Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Brain

Discipline
Institution
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 25 of 25

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Recently Discovered Benzo(A)Pyrene Induced Health Effects And Their Threat To The Inland Empire, Quinn Navarro Jan 2018

Recently Discovered Benzo(A)Pyrene Induced Health Effects And Their Threat To The Inland Empire, Quinn Navarro

Armacost Library Undergraduate Research Award (ALURA)

This study investigated recent discoveries of Benzo(a)Pyrene (BaP) in order to determine the current threat BaP poses to residents of Southern California. Literature reviews comprise the research done on BaP-induced health effects. Primary articles reviewed include “Adverse Effect of Sub-Chronic Exposure to Benzo(a)Pyrene and Protective Effect of Butylated Hydroxyanisole on Learning and Memory Ability in Male

Sprague-Dawley Rat” by Xiao Liang (2014), and “Bioaccumulation and oxidative damage in juvenile scallop Chlamys farreri exposed to benzo[a]Pyrene, benzo[b]Fluoranthene and chrysene” by Meng Xiu (2014). These studies conclude that BaP potentially impairs memory and learning ...


Frozen Brain Atlas, Natalie Andrea Builes, Dominick Joseph Casciato, Samantha Taylor Bergoine, Robert Speth Jul 2017

Frozen Brain Atlas, Natalie Andrea Builes, Dominick Joseph Casciato, Samantha Taylor Bergoine, Robert Speth

Robert Speth

The Frozen Brain Atlas provides students, educators, and scientists with a tool to further explore the architecture of the brain. Current brain atlases allow users to navigate sectioned brain tissue using histological staining; however, they fail to capture naturally visible structures post sectioning. Through immediate post sectioning image collection, the natural contrast of the brain reveals unique structural details that are rarely seen by traditional staining procedures. By utilizing indexing and interactive labeling, the Nova Southeastern University Frozen Brain Atlas will allow identification of brain regions when used as a correlative tool for modalities including receptor autoradiography, immunofluorescence, and other ...


Calcium's Role As Nuanced Modulator Of Cellular Physiology In The Brain, Hilaree N. Frazier, Shaniya Maimaiti, Katie L. Anderson, Lawrence D. Brewer, John C. Gant, Nada M. Porter, Olivier Thibault Feb 2017

Calcium's Role As Nuanced Modulator Of Cellular Physiology In The Brain, Hilaree N. Frazier, Shaniya Maimaiti, Katie L. Anderson, Lawrence D. Brewer, John C. Gant, Nada M. Porter, Olivier Thibault

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Neuroscientists studying normal brain aging, spinal cord injury, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative diseases have focused considerable effort on carefully characterizing intracellular perturbations in calcium dynamics or levels. At the cellular level, calcium is known for controlling life and death and orchestrating most events in between. For many years, intracellular calcium has been recognized as an essential ion associated with nearly all cellular functions from cell growth to degeneration. Often the emphasis is on the negative impact of calcium dysregulation and the typical worse-case-scenario leading inevitably to cell death. However, even high amplitude calcium transients, when executed acutely ...


Steroidogenesis In The Green Anole Lizard Brain And Gonad, Christine Peek Jan 2017

Steroidogenesis In The Green Anole Lizard Brain And Gonad, Christine Peek

All Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects

Seasonally breeding animals reproduce during certain times of the year and, subsequently, behaviors, steroid hormone levels, and brain morphology change. The green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis) is an excellent model to study the regulation of steroid hormone production because they have distinct hormonal and behavioral differences between sexes and seasons. As in other vertebrates, steroidogenesis in anoles is under the control of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. We tested the hypothesis that natural variations in steroid hormone levels between sexes and seasons are mediated within the brain and gonad by examining four genes involved in steroidogenesis: StAR, Cyp17α1, HSD17β3, and Cyp19α1 ...


