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Inflammation

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Articles 1 - 30 of 65

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Monocyte Mri Relaxation Rates Are Regulated By Extracellular Iron And Hepcidin, Praveen S.B Dassanayake Aug 2019

Monocyte Mri Relaxation Rates Are Regulated By Extracellular Iron And Hepcidin, Praveen S.B Dassanayake

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Monocytes are an important immune cell type in chronic inflammatory conditions like atherosclerosis and heart failure. The increase in number of monocytes released to the peripheral blood circulation, the differentiation of monocytes to macrophages, and the presence of different macrophage subpopulations during pro- and anti-inflammatory stages of tissue injury may provide markers for monitoring inflammation. In particular, changes in monocyte iron metabolism during an inflammatory response may increase the possibility of tracking these immune cells non-invasively using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). When secretion of the polypeptide hormone hepcidin is stimulated during inflammation, it binds the iron export protein ferroportin (FPN ...


Effect Of Osteoactivin And Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 On Soft Tissue In Rat Spinal Fusion Model, Andrew Ohliger Jan 2019

Effect Of Osteoactivin And Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 On Soft Tissue In Rat Spinal Fusion Model, Andrew Ohliger

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Osteoinductive therapeutic strategies are essential for the bone healing process and are applicable in multiple orthopaedic procedures. The novel protein Osteoactivin (OA) has proven to stimulate osteoblast differentiation and function in vitro and bone regeneration in vivo in the rat model. More recently, OA has shown significant bone regeneration ability in sheep. The goal of this study is the comparison of osteoactivin with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in the rat spinal fusion model.


Peptidylarginine Deiminases 2 And 4 Modulate Innate And Adaptive Immune Responses In Tlr-7-Dependent Lupus., Yudong Liu, Yaíma L Lightfoot, Nickie Seto, Santanu Mondal, Padmavathy Nandha Premnath, Paul R. Thompson Dec 2018

Peptidylarginine Deiminases 2 And 4 Modulate Innate And Adaptive Immune Responses In Tlr-7-Dependent Lupus., Yudong Liu, Yaíma L Lightfoot, Nickie Seto, Santanu Mondal, Padmavathy Nandha Premnath, Paul R. Thompson

University of Massachusetts Medical School Publications

The peptidylarginine deiminases PAD2 and PAD4 are implicated in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases. PAD4 may be pathogenic in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) through its role in neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation that promotes autoantigen externalization, immune dysregulation, and organ damage. The role of this enzyme in mouse models of autoimmunity remains unclear, as pan-PAD chemical inhibitors improve clinical phenotype, whereas PAD4-KO models have given conflicting results. The role of PAD2 in SLE has not been investigated. The differential roles of PAD2 and PAD4 in TLR-7-dependent lupus autoimmunity were examined. Padi4-/- displayed decreased autoantibodies, type I IFN responses, immune ...


Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase 4 (Irak4) Plays A Dual Role In Myddosome Formation And Toll-Like Receptor Signaling, Dominic De Nardo, Katherine R. Balka, Yamel Cardona Gloria, Vikram R. Rao, Eicke Latz, Seth L. Masters Sep 2018

Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase 4 (Irak4) Plays A Dual Role In Myddosome Formation And Toll-Like Receptor Signaling, Dominic De Nardo, Katherine R. Balka, Yamel Cardona Gloria, Vikram R. Rao, Eicke Latz, Seth L. Masters

Open Access Articles

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) form part of the host innate immune system, in which they act as sensors of microbial and endogenous danger signals. Upon TLR activation, the intracellular Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domains of TLR dimers initiate oligomerization of a multiprotein signaling platform comprising myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) and members of the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) family. Formation of this myddosome complex initiates signal transduction pathways, leading to the activation of transcription factors and the production of inflammatory cytokines. To date, little is known about the assembly and disassembly of the myddosome and about the mechanisms by which these ...


