Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Genetics

Discipline
Institution
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 142

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

9th Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium, University Of Texas Md Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association Sep 2019

9th Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium, University Of Texas Md Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association

MD Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium Abstracts

The mission of the Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium (APSS) is to provide a platform for talented postdoctoral fellows throughout the Texas Medical Center to present their work to a wider audience. The MD Anderson Postdoctoral Association convened its inaugural Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium (APSS) on August 4, 2011.

The APSS provides a professional venue for postdoctoral scientists to develop, clarify, and refine their research as a result of formal reviews and critiques of faculty and other postdoctoral scientists. Additionally, attendees discuss current research on a broad range of subjects while promoting academic interactions and enrichment and developing new collaborations.


Signaling To Trp53 And Tap63 From Chk1/Chk2 Is Responsible For Elimination Of Most Oocytes Defective For Either Chromosome Synapsis Or Recombination, Vera D. Rinaldi, Jordana C. Bloom, John C. Schimenti Sep 2019

Signaling To Trp53 And Tap63 From Chk1/Chk2 Is Responsible For Elimination Of Most Oocytes Defective For Either Chromosome Synapsis Or Recombination, Vera D. Rinaldi, Jordana C. Bloom, John C. Schimenti

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Eukaryotic organisms have evolved mechanisms to prevent the accumulation of cells bearing genetic aberrations. This is especially crucial for the germline, because fecundity, and fitness of progeny would be adversely affected by an excessively high mutational incidence. The process of meiosis poses unique problems for mutation avoidance, due to the requirement for SPO11-induced programmed double strand breaks (DSBs) in recombination-driven pairing and segregation of homologous chromosomes. Mouse meiocytes bearing unrepaired meiotic DSBs or unsynapsed chromosomes are eliminated before completing meiotic prophase I. In previous work, we showed that checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2; CHEK2), a canonical DNA damage response protein, is ...


Science, Physiology, And Nutrition For The Nonscientist, Judi S. Morrill Jul 2019

Science, Physiology, And Nutrition For The Nonscientist, Judi S. Morrill

Open Educational Resources

A wonderful blend of physiology, nutrition, biochemistry, genetics, biology, evolution, chemistry--what we all need to know as informed citizens. A basic knowledge of the life sciences and how our bodies work--to promote our own good health, especially as we're bombarded with misleading advertisements, soundbites, and the like. DNA fingerprinting, calorie requirements, dietary advice, genetic engineering (including gene editing with CRISPR cas9)--all in an easy-to understand book.


Toward A Rhetoric Of Dna: The Advent Of Crispr, Michael J. Zerbe Feb 2019

Toward A Rhetoric Of Dna: The Advent Of Crispr, Michael J. Zerbe

Poroi

The nucleic acid DNA, which contains an organism’s genetic information, consists of a four-letter alphabet that has until recently been characterized as a read-only text. The development of a quick, inexpensive DNA targeting and manipulation technique called CRISPR, pronounced “crisper,” though, has changed DNA from this arhetorical, read-only data set, as it has been characterized in the rhetoric literature to date, to a fully rhetorical text—one that can be not only read but created, interpreted, copied, altered, and stored as well. The Book of Nature, an idea with roots in antiquity but popularized during the nineteenth century, provides ...


Mutations In The Glycosyltransferase Domain Of Glt8d1 Are Associated With Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Johnathan Cooper-Knock, John E. Landers, Pamela J. Shaw Feb 2019

Mutations In The Glycosyltransferase Domain Of Glt8d1 Are Associated With Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Johnathan Cooper-Knock, John E. Landers, Pamela J. Shaw

Open Access Articles

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder without effective neuroprotective therapy. Known genetic variants impair pathways, including RNA processing, axonal transport, and protein homeostasis. We report ALS-causing mutations within the gene encoding the glycosyltransferase GLT8D1. Exome sequencing in an autosomal-dominant ALS pedigree identified p.R92C mutations in GLT8D1, which co-segregate with disease. Sequencing of local and international cohorts demonstrated significant ALS association in the same exon, including additional rare deleterious mutations in conserved amino acids. Mutations are associated with the substrate binding site, and both R92C and G78W changes impair GLT8D1 enzyme activity. Mutated GLT8D1 exhibits in vitro ...