Comparative Proteomic Analyses Of The Parietal Lobe From Rhesus Monkeys Fed A High-Fat/Sugar Diet With And Without Resveratrol Supplementation, Relative To A Healthy Diet: Insights Into The Roles Of Unhealthy Diets And Resveratrol On Function, Aaron M. Swomley, Judy C. Triplett, Jeriel T. Keeney, Govind Warrier, Kevin J. Pearson, Julie A. Mattison, Rafael De Cabo, Jian Cai, Jon B. Klein, D. Allan Butterfield Jan 2017

Comparative Proteomic Analyses Of The Parietal Lobe From Rhesus Monkeys Fed A High-Fat/Sugar Diet With And Without Resveratrol Supplementation, Relative To A Healthy Diet: Insights Into The Roles Of Unhealthy Diets And Resveratrol On Function, Aaron M. Swomley, Judy C. Triplett, Jeriel T. Keeney, Govind Warrier, Kevin J. Pearson, Julie A. Mattison, Rafael De Cabo, Jian Cai, Jon B. Klein, D. Allan Butterfield

Chemistry Faculty Publications

A diet consisting of a high intake of saturated fat and refined sugars is characteristic of a Western-diet and has been shown to have a substantial negative effect on human health. Expression proteomics were used to investigate changes to the parietal lobe proteome of rhesus monkeys consuming either a high fat and sugar (HFS) diet, a HFS diet supplemented with resveratrol (HFS+RSV), or a healthy control diet for 2 years. Here we discuss the modifications in the levels of 12 specific proteins involved in various cellular systems including metabolism, neurotransmission, structural integrity, and general cellular signaling following a nutritional ...


Characterization Of Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 2 And Its Role In Parkinson's Disease Pathogenesis Using Drosophila, Antonio Joel Tito Jr., Sheng Zhang Dec 2016

Characterization Of Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 2 And Its Role In Parkinson's Disease Pathogenesis Using Drosophila, Antonio Joel Tito Jr., Sheng Zhang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by the selective loss of the dopaminergic neurons in the Substantia nigra pars compacta region of the brain. PD is also the most common neurodegenerative disorder and the second most common movement disorder. PD patients exhibit the cardinal symptoms, including tremor of the extremities, rigidity, slowness of movement, and postural instability, after 70-80% of DA neurons degenerate. It is, therefore, imperative to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved in the selective degeneration of DA neurons. Although increasing numbers of PD genes have been identified, why these largely widely expressed genes ...


Frozen Brain Atlas, Natalie Andrea Builes, Dominick Joseph Casciato, Samantha Taylor Bergoine, Robert Speth Sep 2016

Frozen Brain Atlas, Natalie Andrea Builes, Dominick Joseph Casciato, Samantha Taylor Bergoine, Robert Speth

Frozen Brain Atlas

The Frozen Brain Atlas provides students, educators, and scientists with a tool to further explore the architecture of the brain. Current brain atlases allow users to navigate sectioned brain tissue using histological staining; however, they fail to capture naturally visible structures post sectioning. Through immediate post sectioning image collection, the natural contrast of the brain reveals unique structural details that are rarely seen by traditional staining procedures. By utilizing indexing and interactive labeling, the Nova Southeastern University Frozen Brain Atlas will allow identification of brain regions when used as a correlative tool for modalities including receptor autoradiography, immunofluorescence, and other ...


Modulating Neuronal Activity: Copper, Isoproterenol, And Beta-Blockers On The Brain, Veronica Go May 2016

Modulating Neuronal Activity: Copper, Isoproterenol, And Beta-Blockers On The Brain, Veronica Go

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Identification Of Novel Molecular-Genetic Pathways Regulating The Development Of Subpallial Derivatives, David Tischfield Jan 2016

Identification Of Novel Molecular-Genetic Pathways Regulating The Development Of Subpallial Derivatives, David Tischfield

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The embryonic subpallium produces many different neuronal cell types present throughout the adult telencephalon, including striatal medium spiny neurons (MSN) and cortical interneurons. Dysfunction of either cell type leads to neurological and psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, epilepsy, and Tourette’s syndrome. Thus, understanding the molecular pathways that regulate their development and function has important implications for understanding disease pathogenesis. This work describes novel methods and genetic factors that expand our ability to characterize the development and function of two major subpallial derivatives: cortical interneurons and striatal MSN. The first part of this thesis characterizes a novel enrichment method for producing ...