Dietary Polyphenols And Periodontitis—A Mini-Review Of Literature, Arpita Basu, Emily Masek, Jeffrey L. Ebersole Jul 2018

Dietary Polyphenols And Periodontitis—A Mini-Review Of Literature, Arpita Basu, Emily Masek, Jeffrey L. Ebersole

Kinesiology and Nutrition Sciences Faculty Publications

Periodontitis, which is a chronic infection and disease of the periodontium, is a significant global health burden and is linked to other chronic health conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Dietary polyphenols present in a wide variety of plant-based foods, herbs, and botanicals have been shown to exert antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and reduced osteoclast and alveolar bone loss activities in animal models of periodontitis. Polyphenol-containing beverages and foods especially green tea and its active catechin epigallocatechin-3-gallate, cranberries, pomegranates, and fruit and vegetable extracts have reported bacteriostatic/bactericidal activity against microbial species such as P. gingivalis and shown total bacterial burden ...


Biological Clocks, Inflammation, And Multiorgan Damage In Sickle Cell Disease, Morayo Adebiyi May 2018

Biological Clocks, Inflammation, And Multiorgan Damage In Sickle Cell Disease, Morayo Adebiyi

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a dangerous condition caused by a genetic mutation on the human beta-globin gene that contributes to erythrocyte sickling, the hallmark of the disease. Previous metabolomics studies have confirmed that elevated sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) mediates sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) production to promote erythrocyte sickling. S1P signals via five S1P receptors (S1PR) regulates several pathophysiological functions.

In the first chapter of this dissertation, I explored the role of S1PRs in SCD by utilizing pharmacologic and genetic tools. To determine the role of S1P-S1PRs signaling in SCD, I treated humanized Berkeley sickle mice (Berkeley HBS mice), with FTY720, a ...


Intron-Containing Rna From The Hiv-1 Provirus Activates Type I Interferon And Inflammatory Cytokines, Sean M. Mccauley, Kyusik Kim, Anetta Nowosielska, Ann Dauphin, Leonid Yurkovetskiy, William E. Diehl, Jeremy Luban Apr 2018

Intron-Containing Rna From The Hiv-1 Provirus Activates Type I Interferon And Inflammatory Cytokines, Sean M. Mccauley, Kyusik Kim, Anetta Nowosielska, Ann Dauphin, Leonid Yurkovetskiy, William E. Diehl, Jeremy Luban

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations

HIV-1-infected people who take drugs that suppress viremia to undetectable levels are protected from developing AIDS. Nonetheless, these individuals have chronic inflammation associated with heightened risk of cardiovascular pathology. HIV-1 establishes proviruses in long-lived CD4+ memory T cells, and perhaps other cell types, that preclude elimination of the virus even after years of continuous antiviral therapy. Though the majority of proviruses that persist during antiviral therapy are defective for production of infectious virions, many are expressed, raising the possibility that the HIV-1 provirus or its transcripts contribute to ongoing inflammation. Here we found that the HIV-1 provirus activated innate immune ...


5-Lipoxygenase (5-Lox)-5-Lipoxygenase Activating Protein (Flap)-Nanodisc Complex: A Model For The 5-Lox-Flap Interaction, Erin Elizabeth Schexnaydre Mar 2018

5-Lipoxygenase (5-Lox)-5-Lipoxygenase Activating Protein (Flap)-Nanodisc Complex: A Model For The 5-Lox-Flap Interaction, Erin Elizabeth Schexnaydre

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Leukotrienes (LT) are lipid mediators of the inflammatory response that play important roles in diseases such as asthma and atherosclerosis. Leukotriene A4 (LTA4) is synthesized from arachidonic acid (AA) by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) with the help of 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP), a trimeric nuclear transmembrane protein. Exactly how 5-LOX and FLAP interact is not well understood, however FLAP is essential for the production of leukotrienes in vivo. I used nanodiscs (NDs), engineered membrane systems, as a tool to study the 5-LOX-FLAP interaction. FLAP was incorporated into NDs with a phospholipid composition to mimic of the nuclear membrane. Structural features were ...