Hypomorphic Mutations Of Trip11 Cause Odontochondrodysplasia, Anika Wehrle, John A. Follit, Gregory J. Pazour, Andrea Superti-Furga, Martin Lowe, Ekkehart Lausch Feb 2019

Hypomorphic Mutations Of Trip11 Cause Odontochondrodysplasia, Anika Wehrle, John A. Follit, Gregory J. Pazour, Andrea Superti-Furga, Martin Lowe, Ekkehart Lausch

Open Access Articles

Odontochondrodysplasia (ODCD) is an unresolved genetic disorder of skeletal and dental development. Here, we show that ODCD is caused by hypomorphic TRIP11 mutations, and we identify ODCD as the nonlethal counterpart to achondrogenesis 1A (ACG1A), the known null phenotype in humans. TRIP11 encodes Golgi-associated microtubule-binding protein 210 (GMAP-210), an essential tether protein of the Golgi apparatus that physically interacts with intraflagellar transport 20 (IFT20), a component of the ciliary intraflagellar transport complex B. This association and extraskeletal disease manifestations in ODCD point to a cilium-dependent pathogenesis. However, our functional studies in patient-derived primary cells clearly support a Golgi-based disease mechanism ...


The Trim-Nhl Protein Nhl-2 Is A Co-Factor In The Nuclear And Somatic Rnai Pathways In C. Elegans, Gregory M. Davis, Shikui Tu, Jacqueline A. Wilce, Julie M. Claycomb, Zhiping Weng, Peter R. Boag Dec 2018

The Trim-Nhl Protein Nhl-2 Is A Co-Factor In The Nuclear And Somatic Rnai Pathways In C. Elegans, Gregory M. Davis, Shikui Tu, Jacqueline A. Wilce, Julie M. Claycomb, Zhiping Weng, Peter R. Boag

Program in Bioinformatics and Integrative Biology Publications and Presentations

Proper regulation of germline gene expression is essential for fertility and maintaining species integrity. In the C. elegans germline, a diverse repertoire of regulatory pathways promote the expression of endogenous germline genes and limit the expression of deleterious transcripts to maintain genome homeostasis. Here we show that the conserved TRIM-NHL protein, NHL-2, plays an essential role in the C. elegans germline, modulating germline chromatin and meiotic chromosome organization. We uncover a role for NHL-2 as a co-factor in both positively (CSR-1) and negatively (HRDE-1) acting germline 22G-small RNA pathways and the somatic nuclear RNAi pathway. Furthermore, we demonstrate that NHL-2 ...


Regulation Of The Pi3-Kinase/Pten Signaling Pathway By Tgf-Β In Prostate Cancer Cells, Mawiyah Kimbrough-Allah May 2018

Regulation Of The Pi3-Kinase/Pten Signaling Pathway By Tgf-Β In Prostate Cancer Cells, Mawiyah Kimbrough-Allah

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

Transforming growth factor -β (TGF-β) plays an important role in the progression of prostate cancer. It acts as a tumor suppressor in normal epithelial cells but as a tumor promoter in advanced prostate cancer cells. The PI3-kinase pathway has been shown to play integral roles in many cellular processes including cell proliferation, survival, and cell migration in many cell types. PI3-kinase pathway mediates TGF-β effects on prostate cancer cell migration and invasion. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a tumor suppressor gene, inhibits PI3-kinase pathway and is frequently mutated in prostate cancers. In this present study, we investigated possible roles of ...


Crispr Gene Editing In The Sea Squirt, Ciona Intestinalis, Evelyn Siler, Steven Irvine May 2018

Crispr Gene Editing In The Sea Squirt, Ciona Intestinalis, Evelyn Siler, Steven Irvine

Senior Honors Projects

Genetic manipulation has come a long way in the past ten years alone. Scientists have had access to gene editing techniques for decades, but until recently these methods have proven to be expensive and unpredictable. However, thanks to the development of a new, more efficient genome editing strategy called CRISPR/Cas9, more aggressive progress can now be made in genetics research.