Contextual Insights Into The Rett Syndrome Transcriptome, Brian Scott Roosevelt Johnson Jan 2016

Contextual Insights Into The Rett Syndrome Transcriptome, Brian Scott Roosevelt Johnson

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Mutations in MECP2 are responsible for Rett syndrome (RTT), a severe X-linked neurological disorder characterized by loss of developmental milestones, intellectual disability and motor impairments. However, molecular insight into how these mutations affect the neuronal transcriptiome, disrupt neuronal function and contribute to RTT is impeded by the cellular heterogeneity of the mammalian brain. A comparison between gene expression changes in the striatum, hypothalamus, and cerebellum of MeCP2-null mice revealed that gene expression changes are distinct between different brain regions, which suggests that MeCP2 function should be understood in a cell type-dependent context. To accomplish this task, I generated and phenotypically ...


Role Of Non-Muscle Myosin Ii And Calcium In Zebrafish Midbrain-Hindbrain Boundary Morphogenesis, Srishti Upasana Sahu May 2015

Role Of Non-Muscle Myosin Ii And Calcium In Zebrafish Midbrain-Hindbrain Boundary Morphogenesis, Srishti Upasana Sahu

Theses and Dissertations

Elucidating the molecular mechanisms that play a role in cellular morphogenesis is critical to our understanding of brain development and function. The midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) is one of the first folds in the vertebrate embryonic brain and is highly conserved across species. We used the zebrafish MHB as a model for determining the molecular mechanisms that regulate these cell shape changes. Cellular morphogenesis is tightly regulated by signaling pathways that rearrange the cytoskeleton and produce mechanical forces that enable changes in cell and tissue morphology. The generation of force within a cell often depends on motor proteins, particularly non-muscle myosins ...


Acute Modulation Of Sugar Transport In Brain Capillary Endothelial Cell Cultures During Activation Of The Metabolic Stress Pathway, Anthony Cura, Anthony Carruthers Mar 2014

Acute Modulation Of Sugar Transport In Brain Capillary Endothelial Cell Cultures During Activation Of The Metabolic Stress Pathway, Anthony Cura, Anthony Carruthers

Anthony J. Cura

GLUT1-catalyzed equilibrative sugar transport across the mammalian blood-brain barrier is stimulated during acute and chronic metabolic stress; however, the mechanism of acute transport regulation is unknown. We have examined acute sugar transport regulation in the murine brain microvasculature endothelial cell line bEnd.3. Acute cellular metabolic stress was induced by glucose depletion, by potassium cyanide, or by carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, which reduce or deplete intracellular ATP within 15 min. This results in a 1.7-7-fold increase in V(max) for zero-trans 3-O-methylglucose uptake (sugar uptake into sugar-free cells) and a 3-10-fold increase in V(max) for equilibrium exchange transport (intracellular ...


In Situ Detection Of Autoreactive Cd4 T Cells In Brain And Heart Using Major Histocompatibility Complex Class Ii Dextramers, Chandirasegaran Massilamany, Arunakumar Gangaplara, Ting Jia, Christian Elowsky, Qingsheng Li, You Zhou, Jay Reddy Jan 2014

In Situ Detection Of Autoreactive Cd4 T Cells In Brain And Heart Using Major Histocompatibility Complex Class Ii Dextramers, Chandirasegaran Massilamany, Arunakumar Gangaplara, Ting Jia, Christian Elowsky, Qingsheng Li, You Zhou, Jay Reddy

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

This report demonstrates the use of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II dextramers for detection of autoreactive CD4 T cells in situ in myelin proteolipid protein (PLP) 139-151-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in SJL mice and cardiac myosin heavy chain-α (Myhc) 334-352-induced experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) in A/J mice. Two sets of cocktails of dextramer reagents were used, where dextramers+ cells were analyzed by laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM): EAE, IAs/PLP 139-151 dextramers (specific)/anti- CD4 and IAs/Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) 70-86 dextramers (control)/anti-CD4; and EAM, IAk/Myhc 334-352 dextramers/ anti-CD4 and IAk/bovine ...