Il-17 Drives Copper Uptake And Activation Of Growth Pathways In Colorectal Cancer Cells In A Steap4-Dependent Manner, Evan Martin Jan 2018

Il-17 Drives Copper Uptake And Activation Of Growth Pathways In Colorectal Cancer Cells In A Steap4-Dependent Manner, Evan Martin

ETD Archive

Colorectal cancer is a disease characterized by abnormal, invasive cell growth beginning in the colon or rectum. The third most common type of cancer worldwide, approximately one million new cases of the disease are diagnosed across the globe annually, resulting in an estimated 700,000+ deaths. One major risk factor associated with development of colorectal cancer is the presence of chronic inflammation in the large intestine, also known as colitis. Inflammation is a complex immune response against harmful stimuli, characterized by symptoms including heat, redness, swelling and pain. One important molecular mediator of this process is interleukin 17 (IL-17), a ...


Il-17 Drives Copper Uptake And Activation Of Growth Pathways In Colorectal Cancer Cells In A Steap4-Dependent Manner, Evan Martin Jan 2018

Il-17 Drives Copper Uptake And Activation Of Growth Pathways In Colorectal Cancer Cells In A Steap4-Dependent Manner, Evan Martin

ETD Archive

Colorectal cancer is a disease characterized by abnormal, invasive cell growth beginning in the colon or rectum. The third most common type of cancer worldwide, approximately one million new cases of the disease are diagnosed across the globe annually, resulting in an estimated 700,000+ deaths. One major risk factor associated with development of colorectal cancer is the presence of chronic inflammation in the large intestine, also known as colitis. Inflammation is a complex immune response against harmful stimuli, characterized by symptoms including heat, redness, swelling and pain. One important molecular mediator of this process is interleukin 17 (IL-17), a ...


Decreasing Cb1 Receptor Signaling In Kupffer Cells Improves Insulin Sensitivity In Obese Mice, Tony Jourdan, Sarah M. Nicoloro, Zhou Zhou, Yuefei Shen, Jie Liu, Nathan J. Coffey, Resat Cinar, Grzegorz Godlewski, Bin Gao, Myriam Aouadi, Michael P. Czech, George Kunos Nov 2017

Decreasing Cb1 Receptor Signaling In Kupffer Cells Improves Insulin Sensitivity In Obese Mice, Tony Jourdan, Sarah M. Nicoloro, Zhou Zhou, Yuefei Shen, Jie Liu, Nathan J. Coffey, Resat Cinar, Grzegorz Godlewski, Bin Gao, Myriam Aouadi, Michael P. Czech, George Kunos

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

OBJECTIVE: Obesity-induced accumulation of ectopic fat in the liver is thought to contribute to the development of insulin resistance, and increased activity of hepatic CB1R has been shown to promote both processes. However, lipid accumulation in liver can be experimentally dissociated from insulin resistance under certain conditions, suggesting the involvement of additional mechanisms. Obesity is also associated with pro-inflammatory changes which, in turn, can promote insulin resistance. Kupffer cells (KCs), the liver's resident macrophages, are the major source of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the liver, such as TNF-alpha, which has been shown to inhibit insulin signaling in multiple cell types ...


Map4k4 Impairs Energy Metabolism In Endothelial Cells And Promotes Insulin Resistance In Obesity, Rachel J. Roth Flach, Marina T. Distefano, Laura V. Danai, Ozlem Senol-Cosar, Joseph C. Yawe, Mark Kelly, Lorena Garcia Menendez, Michael P. Czech Jun 2017

Map4k4 Impairs Energy Metabolism In Endothelial Cells And Promotes Insulin Resistance In Obesity, Rachel J. Roth Flach, Marina T. Distefano, Laura V. Danai, Ozlem Senol-Cosar, Joseph C. Yawe, Mark Kelly, Lorena Garcia Menendez, Michael P. Czech

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

The blood vasculature responds to insulin, influencing hemodynamic changes in the periphery, which promotes tissue nutrient and oxygen delivery and thus metabolic function. The lymphatic vasculature regulates fluid and lipid homeostasis, and impaired lymphatic function can contribute to atherosclerosis and obesity. Recent studies have suggested a role for endothelial cell (EC) Mitogen activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) in developmental angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis as well as atherosclerosis. Here, we show that inducible EC Map4k4 deletion in adult mice ameliorates metabolic dysfunction in obesity despite the development of chylous ascites and a concomitant striking increase in adipose tissue lymphocyte ...