CRISPR is not a machine or a physical tool, but rather it is a system that involves introducing a protein into a cell, along with a DNA segment that will attract the protein to a desired location on the ...


Genetic Testing And A Real World Case Of Lynch Syndrome, Paige Montanaro May 2018

Genetic Testing And A Real World Case Of Lynch Syndrome, Paige Montanaro

Senior Honors Projects

In recent years, advancements in genetic testing methods have revolutionized the medical field by enhancing the ability to identify persons with an inherited predisposition to cancer. According to the American Society for Clinical Oncology, individuals should undergo genetic testing when he or she meets the following criteria: the individual demonstrates familial history that indicates a predisposition to certain cancers, the test can be adequately interpreted, and the results will aid in the diagnosis, treatment, or management of the patient or additional family members at risk. Genetic testing can be done on samples of hair, skin, blood, amniotic fluid, or other ...


Precision Health And Deafness–Optimizing Genetic Diagnosis, Christina Marie Sloan-Heggen May 2018

Precision Health And Deafness–Optimizing Genetic Diagnosis, Christina Marie Sloan-Heggen

Theses and Dissertations

Deafness is the most common sensory deficit in humans. In the United States 1-2 in a thousand babies is born with significant deafness, well over half of which is hereditary. Providing a patient and their family with a genetic diagnosis is the ultimate form of precision health and medicine; it can provide education, impact medical testing and treatment, provide peace of mind, and someday will be the key to providing gene specific therapies. Historically, providing this diagnosis was difficult, expensive, and time consuming due to the extreme clinical and genetic heterogeneity of non-syndromic hearing loss (NSHL).

Targeted genomic enrichment and ...


The Trim-Nhl Protein Nhl-2 Is A Novel Co-Factor Of The Csr-1 And Hrde-1 22g-Rna Pathways, Peter R. Boag, Gregory M. Davis, Shikui Tu, Rhys N. Colson, Joshua W. T. Anderson, Menachem J. Gunzburg, Michelle A. Francisco, Debashish Ray, Tuhin Maity, Monica Z. Wu, Quaid D. Morris, Timothy R. Hughes, Jacqueline A. Wilce, University Of Toronto, Zhiping Weng Feb 2018

The Trim-Nhl Protein Nhl-2 Is A Novel Co-Factor Of The Csr-1 And Hrde-1 22g-Rna Pathways, Peter R. Boag, Gregory M. Davis, Shikui Tu, Rhys N. Colson, Joshua W. T. Anderson, Menachem J. Gunzburg, Michelle A. Francisco, Debashish Ray, Tuhin Maity, Monica Z. Wu, Quaid D. Morris, Timothy R. Hughes, Jacqueline A. Wilce, University Of Toronto, Zhiping Weng

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Proper regulation of germline gene expression is essential for fertility and maintaining species integrity. In the C. elegans germline, a diverse repertoire of regulatory pathways promote the expression of endogenous germline genes and limit the expression of deleterious transcripts to maintain genome homeostasis. Here we show that the conserved TRIM-NHL protein, NHL-2, plays an essential role in the C. elegans germline, modulating germline chromatin and meiotic chromosome organization. We uncover a role for NHL-2 as a co-factor in both positively (CSR-1) and negatively (HRDE-1) acting germline 22G-small RNA pathways and the somatic nuclear RNAi pathway. Furthermore, we demonstrate that NHL-2 ...


Effect Of Variation In An Essential Folding Element On The Cobalamin Riboswitch, Marcus Urquijo Jan 2018

Effect Of Variation In An Essential Folding Element On The Cobalamin Riboswitch, Marcus Urquijo

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Riboswitches are RNA-based genetic regulatory elements that control gene expression without the need for protein cofactors. These RNA motifs are found within the 5’ untranslated regions of mRNA and promote genetic regulation by altering the structure of RNA through binding small molecule effector ligands that cause conformational changes that repress or activate translation/transcription. The env8 cobalamin riboswitch binds cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) to repress gene expression of the downstream mRNA. It accomplishes this through an interplay of two separate domains; an aptamer domain which binds the effector ligand and a regulatory domain which contains the genetic switch. Within the aptamer domain ...