The Development Of An In Vivo Microdialysis Collection Method Of Cytokines From Brain Tissue, Anthony W. Herbaugh Dec 2013

The Development Of An In Vivo Microdialysis Collection Method Of Cytokines From Brain Tissue, Anthony W. Herbaugh

Theses and Dissertations

In this thesis, different methods to improve the microdialysis collection procedure for cytokines from brain tissue are presented. The first method was based on stopped flow and results indicating that no significant difference in relative recovery between stopped flow and continuous flow are shown. The second method is an antibody bead-based enhancement method. With the antibody bead-based method, a 3.5 fold increase in the collected concentrations of Chemokine (C-C motif) Ligand 2 (CCL2) were observed. However, there was no significant increase in the in vivo collection efficiency of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) using the antibody enhancement. Finally the development of an ...


Tlr4 Signaling Is Involved In Brain Vascular Toxicity Of Pcb153 Bound To Nanoparticles, Bei Zhang, Jeong June Choi, Sung Yong Eum, Sylvia Daunert, Michal Toborek May 2013

Tlr4 Signaling Is Involved In Brain Vascular Toxicity Of Pcb153 Bound To Nanoparticles, Bei Zhang, Jeong June Choi, Sung Yong Eum, Sylvia Daunert, Michal Toborek

Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

PCBs bind to environmental particles; however, potential toxicity exhibited by such complexes is not well understood. The aim of the present study is to study the hypothesis that assembling onto nanoparticles can influence the PCB153-induced brain endothelial toxicity via interaction with the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). To address this hypothesis, TLR4-deficient and wild type control mice (males, 10 week old) were exposed to PCB153 (5 ng/g body weight) bound to chemically inert silica nanoparticles (PCB153-NPs), PCB153 alone, silica nanoparticles (NPs; diameter, 20 nm), or vehicle. Selected animals were also subjected to 40 min ischemia, followed by a 24 h ...


Doxorubicin-Induced, Tnf-Α-Mediated Brain Oxidative Stress, Neurochemical Alterations, And Cognitive Decline: Insights Into Mechanisms Of Chemotherapy Induced Cognitive Impairment And Its Prevention, Jeriel T. Keeney Jan 2013

Doxorubicin-Induced, Tnf-Α-Mediated Brain Oxidative Stress, Neurochemical Alterations, And Cognitive Decline: Insights Into Mechanisms Of Chemotherapy Induced Cognitive Impairment And Its Prevention, Jeriel T. Keeney

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

The works presented in this dissertation provide insights into the mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI or “ChemoBrain”) and take steps toward outlining a preventive strategy. CICI is now widely recognized as a complication of cancer chemotherapy experienced by a large percentage of cancer survivors. Approximately fifty percent of existing FDA-approved anti-cancer drugs generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). Doxorubicin (Dox), a prototypical ROS-generating chemotherapeutic agent, produces the reactive superoxide radical anion (O2-•) in vivo. Dox treatment results in oxidation of plasma proteins, including ApoA-I, leading to TNF-α-mediated oxidative stress in plasma and brain. TNF-α elevation in brain leads to ...


Rna Oxidation Adducts 8-Ohg And 8-Oha Change With Aβ42 Levels In Late-Stage Alzheimer's Disease, Adam M. Weidner, Melissa A. Bradley, Tina L. Beckett, Dana M. Niedowicz, Amy L.S. Dowling, Sergey V. Matveev, Harry Levine, Mark A. Lovell, M. Paul Murphy Sep 2011

Rna Oxidation Adducts 8-Ohg And 8-Oha Change With Aβ42 Levels In Late-Stage Alzheimer's Disease, Adam M. Weidner, Melissa A. Bradley, Tina L. Beckett, Dana M. Niedowicz, Amy L.S. Dowling, Sergey V. Matveev, Harry Levine, Mark A. Lovell, M. Paul Murphy

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

While research supports amyloid-β (Aβ) as the etiologic agent of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the mechanism of action remains unclear. Evidence indicates that adducts of RNA caused by oxidation also represent an early phenomenon in AD. It is currently unknown what type of influence these two observations have on each other, if any. We quantified five RNA adducts by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy across five brain regions from AD cases and age-matched controls. We then used a reductive directed analysis to compare the RNA adducts to common indices of AD neuropathology and various pools of Aβ. Using data from four ...