Comparative Chemical Characterization Of Lunasin-Enriched Preparations And Modifications Of The Inflammasomes In Vitro, Samuel James Price May 2017

Comparative Chemical Characterization Of Lunasin-Enriched Preparations And Modifications Of The Inflammasomes In Vitro, Samuel James Price

Masters Theses

Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most cultivated crops in the world providing the population with large amounts of protein and oil. In addition to its nutritional composition, soybean also contains biologically active compounds with potential health-promoting properties. The presence of these bioactives may be responsible for the lower incidence of chronic diseases in populations that consume a significant portion of soybeans in their diet. One group of soybeanderived bioactives are bioactive peptides and proteins including lunasin, Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) and Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (KTI). The overall objective of this research was to develop a method of preparing lunasin-enriched ...


Palmitoyl Acyltransferase Dhhc21 Mediates Endothelial Dysfunction In Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, Richard S. Beard Jr. Apr 2017

Palmitoyl Acyltransferase Dhhc21 Mediates Endothelial Dysfunction In Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, Richard S. Beard Jr.

Richard S. Beard Jr.

Endothelial dysfunction is a hallmark of systemic inflammatory response underlying multiple organ failure. Here we report a novel function of DHHC-containing palmitoyl acyltransferases (PATs) in mediating endothelial inflammation. Pharmacological inhibition of PATs attenuates barrier leakage and leucocyte adhesion induced by endothelial junction hyperpermeability and ICAM-1 expression during inflammation. Among 11 DHHCs detected in vascular endothelium, DHHC21 is required for barrier response. Mice with DHHC21 function deficiency (Zdhhc21dep/dep) exhibit marked resistance to injury, characterized by reduced plasma leakage, decreased leucocyte adhesion and ameliorated lung pathology, culminating in improved survival. Endothelial cells from Zdhhc21dep/dep display blunted barrier dysfunction ...


Role Of Inflammation In 20-Hete Regulation Of Ischemia-Induced Angiogenesis, Elizabeth Berry, Rachel John, Samantha Tang, Austin M. Guo Mar 2017

Role Of Inflammation In 20-Hete Regulation Of Ischemia-Induced Angiogenesis, Elizabeth Berry, Rachel John, Samantha Tang, Austin M. Guo

NYMC Faculty Posters

Objective: 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), an important bioactive lipid metabolite, has recently been identified to be a novel contributor of angiogenesis secondary to ischemia. Moreover, an inflammatory response is required for the initiation of ischemic angiogenesis, in response to ischemic tissue injury. The goal of this study is to investigate the role of inflammation in 20-HETE regulation of ischemia-induced angiogenesis.

Methods: We first established a mouse hind limb ischemia model for immunocompetent Balb/C mice and immunodeficient NOD-SCID mice by femoral artery ligation. Groups of Balb/C and NOD-SCID mice were administered a 20-HETE synthesis inhibitor, DDMS, or saline as a ...


Characterization Of Chemical Probes For Therapeutic Intervention Of Innate Immune Signaling, Christina Elizabeth Boville Jan 2017

Characterization Of Chemical Probes For Therapeutic Intervention Of Innate Immune Signaling, Christina Elizabeth Boville

Chemistry & Biochemistry Graduate Theses & Dissertations (1986-2018)

The innate immune system protects us from incessant attacks by microorganisms. However, immunity is a double-edged sword, and inflammation must be carefully regulated. Chemical biology offers a means to maintain healthy homeostasis by influencing the immune response. We have used small molecule and peptide chemistries to exploit Toll-like receptor, caspase, and antimicrobial peptide signaling for therapeutic purposes. These compounds may find applications treating sepsis and autoimmune disease, and can influence the design of next-generation antibiotics and vaccines.

