, Benjamin Wolozin Aug 2018

Rna Binding Proteins Co-Localize With Small Tau Inclusions In Tauopathy, Brandon F. Maziuk, Daniel J. Apicco, Anna Lourdes Cruz, Lulu Jiang, Peter E. A. Ash, Edroaldo Lummertz. Da Rocha, Cheng Zhang, Wai Haung Yu, John D. Leszyk, Jose F. Abisambra, Hu Li, Benjamin Wolozin

Open Access Articles

The development of insoluble, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles composed of the microtubule-associated protein tau is a defining feature of tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accumulating evidence suggests that tau pathology co-localizes with RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that are known markers for stress granules (SGs). Here we used proteomics to determine how the network of tau binding proteins changes with disease in the rTg4510 mouse, and then followed up with immunohistochemistry to identify RNA binding proteins that co-localize with tau pathology. The tau interactome networks revealed striking disease-related changes in interactions between tau and a multiple RBPs, and biochemical fractionation studies ...


Elucidation Of Histone Modifications And Nucleosomal Structure Using Novel Mass Spectrometry Approaches, Kelly Karch Jan 2018

Elucidation Of Histone Modifications And Nucleosomal Structure Using Novel Mass Spectrometry Approaches, Kelly Karch

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The fundamental repeating unit of chromatin is the nucleosome, composed of 147 base pairs of DNA wrapped around a histone protein octamer containing two copies of H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. Histone proteins are involved in many critical nuclear processes including transcription and maintenance of chromatin structure. Histone function is mediated by a dynamic and extensive array of post-translational modifications (PTMs). Mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a leading tool to study these complex histone PTM profiles. Generally, MS experiments utilize data dependent acquisition (DDA) methods on high-resolution MS instruments because they can more readily distinguish PTMs with small mass ...


Detection Of Semi-Polar Vitamins And Nutrients In Biological Samples, Jennifer Janovick Jan 2018

Detection Of Semi-Polar Vitamins And Nutrients In Biological Samples, Jennifer Janovick

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Metabolomics is used to examine metabolite fluctuations in biological systems and enables the diagnosis of metabolic disorders and the identification of new therapeutic targets.1 Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was utilized to develop a new method using a T3 column to separate small molecule nutrients and vitamins in a tissue sample. Initial tests of column performance used standard solutions; the amount of metabolites identified and the elution profile of these metabolites was examined. Both the standard solution and sample of brain tissue were tested with the final method developed. Six metabolites were identified in the standard and 31 were identified ...


Cell Division Regulation In Staphylococcus Aureus, Catherine M. Spanoudis Oct 2017

Cell Division Regulation In Staphylococcus Aureus, Catherine M. Spanoudis

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cell division is a fundamental biological process that occurs in all kingdoms of life. Our understanding of cell division in bacteria stems from studies in the rod-shaped model organisms: Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis. The molecular underpinnings of cell division regulation in non-rod-shaped bacteria remain to be studied in detail. Rod-shaped bacteria possess many positive and negative regulatory proteins that are essential to the proper placement of the division septa and ultimately the production of two identical daughter cells, many of which are absent in cocci. Given that essential cell division proteins are attractive antibacterial drug targets, it ...


Characterizing Reactive Glutamines In Fibrinogen And Elucidating Factor Xiii Substrate Specificity., Kelly Njine Mouapi Aug 2017

Characterizing Reactive Glutamines In Fibrinogen And Elucidating Factor Xiii Substrate Specificity., Kelly Njine Mouapi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Fibrinogen is the most abundant protein involved in blood coagulation and has been associated with many pathological implications in cardiovascular disease. At the final stages of blood clot formation, the transglutaminase Factor XIIIa introduces γ-glutamyl-ε-lysinyl covalent bonds between reactive glutamines and lysines in fibrin, which results in a tighter clot network that is resistant to fibrinolysis. Factor XIIIa crosslinks specific reactive glutamines on fibrinogen, selecting more reactive glutamines in the αC region of fibrinogen than any other chain. Although crosslinking pairs in the αC region have been identified, little is known about the extent of crosslinking and the role played ...