A Study On The Biochemical And Cellular Effects Of Enviormental Tobacco Smoke On Adult And Developing Rat Brain Biochemistry, Brian Fuller Jan 2011

A Study On The Biochemical And Cellular Effects Of Enviormental Tobacco Smoke On Adult And Developing Rat Brain Biochemistry, Brian Fuller

Theses and Dissertations

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been recognized as a significant health risk for adults and children. In adults, ETS exposure has been linked to increased incidences of cardiovascular disease and dementia. In children, exposure has been linked to behavioral and cognitive deficits. Studies on the effects of ETS in the brain have been largely epidemiological, and have lacked a defined explanation of the molecular/biochemical effects of ETS. The present dissertation aims to test whether ETS exposure leads to altered biochemistry in the adult and developing mammalian brain. A rat ETS exposure model was employed to investigate changes ...


Human Brain Hexokinase: Determinants Of Mitochondrial Binding And Mechanism Of Nucleotide Release, Nimer Mehyar Jan 2011

Human Brain Hexokinase: Determinants Of Mitochondrial Binding And Mechanism Of Nucleotide Release, Nimer Mehyar

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Adenosine 5‘ – triphosphate (ATP) can release hexokinase I (HKI) from its binding site on the outer mitochondrial membrane, but the mechanism of ATP release of HKI from mitochondria is unclear. ATP binds to the C–terminal half of HKI as a substrate and to the N–terminal half near the membrane binding element. ATP may also bind to the voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC), the integral membrane component that putatively targets HKI to the mitochondrion. The fluorescent nucleotide analogue 2‘,3‘ – O–(2,4,6–trinitrophenyl) adenosine 5 ‘ –diphosphate (TNP–ADP) binds with high affinity to the C–terminal half ...


The Mir-15/107 Group Of Microrna Genes: Evolutionary Biology, Cellular Functions, And Roles In Human Diseases, John R. Finnerty, Wang-Xia Wang, Sébastien S. Hébert, Bernard R. Wilfred, Guogen Mao, Peter T. Nelson Sep 2010

The Mir-15/107 Group Of Microrna Genes: Evolutionary Biology, Cellular Functions, And Roles In Human Diseases, John R. Finnerty, Wang-Xia Wang, Sébastien S. Hébert, Bernard R. Wilfred, Guogen Mao, Peter T. Nelson

Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Faculty Publications

The miR-15/107 group of microRNA (miRNA) gene is increasingly appreciated to serve key functions in humans. These miRNAs regulate gene expression involved in cell division, metabolism, stress response, and angiogenesis in vertebrate species. The miR-15/107 group has also been implicated in human cancers, cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative disease, including Alzheimer's disease. Here we provide an overview of the following: (1) the evolution of miR-15/107 group member genes; (2) the expression levels of miRNAs in mammalian tissues; (3) evidence for overlapping gene-regulatory functions by different miRNAs; (4) the normal biochemical pathways regulated by miR-15/107 group miRNAs ...


Human Cerebral Neuropathology Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Peter T. Nelson, Charles D. Smith, Erin L. Abner, Frederick A. Schmitt, Stephen W. Scheff, Gregory J. Davis, Jeffrey N. Keller, Gregory A. Jicha, Daron Davis, Wang-Xia Wang, Adria Hartman, Douglas G. Katz, William R. Markesbery May 2009

Human Cerebral Neuropathology Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Peter T. Nelson, Charles D. Smith, Erin L. Abner, Frederick A. Schmitt, Stephen W. Scheff, Gregory J. Davis, Jeffrey N. Keller, Gregory A. Jicha, Daron Davis, Wang-Xia Wang, Adria Hartman, Douglas G. Katz, William R. Markesbery

Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Faculty Publications

The cerebral neuropathology of Type 2 diabetes (CNDM2) has not been positively defined. This review includes a description of CNDM2 research from before the ‘Pubmed Era’. Recent neuroimaging studies have focused on cerebrovascular and white matter pathology. These and prior studies about cerebrovascular histopathology in diabetes are reviewed. Evidence is also described for and against the link between CNDM2 and Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. To study this matter directly, we evaluated data from University of Kentucky Alzheimer's Disease Center (UK ADC) patients recruited while non-demented and followed longitudinally. Of patients who had come to autopsy (N = 234), 139 met ...