Toll-like receptors are pattern recognition receptors that sense bacteria and viruses, and then induce inflammation to stave off infection. We have designed saccharin-derived ...


The Role Of Inflammasomes In Asbestos-Induced Mesothelial To Fibroblastic Transition, Joyce K. Thompson Jan 2017

The Role Of Inflammasomes In Asbestos-Induced Mesothelial To Fibroblastic Transition, Joyce K. Thompson

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Malignant Mesothelioma (MM) is a fatal disease with a low median survival between 8 to 12 months after diagnosis. MM has a long latency period (10-60 years), is causally related to asbestos exposure, and is refractory to all available modes of therapy. Despite the causal association between asbestos exposure and MM however, the mechanisms by which asbestos induces this deadly disease remain unclear. Chronic inflammation due to the presence of asbestos fibers is believed to play an important role in all aspects of MM pathogenesis, from development to progression and resistance. Chronic inflammation has been shown to promote dysregulated wound ...


Oxidative Stress And Inflammation In Hepatic Diseases: Current And Future Therapy., Karina Reyes-Gordillo, Ruchi Shah, Pablo Muriel Jan 2017

Oxidative Stress And Inflammation In Hepatic Diseases: Current And Future Therapy., Karina Reyes-Gordillo, Ruchi Shah, Pablo Muriel

Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine Faculty Publications

Liver disease is a highly prevalent disease that is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The continuous exposure of the liver to some factors such as viruses, alcohol, fat, and biotransformed metabolites can cause hepatic injury, which can lead to inflammation and liver degeneration. When the injury is sustained for long time, it can cause chronic liver diseases (CLDs), which include a spectrum of disease states ranging from simple steatosis and steatohepatitis (steatosis with inflammation and hepatocyte injury and death) to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Multiple evidences indicate that oxidative stress and inflammation are the most ...


P120 Catenin Regulates Inflammation In Macrophage, Xiaoqing Guan Jan 2017

P120 Catenin Regulates Inflammation In Macrophage, Xiaoqing Guan

Wayne State University Dissertations

Objective: p120 catenin (p120ctn) has been reported to play a critical role in maintenance of the stability of adherens junctions. It also has potential anti-inflammatory effects in epithelial and endothelial cells. This research was designed to evaluate the effects of p120ctn on inflammatory responses in human macrophages upon LPS stimulation, as well as the possible mechanism by which p120ctn regulates LPS-induced proinflammatory response in macrophages. Methods: THP-1 cells were induced to differentiate into macrophages by PMA. The isoforms of p120ctn were identified via RT-PCR and Western blot. The expression of p120ctn was examined by Western blot in THP-1 derived macrophages ...


Effect Of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress On Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells And Its Regulation Of Sm22Α, Neeraja Priyanka Annam Jan 2017

Effect Of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress On Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells And Its Regulation Of Sm22Α, Neeraja Priyanka Annam

Wayne State University Dissertations

Background: The vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMC) possess the ability to differentiate into a synthetic phenotype in response to stress. This phenotypic modulation may be accompanied by inflammatory or osteogenic response in chronic stress. The synthetic state is characterized by low levels of contractile markers unlike the differentiated state.

Hypothesis: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress causes phenotypic modulation in VSMCs leading to apoptosis. Many transcription factors induced by ER stress contribute to the downregulation of Sm22α. Perturbation in cytoskeletal dynamics exacerbates the ER stress response.

Methods: Ex-vivo culture was used to establish importance of Sm22 in ER stress. In vitro analysis ...


Clinicopathology And Molecular Determinants Underlying Benign Breast And Breast Cancer Lesions, Andreana Holowatyj Holowatyj Jan 2017

Clinicopathology And Molecular Determinants Underlying Benign Breast And Breast Cancer Lesions, Andreana Holowatyj Holowatyj

Wayne State University Dissertations

Despite converging incidence rates for breast cancers by race, disparities in mortality persist where black women suffer from poorer prognosis compared to white counterparts. To understand the clinical, demographic, and molecular characteristics underlying these disparities, we examined differences among patients with breast cancer to understand the role of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status, age, and race/ethnicity among women diagnosed with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, and disparities in surgical therapy among female patients with early stage young-onset breast cancer. Benign breast disease, another known risk factor for breast cancer, includes a histological spectrum of lesions, could contribute ...