Biochemical Characterization Of Arsi: A Novel C-As Lyase For Degradation Of Environmental Organoarsenicals, Shashank Suryakant Pawitwar Jun 2017

Biochemical Characterization Of Arsi: A Novel C-As Lyase For Degradation Of Environmental Organoarsenicals, Shashank Suryakant Pawitwar

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Organoarsenicals such as methylarsenical methylarsenate (MAs(V)) and aromatic arsenicals including roxarsone (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylarsenate or Rox(V)) have been extensively used as an herbicide and growth enhancers in animal husbandry, respectively. They undergo environmental degradation to more toxic inorganic arsenite (As(III)) that contaminates crops and drinking water. We previously identified a bacterial gene (arsI) responsible for aerobic MAs(III) demethylation. The gene product, ArsI, is a Fe(II)-dependent extradiol dioxygenase that cleaves the carbon-arsenic (C-As) bond in MAs(III) and trivalent aromatic arsenicals. The objective of this study was to elucidate the ArsI mechanism. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we ...


Reactivity Of Ketyl And Acetyl Radicals From Direct Solar Actinic Photolysis Of Aqueous Pyruvic Acid, Alexis J. Eugene, Marcelo I. Guzman Mar 2017

Reactivity Of Ketyl And Acetyl Radicals From Direct Solar Actinic Photolysis Of Aqueous Pyruvic Acid, Alexis J. Eugene, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The variable composition of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) contributes to the large uncertainty for predicting radiative forcing. A better understanding of the reaction mechanisms leading to aerosol formation such as for the photochemical reaction of aqueous pyruvic acid (PA) at λ ≥ 305 nm can contribute to constrain these uncertainties. Herein, the photochemistry of aqueous PA (5-300 mM) continuously sparged with air is re-examined in the laboratory under comparable irradiance at 38° N at noon on a summer day. Several analytical methods are employed to monitor the time series of the reaction, including (1) the derivatization of carbonyl (C═O) functional ...


Quantitative Proteomic Characterization Of Cx-4945, A Clinical Stage Inhibitor Of Protein Kinase Ck2, Adam J. Rabalski Feb 2017

Quantitative Proteomic Characterization Of Cx-4945, A Clinical Stage Inhibitor Of Protein Kinase Ck2, Adam J. Rabalski

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Protein phosphorylation is controlled by protein kinases, and represents a critical signaling mechanism involved in the regulation of fundamental biological processes. Furthermore, the aberrant regulation of kinase activity is implicated in diseases such as cancer and has resulted in efforts to target kinases therapeutically. Protein kinase CK2, although frequently considered constitutively active, has emerged as a clinical target on the basis of its altered expression in different types of human cancers and its regulatory participation in multiple biological processes. In fact, CX-4945, a small molecule ATP-competitive inhibitor of CK2 has advanced to clinical trial and has been widely used to ...


Metabolic Investigations Of The Molecular Mechanisms Associated With Parkinson’S Disease, Robert Powers, Shulei Lei, Annadurai Anandhan, Darrell D. Marshall, Bradley Worley, Ronald Cerny, Eric D. Dodds, Yuting Huang, Mihalis I. Panayiotidis, Aglaia Pappa, Rodrigo Franco Jan 2017

Metabolic Investigations Of The Molecular Mechanisms Associated With Parkinson’S Disease, Robert Powers, Shulei Lei, Annadurai Anandhan, Darrell D. Marshall, Bradley Worley, Ronald Cerny, Eric D. Dodds, Yuting Huang, Mihalis I. Panayiotidis, Aglaia Pappa, Rodrigo Franco

Robert Powers Publications

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by fibrillar cytoplasmic aggregates of α-synuclein (i.e., Lewy bodies) and the associated loss of dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra. Mutations in genes such as α -synuclein (SNCA) account for only 10% of PD occurrences. Exposure to environmental toxicants including pesticides and metals (e.g., paraquat (PQ) and manganese (Mn)) is also recognized as an important PD risk factor. Thus, aging, genetic alterations, and environmental factors all contribute to the etiology of PD. In fact, both genetic and environmental factors are thought to interact in the promotion of idiopathic PD ...