Transcription Activator Like Effector Nucleases (Talens): A New, Important, And Versatile Gene Editing Technique With A Growing Literature, Philip Barnett Dec 2017

Transcription Activator Like Effector Nucleases (Talens): A New, Important, And Versatile Gene Editing Technique With A Growing Literature, Philip Barnett

Publications and Research

Transcription activator like effector nucleases (TALENs) is a new and powerful technique in genetic engineering that can delete deleterious genes or add beneficial genes to organisms. It is being widely studied to improve crops and livestock, and is also being investigated clinically. Comparing the details of how both TALENs and its competitor, CRISPR-Cas9, function, reveals the potential advantages of TALENs. The growing literature, besides covering the scientific and technical aspects of TALENs, also includes pertinent information on regulatory aspects and the public’s perception and acceptance of TALENs.


The Analysis Of Global Gene Expression Related To Starch, Lipid And Protein Composition , Ling Li Aug 2017

The Analysis Of Global Gene Expression Related To Starch, Lipid And Protein Composition , Ling Li

Ling Li

This dissertation provides a greater understanding of starch metabolism and its regulation by using mutants altered in starch accumulation, together with a combination of approaches such as global gene profiling, promoter::GUS/GFP analyses, and genetics;Starch debranching enzymes are critical for starch accumulation. The temporal and spatial co-expression of ISA1 and ISA2 is consistent with previous evidence that they co-function as a protein complex (ISA1/ISA2) for starch synthesis. The extensive temporal and spatial co-expression of ISA2 and ISA3 suggests they might also form a protein complex, taking part in starch metabolism. ISA3 protein is localized in leaf chloroplast ...


Genome Wide Association And Next Generation Sequencing Approaches To Map Determinants Of Ascites In Broiler Chickens, Shatovisha Dey Aug 2017

Genome Wide Association And Next Generation Sequencing Approaches To Map Determinants Of Ascites In Broiler Chickens, Shatovisha Dey

Theses and Dissertations

These studies have investigated different candidate genomic regions for their contributions to ascites in broilers. Ascites syndrome is a manifestation of idiopathic pulmonary arteriole hypertension that concerns the poultry industry worldwide. Investigations have demonstrated the disease to be genetically regulated and to exhibit moderate to high heritabilities. Although previous studies have indicated a few chromosomes to be involved with ascites, no genes have been identified to date with direct links to the disease. This dissertation presents a collection of studies that determine the genomic and genetic interactions for regions on chromosome 2 and 9 for ascites phenotypes in broiler chickens ...


Clinical And Experimental Studies Of A Novel P525r Fus Mutation In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Lisha Kuang, Marisa Kamelgarn, Alexandra Arenas, Jozsef Gal, Deborah Taylor, Weiming Gong, Martin Brown, Daret St. Clair, Edward J. Kasarskis, Haining Zhu Aug 2017

Clinical And Experimental Studies Of A Novel P525r Fus Mutation In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Lisha Kuang, Marisa Kamelgarn, Alexandra Arenas, Jozsef Gal, Deborah Taylor, Weiming Gong, Martin Brown, Daret St. Clair, Edward J. Kasarskis, Haining Zhu

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Objective: To describe the clinical features of a novel fused in sarcoma (FUS) mutation in a young adult female amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patient with rapid progression of weakness and to experimentally validate the consequences of the P525R mutation in cellular neuronal models.

Methods: We conducted sequencing of genomic DNA from the index patient and her family members. Immunocytochemistry was performed in various cellular models to determine whether the newly identified P525R mutant FUS protein accumulated in cytoplasmic inclusions. Clinical features of the index patient were compared with 19 other patients with ALS carrying the P525L mutation in the same ...