Chronic Administration Of R-Flurbiprofen Attenuates Learning Impairments In Transgenic Amyloid Precursor Protein Mice, Thomas Kukar, Sonya Prescott, Jason L. Eriksen, Vallie Holloway, M. Paul Murphy, Edward H. Koo, Todd E. Golde, Michelle M. Nicolle Jul 2007

Chronic Administration Of R-Flurbiprofen Attenuates Learning Impairments In Transgenic Amyloid Precursor Protein Mice, Thomas Kukar, Sonya Prescott, Jason L. Eriksen, Vallie Holloway, M. Paul Murphy, Edward H. Koo, Todd E. Golde, Michelle M. Nicolle

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with a reduced incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We and others have shown that certain NSAIDs reduce secretion of Abeta42 in cell culture and animal models, and that the effect of NSAIDs on Abeta42 is independent of the inhibition of cyclooxygenase by these compounds. Since Abeta42 is hypothesized to be the initiating pathologic molecule in AD, the ability of these compounds to lower Abeta42 selectively may be associated with their protective effect. We have previously identified R-flurbiprofen (tarenflurbil) as a selective Abeta42 lowering agent with greatly reduced cyclooxygenase activity ...


Use Of Extractable Lipofuscin For Age Determination Of Blue Crab Callinectes Sapidus, Se-Jong Ju, David H. Secor, H. Rodger Harvey Aug 1999

Use Of Extractable Lipofuscin For Age Determination Of Blue Crab Callinectes Sapidus, Se-Jong Ju, David H. Secor, H. Rodger Harvey

OEAS Faculty Publications

The blue crab Callinectes sapidus is an economically and ecologically important species in many temperate estuaries, yet stock assessments have been limited to length-based methods for demographic analyses. We evaluated the potential of age pigments (lipofuscins) sequestered in neural tissue of eye-stalks and brains to estimate the age of blue crabs collected from Chesapeake Bay and Chincoteague Bay. The rate of lipofuscin accumulation was determined using crabs of known age reared in the laboratory. Age pigments were extracted from neural tissues (eye-stalk or brain), quantified, and normalized to protein content to allow comparisons across tissue types and crab sizes. Field-collected ...


Sodium Nitrite Alone Protects The Brain O _I_ Microsomal Ca -Atpase Against Potassium Cyanide-Induced Neurotoxicity In Rats, Odutayo O. Odunuge, G.. A. Adenuga Jan 1997

Sodium Nitrite Alone Protects The Brain O _I_ Microsomal Ca -Atpase Against Potassium Cyanide-Induced Neurotoxicity In Rats, Odutayo O. Odunuge, G.. A. Adenuga

Faculty Publications

The effect of a short-term oral administration of potassium cyanide (KCN) (200 ppm in diet) with or without sodium nitrite (NaNO2) pretreatment on rat brain microsomal Ca2* ATPase was investigated. The specific activity value of the enzyme significantly decreased (p<0.05) by 50% compared with control and by 63% for KCN-treated rats compared with KCN-treated rats pretreated with NaNO;,. There was no significant difference at the h = 0.05 level between the values obtained for the control and KCN-treated rats pretreated with NaNO,. These results show both that feeding lowers brain microsomal Ca2f-ATPase activity and that NaNO, has a protective role (antidote function) in that respect.


Compartmentation Of Glutamate Metabolism Observed With Glucose / D. D. Clarke, E. Dicker & E.J. Ronan, Chem. Dept. Fordham University, Bronx, N.Y. 10458, U.S.A., Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, E. Dicker, E. J. Ronan Jan 1970

Compartmentation Of Glutamate Metabolism Observed With Glucose / D. D. Clarke, E. Dicker & E.J. Ronan, Chem. Dept. Fordham University, Bronx, N.Y. 10458, U.S.A., Donald Dudley Clarke Phd, E. Dicker, E. J. Ronan

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Compartmentation of glutamate metabolism in the central nervous system has been demonstrated in a number of laboratories using a variety of labeled precursors. The labeling of glutamine is much more rapid than would be expected if the total pool of glutamate in brain is the precursor of glutamine. An obvious suggestion for the origin of this compartmentation is that it reflects glial vs. neuronal relationships. Some evidence in support of this idea has been obtained by Rose using separated neuronal vs. neuropil preparations (J. Neurochem. 17, 809 (1970)). Until recently orain was the only tissue which, after the injection of ...