Biochemical And Functional Studies Of Histone Deacetylase 3 In Metabolic Tissues, Jarrett Renn Remsberg Jan 2017

Biochemical And Functional Studies Of Histone Deacetylase 3 In Metabolic Tissues, Jarrett Renn Remsberg

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Organismal physiology is built upon the foundation of molecular processes. A central axis to maintaining homeostasis in vivo is at the level of gene regulation. Tissue specific gene expression is created at the level of epigenetics, where proteins guided by tissue specific DNA binding proteins create a chromatin landscape for precise gene programs. Understanding these molecular processes is of vital importance to understand the underpinning pathologies, such as metabolic syndrome, which are a growing medical concern and require greater research efforts in order to tackle its challenges. A major epigenetic regulator is histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), which is a core ...


Metagomics: A Web-Based Tool For Peptide-Centric Functional And Taxonomic Analysis Of Metaproteomics Data, Michael Riffle, Damon H. May, Emma Timmins-Schiffman, Molly P. Mikan, Daniel Jaschob, William S. Noble, Brook L. Nunn Jan 2017

Metagomics: A Web-Based Tool For Peptide-Centric Functional And Taxonomic Analysis Of Metaproteomics Data, Michael Riffle, Damon H. May, Emma Timmins-Schiffman, Molly P. Mikan, Daniel Jaschob, William S. Noble, Brook L. Nunn

OEAS Faculty Publications

Metaproteomics is the characterization of all proteins being expressed by a community of organisms in a complex biological sample at a single point in time. Applications of metaproteomics range from the comparative analysis of environmental samples (such as ocean water and soil) to microbiome data from multicellular organisms (such as the human gut). Metaproteomics research is often focused on the quantitative functional makeup of the metaproteome and which organisms are making those proteins. That is: What are the functions of the currently expressed proteins? How much of the metaproteome is associated with those functions? And, which microorganisms are expressing the ...


Oxidative Stress, Metabolomics Profiling, And Mechanism Of Local Anesthetic Induced Cell Death In Yeast, Cory Honsinger Thomas Boone, Ryan A. Grove, Dana Adamcova, Javier Seravalli, Jiri Adamec Jan 2017

Oxidative Stress, Metabolomics Profiling, And Mechanism Of Local Anesthetic Induced Cell Death In Yeast, Cory Honsinger Thomas Boone, Ryan A. Grove, Dana Adamcova, Javier Seravalli, Jiri Adamec

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The World Health Organization designates lidocaine as an essential medicine in healthcare, greatly increasing the probability of human exposure. Its use has been associated with ROS generation and neurotoxicity. Physiological and metabolomic alterations, and genetics leading to the clinically observed adverse effects have not been temporally characterized. To study alterations that may lead to these undesirable effects, Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on aerobic carbon sources to stationary phase was assessed over 6 h. Exposure of an LC50 dose of lidocaine, increased mitochondrial depolarization and ROS/RNS generation assessed using JC-1, ROS/RNS specific probes, and FACS. Intracellular calcium also increased ...