Inflammatory Gene Expression In Women Diagnosed With Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, Myles K. Taylor Dec 2016

Inflammatory Gene Expression In Women Diagnosed With Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, Myles K. Taylor

Electronic Thesis Collection

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. The pathophysiology of PCOS has conventionally thought to originate from androgen excess. However, recent evidence suggests that androgen excess is a downstream consequence to inflammatory dysregulation and subsequent metabolic abnormalities. Inflammatory mRNA gene expression of TNFa and IL-1ß in mononuclear cells isolated from women diagnosed with PCOS was explored using qPCR. Additionally, the correlations between body mass index (BMI) and fasting glucose on mRNA expression of TNFa and IL-1ß were explored. mRNA expression of both TNFa and IL-1ß were found to be significantly higher in PCOS ...


Extracellular Matrix Remodeling And The Inflammatory Response During Skeletal Muscle Regeneration In Sarcopenic Obese Mice, Lemuel Arthur Brown Dec 2016

Extracellular Matrix Remodeling And The Inflammatory Response During Skeletal Muscle Regeneration In Sarcopenic Obese Mice, Lemuel Arthur Brown

Theses and Dissertations

AIM: Sarocpenic obesity is a national concern within the United States because this metabolic syndrome is tied with reduced mobility and quality of life. Both obesity and aging are associated with insulin-resistance, chronic low-grade inflammation and muscle weakness. Skeletal muscle regeneration is a process that involves the coordinated effort of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), inflammatory signaling, and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling for optimal regeneration. It has been demonstrated that obesity and aging have a reduction in muscle regeneration. It has not been examined if sarcopenic obesity will further reduce muscle mass and the regenerative process. The purpose of this study ...


Therapeutic Targets For Alzheimer's Disease: Insights From In Vitro And In Vivo Models Of Inflammation, Magdalena J. Kiprowska Sep 2016

Therapeutic Targets For Alzheimer's Disease: Insights From In Vitro And In Vivo Models Of Inflammation, Magdalena J. Kiprowska

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive neuronal loss that over the years spreads from the hippocampus to the neural cortex and impairs memory and cognitive functions. At the cellular level AD is linked to the presence of β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles but despite decades of research little is known about their contribution to neurodegeneration and whether they are a cause or rather a result of the disease. It is well established that proteasome activity is impaired in AD brains and some studies suggest that this could be one of the initial factors leading to ...


Palmitoyl Acyltransferase Dhhc21 Mediates Endothelial Dysfunction In Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, Richard S. Beard Jr. Sep 2016

Palmitoyl Acyltransferase Dhhc21 Mediates Endothelial Dysfunction In Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, Richard S. Beard Jr.

Biomolecular Research Center Publications and Presentations

Endothelial dysfunction is a hallmark of systemic inflammatory response underlying multiple organ failure. Here we report a novel function of DHHC-containing palmitoyl acyltransferases (PATs) in mediating endothelial inflammation. Pharmacological inhibition of PATs attenuates barrier leakage and leucocyte adhesion induced by endothelial junction hyperpermeability and ICAM-1 expression during inflammation. Among 11 DHHCs detected in vascular endothelium, DHHC21 is required for barrier response. Mice with DHHC21 function deficiency (Zdhhc21dep/dep) exhibit marked resistance to injury, characterized by reduced plasma leakage, decreased leucocyte adhesion and ameliorated lung pathology, culminating in improved survival. Endothelial cells from Zdhhc21dep/dep display blunted barrier dysfunction ...