Crispr-Cas9 Nuclear Dynamics And Target Recognition In Living Cells, Hanhui Ma, Li-Chun Tu, Ardalan Naseri, Maximiliaan Huisman, Shaojie Zhang, David Grünwald, Thoru Pederson May 2017

Crispr-Cas9 Nuclear Dynamics And Target Recognition In Living Cells, Hanhui Ma, Li-Chun Tu, Ardalan Naseri, Maximiliaan Huisman, Shaojie Zhang, David Grünwald, Thoru Pederson

David Grünwald

The bacterial CRISPR-Cas9 system has been repurposed for genome engineering, transcription modulation, and chromosome imaging in eukaryotic cells. However, the nuclear dynamics of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein 9 (Cas9) guide RNAs and target interrogation are not well defined in living cells. Here, we deployed a dual-color CRISPR system to directly measure the stability of both Cas9 and guide RNA. We found that Cas9 is essential for guide RNA stability and that the nuclear Cas9-guide RNA complex levels limit the targeting efficiency. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching measurements revealed that single mismatches in the guide RNA seed ...


Metabolic Investigations Of The Molecular Mechanisms Associated With Parkinson’S Disease, Robert Powers, Shulei Lei, Annadurai Anandhan, Darrell D. Marshall, Bradley Worley, Ronald Cerny, Eric D. Dodds, Yuting Huang, Mihalis I. Panayiotidis, Aglaia Pappa, Rodrigo Franco Jan 2017

Metabolic Investigations Of The Molecular Mechanisms Associated With Parkinson’S Disease, Robert Powers, Shulei Lei, Annadurai Anandhan, Darrell D. Marshall, Bradley Worley, Ronald Cerny, Eric D. Dodds, Yuting Huang, Mihalis I. Panayiotidis, Aglaia Pappa, Rodrigo Franco

Robert Powers Publications

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by fibrillar cytoplasmic aggregates of α-synuclein (i.e., Lewy bodies) and the associated loss of dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra. Mutations in genes such as α -synuclein (SNCA) account for only 10% of PD occurrences. Exposure to environmental toxicants including pesticides and metals (e.g., paraquat (PQ) and manganese (Mn)) is also recognized as an important PD risk factor. Thus, aging, genetic alterations, and environmental factors all contribute to the etiology of PD. In fact, both genetic and environmental factors are thought to interact in the promotion of idiopathic PD ...


Crispr-Cas9 Nuclear Dynamics And Target Recognition In Living Cells, Hanhui Ma, Li-Chun Tu, Ardalan Naseri, Maximiliaan Huisman, Shaojie Zhang, David Grünwald, Thoru Pederson Aug 2016

Crispr-Cas9 Nuclear Dynamics And Target Recognition In Living Cells, Hanhui Ma, Li-Chun Tu, Ardalan Naseri, Maximiliaan Huisman, Shaojie Zhang, David Grünwald, Thoru Pederson

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The bacterial CRISPR-Cas9 system has been repurposed for genome engineering, transcription modulation, and chromosome imaging in eukaryotic cells. However, the nuclear dynamics of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein 9 (Cas9) guide RNAs and target interrogation are not well defined in living cells. Here, we deployed a dual-color CRISPR system to directly measure the stability of both Cas9 and guide RNA. We found that Cas9 is essential for guide RNA stability and that the nuclear Cas9-guide RNA complex levels limit the targeting efficiency. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching measurements revealed that single mismatches in the guide RNA seed ...


Analysis Of Lung Microbiota In Bronchoalveolar Lavage, Protected Brush And Sputum Samples From Subjects With Mild-To-Moderate Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease, Deborah A. Hogan, Sven D. Willger, Emily L. Dolben, Thomas H. Hampton, Bruce A. Stanton, Hilary G. Morrison, Mitchell L. Sogin, Julianna Czum, Alix Ashare, Michael Tunney Mar 2016

Analysis Of Lung Microbiota In Bronchoalveolar Lavage, Protected Brush And Sputum Samples From Subjects With Mild-To-Moderate Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease, Deborah A. Hogan, Sven D. Willger, Emily L. Dolben, Thomas H. Hampton, Bruce A. Stanton, Hilary G. Morrison, Mitchell L. Sogin, Julianna Czum, Alix Ashare, Michael Tunney