Comparative Analysis Of In Situ Fibronectin Using Tof-Sims, Spi-Ms, And Dropdesi-Ms In A Microfluidic Reactor, Shannon Fasing, Xiao-Ying Yu, Juan Yao, Jiachao Yu Aug 2016

Comparative Analysis Of In Situ Fibronectin Using Tof-Sims, Spi-Ms, And Dropdesi-Ms In A Microfluidic Reactor, Shannon Fasing, Xiao-Ying Yu, Juan Yao, Jiachao Yu

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Fibronectin is an important biomolecule due to its role in cell differentiation, growth, kinesis, and adhesion. Such biological responses are mediated through membrane recognition and signaling; where fibronectin is found. Studying the outer molecular surface of fibronectin allows deeper insight into the microbiological reactions that occur during these processes. In situ mass spectrometry analysis in aqueous solution accurately represents fibronectin’s chemical components, made possible by a vacuum compatible microfluidic reactor, SALVI (System for Analysis at the Liquid Vacuum Interface). SALVI was paired with the analytical tools: time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometer (ToF-SIMS), single photon ionization mass spectrometer (SPI-MS) and ...


Quantitative Mass Spectrometry Reveals Changes In Histone H2b Variants As Cells Undergo Inorganic Arsenic-Mediated Cellular Transformation, Matthew Rea, Tingting Jiang, Rebekah Eleazer, Meredith Eckstein, Alan G. Marshall, Yvonne N. Fondufe-Mittendorf May 2016

Quantitative Mass Spectrometry Reveals Changes In Histone H2b Variants As Cells Undergo Inorganic Arsenic-Mediated Cellular Transformation, Matthew Rea, Tingting Jiang, Rebekah Eleazer, Meredith Eckstein, Alan G. Marshall, Yvonne N. Fondufe-Mittendorf

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Exposure to inorganic arsenic, a ubiquitous environmental toxic metalloid, leads to carcinogenesis. However, the mechanism is unknown. Several studies have shown that inorganic arsenic exposure alters specific gene expression patterns, possibly through alterations in chromatin structure. While most studies on understanding the mechanism of chromatin-mediated gene regulation have focused on histone post-translational modifications, the role of histone variants remains largely unknown. Incorporation of histone variants alters the functional properties of chromatin. To understand the global dynamics of chromatin structure and function in arsenic-mediated carcinogenesis, analysis of the histone variants incorporated into the nucleosome and their covalent modifications is required. Here ...


Direct Analysis In Real Time (Dart) Of An Organothiophosphate At Ultrahigh Resolution By Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry And Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Laszlo Prokai, Stanley M. Stevens Jr. Jan 2016

Direct Analysis In Real Time (Dart) Of An Organothiophosphate At Ultrahigh Resolution By Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry And Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Laszlo Prokai, Stanley M. Stevens Jr.

Cell Biology, Microbiology, and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

Direct analysis in real time (DART) is a recently developed ambient ionization technique for mass spectrometry to enable rapid and sensitive analyses with little or no sample preparation. After swab-based field sampling, the organothiophosphate malathion was analyzed using DART-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Mass resolution was documented to be over 800,000 in full-scan MS mode and over 1,000,000 for an MS/MS product ion produced by collision-induced dissociation of the protonated analyte. Mass measurement accuracy below 1 ppm was obtained for all DART-generated ions that belonged to ...


The Development Of Peptide Ligands To Target H69 Rrna, Danielle Nicole Dremann Jan 2016

The Development Of Peptide Ligands To Target H69 Rrna, Danielle Nicole Dremann

Wayne State University Dissertations

ABSTRACT

THE DEVELOPMENT OF PEPTIDE LIGANDS TO TARGET H69

by

DANIELLE NICOLE DREMANN

December 2015

Advisor: Prof. Christine S. Chow

Major: Chemistry (Biochemistry)

Degree: Doctor of Philosophy

In the development of peptide ligands to target H69, SPPS and ESI MS was used to determine if 1) peptides could bind to modified H69 and 2) if increased affinity for the target RNA could be enhanced with modification. An alanine and arginine scan was synthesized and tested for this determination. Selected peptides were then tested using biophysical techniques such as circular dichroism and isothermal titration calorimetry. An assay was also designed to ...