Preeclampsia: The Roles Of Acute Inflammation And Intrauterine Stress, Nicholas Parchim May 2016

Preeclampsia: The Roles Of Acute Inflammation And Intrauterine Stress, Nicholas Parchim

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Preeclampsia (PE) is a severe, acute disease of pregnancy affecting approximately 8% of pregnant women after week 20 of gestation. PE is characterized by hypertension and renal damage reflected by proteinuria and has significant morbidity to both mother and fetus. Maternal symptoms range from headaches, nausea, edema, to visual changes, but once maternal symptoms present, damage to the fetus has begun. Mothers who progress untreated through the disease can also experience a condition called eclampsia characterized by seizure, coma, and, ultimately, death. PE-affected newborns experience features similar to prematurity—abnormal lung and renal development, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and, possibly ...


Role Of Microrna-21 In Atherogenesis., Rihab Hamed-Berair May 2016

Role Of Microrna-21 In Atherogenesis., Rihab Hamed-Berair

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is an evolutionarily conserved microRNA, abundant in most cardiovascular tissues. It has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular diseases including restenosis, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. However, little is known about the contribution of miR-21 in atherosclerosis. My data show that expression of miR-21 is increased by >1.5-fold in murine atherosclerotic lesions and by 1.5-2.0-fold in the macrophages of Western diet (WD)-fed LDLR-KO mice (for 12-20 weeks). In vitro, LDL, oxidized LDL, acetylated LDL and LPS induced miR-21 by 2-4-fold and down-regulated its target protein, PDCD4, in bone marrow-derived macrophages. Basally, macrophages ...


The Role Of Sirtuin 6 In Maintaining Vascular Integrity, Sharon Z. Leung Apr 2016

The Role Of Sirtuin 6 In Maintaining Vascular Integrity, Sharon Z. Leung

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Oxidative stress is an underlying cause for vascular pathologies including inflammation, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Sirtuins (SIRTs) are a family of NAD+ dependent deacetylases with pronounced roles in cellular metabolism and aging. SIRT6 is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and may offer protection from oxidative stress-induced damage. To study the role of SIRT6 in SMCs, we created a novel strain of SMC-specific SIRT6-deficient (SIRT6KO) mice with Cre-lox technology. Because no defects were observed in the aortas of SIRT6KO mice, they were then infused with angiotensin II (Ang II) to induce oxidative stress. Compared with vehicle controls, SIRT6KO mice developed ...


Inflammation Mediated By Jnk In Myeloid Cells Promotes The Development Of Hepatitis And Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Myoung Souk Han, Tamera Barrett, Michael A. Brehm, Roger J. Davis Apr 2016

Inflammation Mediated By Jnk In Myeloid Cells Promotes The Development Of Hepatitis And Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Myoung Souk Han, Tamera Barrett, Michael A. Brehm, Roger J. Davis

Davis Lab Publications

The cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is required for the development of hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. A role for JNK in liver parenchymal cells has been proposed, but more recent studies have implicated non-parenchymal liver cells as the relevant site of JNK signaling. Here, we tested the hypothesis that myeloid cells mediate this function of JNK. We show that mice with myeloid cell-specific JNK deficiency exhibit reduced hepatic inflammation and suppression of both hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. These data identify myeloid cells as a site of pro-inflammatory signaling by JNK that can promote liver pathology. Targeting myeloid cells with ...


Concentration And Ratio Of Essential Fatty Acids Influences The Inflammatory Response In Lipopolysaccharide Challenged Mice, Korry Hintze, J. Tawzer, Robert E. Ward Feb 2016

Concentration And Ratio Of Essential Fatty Acids Influences The Inflammatory Response In Lipopolysaccharide Challenged Mice, Korry Hintze, J. Tawzer, Robert E. Ward

Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences Faculty Publications

The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of both the % of dietary, 18-carbon PUFA (2.5%, 5% and 10%) and the n-6:n-3 ratio (1:1, 10:1 and 20:1) on the acute inflammatory response. Mice were fed diets for 8 weeks and injected intraperitoneally with LPS to induce acute inflammation. After 24. h mice were sacrificed and plasma cytokines measured. Diets significantly affected the erythrocyte PUFA composition and the effect of PUFA ratio was more prominent than of PUFA concentration. The % dietary PUFA affected feed efficiency (p