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) often acquire chronic lung infections that lead to irrevers- ible damage. We sought to examine regional variation in the microbial communities in the lungs of individuals with mild-to-moderate CF lung disease, to examine the relationship between the local microbiota and local damage, and to determine the relationships between microbiota in samples taken directly from the lung and the microbiota in spontaneously expectorated sputum. In this initial study, nine stable, adult CF patients with an FEV1>50% underwent regional sampling of different lobes of the right lung by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and protected brush (PB) sampling ...


The Role Of Arp2/3 In Ring Canal Development In Drosophila Melanogaster, Marina Tipold Jan 2016

The Role Of Arp2/3 In Ring Canal Development In Drosophila Melanogaster, Marina Tipold

Undergraduate Honors Thesis Collection

Infertility and impaired fecundity affect 8.2 million women in the United States. Intercellular bridges are essential to the proper formation of germ cells in many organisms; therefore, learning more about how they are formed and regulated during the formation of sperm and eggs could provide insight into how defects in their structure can impact fertility. Intercellular bridges are actin-rich structures that connect developing germ cells to each other and allow the transfer of materials. I used the development of the fruit fly egg as a model system to study formation and regulation of intercellular bridges. Specifically, I investigated the ...


Biological Significance Of Photoreceptor Photocycle Length: Vivid Photocycle Governs The Dynamic Vivid-White Collar Complex Pool Mediating Photo-Adaptation And Response To Changes In Light Intensity, Arko Dasgupta, Chen-Hui Chen, Changhwan Lee, Amy S. Gladfelter, Jay C. Dunlap, Jennifer J. Loros May 2015

Biological Significance Of Photoreceptor Photocycle Length: Vivid Photocycle Governs The Dynamic Vivid-White Collar Complex Pool Mediating Photo-Adaptation And Response To Changes In Light Intensity, Arko Dasgupta, Chen-Hui Chen, Changhwan Lee, Amy S. Gladfelter, Jay C. Dunlap, Jennifer J. Loros

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Most organisms on earth sense light through the use of chromophore-bearing photoreceptive proteins with distinct and characteristic photocycle lengths, yet the biological significance of this adduct decay length is neither understood nor has been tested. In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa VIVID (VVD) is a critical player in the process of photoadaptation, the attenuation of light-induced responses and the ability to maintain photosensitivity in response to changing light intensities. Detailed in vitro analysis of the photochemistry of the blue light sensing, FAD binding, LOV domain of VVD has revealed residues around the site of photo-adduct formation that influence the stability ...


High-Throughput Screening Of Age-Related Changes In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Neil Copes Jan 2015

High-Throughput Screening Of Age-Related Changes In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Neil Copes

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This project was developed to identify novel methods for high-throughput culturing and screening of C. elegans to investigate age-related metabolic changes and to survey the proteomic and metabolomic factors associated with age-related changes. To accomplish these goals we developed a novel way to grow C. elegans in liquid culture in 96-well microplates for several weeks without suffering significant fluid loss due to evaporation and without needing to shake or unseal the plates for aeration. We also developed methods for assaying the total volume of live C. elegans in microplate cultures using a fluorescence microplate reader and for performing RNAi experiments ...


The Role Of Artificial Structures In Facilitating Range Expansion Of The Introduced Barnacle Megabalanus Coccopoma In The Southeastern U.S.A., Alicia M. Reigel Jan 2015

The Role Of Artificial Structures In Facilitating Range Expansion Of The Introduced Barnacle Megabalanus Coccopoma In The Southeastern U.S.A., Alicia M. Reigel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The barnacle Megabalanus coccopoma is a recent invader of the southeastern U.S.A. from the tropical eastern Pacific. In Georgia, M. coccopoma populations along the immediate coastline often suffer extensive mortality during the winter, but population rebuilding is common after these events suggesting that there may be nearby larval sources. I investigated the hypothesis that artificial structures (i.e., buoys, towers), occurring far enough offshore of Georgia for water temperatures to be moderated by the Gulf Stream, provide refuges for breeding adults of M. coccopoma and can serve as the larval source. I investigated this hypothesis by first developing ...