Image-Charge Detection €“ Novel Instrumentation And Applications, Brandon Lee Barney Oct 2015

Image-Charge Detection €“ Novel Instrumentation And Applications, Brandon Lee Barney

Theses and Dissertations

Image-charge detection is an analytical technique in which a highly-charged particle is detected by the magnitude of the image current that it generates in a detecting electrode. This current is represented as a voltage between the charged particle and the sensing electrode. It is a single particle detection method, ideal for the analysis of large, variable mass particles such as biological cells. Some of the physical properties of Bacillus subtilis spores were explored using different applications of image-charge detection. B. subtilis is a gram-negative spore-forming bacteria that has been shown to exhibit extremophile behavior. The particular extremophile behavior that was ...


Quantitative And Functional Analysis Pipeline For Label-Free Metaproteomics Data And Its Applications, Lang Ho Lee Aug 2015

Quantitative And Functional Analysis Pipeline For Label-Free Metaproteomics Data And Its Applications, Lang Ho Lee

Doctoral Dissertations

Since the large-scale metaproteome was first reported in 2005, metaproteomics has advanced at a tremendous rate both in its quantitative and qualitative metrics. Furthermore metaproteomics is now being applied as a general tool in microbial ecology in a large variety of environmental studies. Though metaproteomics is becoming a useful and even a standard tool for the microbial ecologist, standardized bioinformatics pipelines are not readily available. Therefore, we developed quantitative and functional analysis pipeline for metaproteomics (QFAM) to help analyze large and complicated metaproteomics data in a robust and timely fashion with outputs designed to be simple and clearly understood by ...


Distinguishing Macrophage Activation States By Mass Spectrometry, Matthias Manfred Knust May 2015

Distinguishing Macrophage Activation States By Mass Spectrometry, Matthias Manfred Knust

Theses and Dissertations

Macrophages are versatile and highly adaptive cells that are involved in a wide range of physiological processes including host defense, homeostasis or regeneration, as well as pathogenesis. They react to their microenvironment, assuming various roles based on chemical and/or physical cues, and can reversibly shift between these so-called activation states. Concurrently, the technique of immunohistochemistry is used to gain spatial information on activated macrophages on tissue sections. The aim of this work was to find mass spectral biomarkers that allow the differentiation of activation states, and establish conditions that can be used in imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) experiments to ...


Investigation Of The Chemical Interface In The Soybean–Aphid And Rice–Bacteria Interactions Using Maldi-Mass Spectrometry Imaging, Adam T. Klein, Gargey B. Yagnik, Jessica D. Hohenstein, Zhiyuan Ji, Jiachen Zi, Malinda D. Reichert, Gustavo C. Macintosh, Bing Yang, Reuben J. Peters, Javier Vela, Young Jin Lee Apr 2015

Investigation Of The Chemical Interface In The Soybean–Aphid And Rice–Bacteria Interactions Using Maldi-Mass Spectrometry Imaging, Adam T. Klein, Gargey B. Yagnik, Jessica D. Hohenstein, Zhiyuan Ji, Jiachen Zi, Malinda D. Reichert, Gustavo C. Macintosh, Bing Yang, Reuben J. Peters, Javier Vela, Young Jin Lee

Chemistry Publications

Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is an emerging technology for high-resolution plant biology. It has been utilized to study plant–pest interactions, but limited to the surface interfaces. Here we expand the technology to explore the chemical interactions occurring inside the plant tissues. Two sample preparation methods, imprinting and fracturing, were developed and applied, for the first time, to visualize internal metabolites of leaves in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-MSI. This is also the first time nanoparticle-based ionization was implemented to ionize diterpenoid phytochemicals that were difficult to analyze with traditional organic matrices. The interactions between rice–bacterium and soybean ...


Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis Of Dysfunctional Mitochondrial Metabolism: Insights Into Rotenone Toxicity And Friedreichâ'S Ataxia, Andrew J. Worth Jan 2015

Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis Of Dysfunctional Mitochondrial Metabolism: Insights Into Rotenone Toxicity And Friedreichâ'S Ataxia, Andrew J. Worth

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a role in a wide range of diseases resulting in an enormous public health burden. The goal of this thesis is to identify metabolic pathways that are disrupted in response to mitochondrial insults. A large proportion of this work is based on the generation of stable isotope labelled metabolites to allow for the rigorous quantification of intracellular metabolites by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Once developed, this methodology was employed in cell culture models initially to characterize an unidentified acyl-CoA thioester induced by propionate metabolism. This novel pathway was identified as the direct formation of 2-methyl-2-pentenoyl-CoA, and using isotopic ...


Application And Refinement Of A Zero-Length Chemical Cross-Linking And Mass Spectrometry Method To Examine Native Protein Structures, Roland Fernando Rivera-Santiago Jan 2015

Application And Refinement Of A Zero-Length Chemical Cross-Linking And Mass Spectrometry Method To Examine Native Protein Structures, Roland Fernando Rivera-Santiago

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry (CX-MS) is a structural technique that has been gaining in popularity with the advent of instruments that provide increased access to high-resolution MS/MS data. The Speicher laboratory is interested in zero-length cross-links, which provide the highest-quality data, but are the most difficult to identify and analyze. A MS sample preparation and data analysis pipeline, including a software package called ZXMiner, has been developed to collect and analyze zero-length CX-MS data to use in molecular modeling experiments. I used this pipeline to examine the peroxiredoxin-6 (PRDX6) enzyme, which prevents oxidative damage in the lung. I ...


Investigation Into The Biological Importance And Function Of Proinsulin C-Peptide, Christina L. Newsome Jan 2015

Investigation Into The Biological Importance And Function Of Proinsulin C-Peptide, Christina L. Newsome

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

The C-peptide of insulin was thought to be biologically inactive, but recent studies have shown that the C-peptide causes multiple molecular and physiological effects. Evidence has shown that C-peptide binds to a cell surface receptor, probably a G-protein coupled receptor, and that the COOH-terminal pentapeptide is essential for binding and constitutes an active site. For a further understanding of the detailed nature of the physiological effects of C-peptide, the receptor structure needs to be determined. We designed an affinity column using C-peptide to try and gain a better understanding of the biological effects by examining what proteins the affinity column ...


Bioinformatic Solutions To Complex Problems In Mass Spectrometry Based Analysis Of Biomolecules, Ryan M. Taylor Jul 2014

Bioinformatic Solutions To Complex Problems In Mass Spectrometry Based Analysis Of Biomolecules, Ryan M. Taylor

Theses and Dissertations

Biological research has benefitted greatly from the advent of omic methods. For many biomolecules, mass spectrometry (MS) methods are most widely employed due to the sensitivity which allows low quantities of sample and the speed which allows analysis of complex samples. Improvements in instrument and sample preparation techniques create opportunities for large scale experimentation. The complexity and volume of data produced by modern MS-omic instrumentation challenges biological interpretation, while the complexity of the instrumentation, sample noise, and complexity of data analysis present difficulties in maintaining and ensuring data quality, validity, and relevance. We present a corpus of tools which improves ...


Targeted Proteomics Of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells, Kevin Gregory Kania Apr 2014

Targeted Proteomics Of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells, Kevin Gregory Kania

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) exhibit two unique characteristics: pluripotency and self-renewal. These properties are maintained by a series of complex signaling pathways, however, quantitative data for the respective proteins is lacking. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) is a targeted, quantitative technique in mass spectrometry that is highly sensitive in peptide detection. In this thesis, an SRM protocol was developed in order to detect and quantify a defined set of proteins responsible for maintaining stem cell pluripotency. Two hESC differentiation protocols were validated for use as model systems within which to measure differential protein expression by SRM. SRM assays were generated ...