Venomic Characterization Of The Terebridae And Novel Terebrid Neuropeptides, Mary Elizabeth Wright Oct 2014

Venomic Characterization Of The Terebridae And Novel Terebrid Neuropeptides, Mary Elizabeth Wright

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Unravelling the complex mixture of neuropeptides produced by the terebrid venom duct holds the promise of discovering tomorrow's therapeutics. Cone snails have already demonstrated the potential found in the venom of these unusual marine organisms, through the commercial approval of drugs for pain and other indications. Terebrids, as the sister family to the cone snails, have been much less investigated, but have a species richness that makes them very attractive in the search for novel neuropeptides. The venomics research described in this work encompasses the first comprehensive characterization of the terebrid venom duct transcriptomes of two species, Cinguloterebra anilis ...


Regulation Of Sleep And Circadian Rhythms By Metabolic Neuropeptides, Renske Erion Jan 2014

Regulation Of Sleep And Circadian Rhythms By Metabolic Neuropeptides, Renske Erion

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The increasing prevalence of metabolic disease in modern society has accelerated our need to understand factors that may be contributing to its development. Both circadian disruption and sleep deprivation are associated with metabolic dysfunction. Thus, for my dissertation I sought to gain insight into this association by studying the genetic and neural basis of interactions between circadian rhythms, sleep and metabolism. The relative simplicity of fly neuroanatomy and physiology, vast array of available genetic tools, and conservation across many organisms, makes Drosophila melanogaster an ideal model to dissect complex interactions between physiological systems. Through our studies we identified a novel ...


Linking Molecular, Electrical And Anatomical Properties Of Human Epileptic Brain, Shruti Bagla Jan 2014

Linking Molecular, Electrical And Anatomical Properties Of Human Epileptic Brain, Shruti Bagla

Wayne State University Dissertations

Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder of recurrent unprovoked seizures. It affects almost 1% of the world population. Although there is a wide range of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) available, they only treat the seizure symptoms and do not cure the disease itself. The poor role of AEDs can be attributed to the lack of knowledge of exact mechanisms and networks that produce epileptic activities in the neocortex. At present, the best cure for epilepsy is surgical removal of electrically localized epileptic brain tissue. Surgically removed brain tissue presents an excellent opportunity to discover the molecular and cellular basis of human ...


Characterization Of Microrna Function During Skeletal Myogenesis, Martin G. Guess Jan 2014

Characterization Of Microrna Function During Skeletal Myogenesis, Martin G. Guess

Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Skeletal muscle is a remarkable organ system that is required for almost all animal life. In vertebrates, skeletal muscle can alter its functional and molecular characteristics in response to pathologic and physiologic stimuli. Additionally, adult muscle retains the ability to regenerate following injury, activating progenitor cells much like the process of muscle formation during embryonic development. Much work has been done to characterize the changes in gene expression that occur during regeneration, and this knowledge has been invaluable in treatment of muscle wasting diseases, such as Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Further expanding the complexity of gene expression changes is the discovery ...


Metabolism And Localization Of Polyketides In The Genus Hypericum, Matthew Charles Crispin Jan 2014

Metabolism And Localization Of Polyketides In The Genus Hypericum, Matthew Charles Crispin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Plants with bioactive specialized metabolites, also referred to as medicinal plants, have been used by human, and other primates for thousands of years. These bioactive compounds are known to affect humans and cultures cells in many ways including but not limited to anti-viral, anti-oxidant, anti-depressant, anti-cancer, anti-bacteria, and anti-fungal. The accumulation levels of these compounds inside the plant are highly influenced by genotype, and by biotic and abiotic cues. Because of the importance of these compounds in pharmaceutical production, I worked to understand the metabolism of acylphloroglucinols, dianthrones, and flavonoids produced in Hypericum gentianoides and H. perforatum. To accomplish this ...