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Articles 1 - 7 of 7

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Calcium's Role As Nuanced Modulator Of Cellular Physiology In The Brain, Hilaree N. Frazier, Shaniya Maimaiti, Katie L. Anderson, Lawrence D. Brewer, John C. Gant, Nada M. Porter, Olivier Thibault Feb 2017

Calcium's Role As Nuanced Modulator Of Cellular Physiology In The Brain, Hilaree N. Frazier, Shaniya Maimaiti, Katie L. Anderson, Lawrence D. Brewer, John C. Gant, Nada M. Porter, Olivier Thibault

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Neuroscientists studying normal brain aging, spinal cord injury, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative diseases have focused considerable effort on carefully characterizing intracellular perturbations in calcium dynamics or levels. At the cellular level, calcium is known for controlling life and death and orchestrating most events in between. For many years, intracellular calcium has been recognized as an essential ion associated with nearly all cellular functions from cell growth to degeneration. Often the emphasis is on the negative impact of calcium dysregulation and the typical worse-case-scenario leading inevitably to cell death. However, even high amplitude calcium transients, when executed acutely ...


It Is All About (U)Biquitin: Role Of Altered Ubiquitin-Proteasome System And Uchl1 In Alzheimer Disease, Antonella Tramutola, Fabio Di Domenico, Eugenio Barone, Marzia Perluigi, D. Allan Butterfield Jan 2016

It Is All About (U)Biquitin: Role Of Altered Ubiquitin-Proteasome System And Uchl1 In Alzheimer Disease, Antonella Tramutola, Fabio Di Domenico, Eugenio Barone, Marzia Perluigi, D. Allan Butterfield

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Free radical-mediated damage to macromolecules and the resulting oxidative modification of different cellular components are a common feature of aging, and this process becomes much more pronounced in age-associated pathologies, including Alzheimer disease (AD). In particular, proteins are particularly sensitive to oxidative stress-induced damage and these irreversible modifications lead to the alteration of protein structure and function. In order to maintain cell homeostasis, these oxidized/damaged proteins have to be removed in order to prevent their toxic accumulation. It is generally accepted that the age-related accumulation of “aberrant” proteins results from both the increased occurrence of damage and the decreased ...


Degradation Of The Oncoprotein Mdmx In Neurodegenerative States: Evidence For A Pro-Survival Role Of Mdmx In Neurons, Daniel James Colacurcio Jan 2014

Degradation Of The Oncoprotein Mdmx In Neurodegenerative States: Evidence For A Pro-Survival Role Of Mdmx In Neurons, Daniel James Colacurcio

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer Disease (AD) and HIV–associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) represent a tremendous burden to healthcare and a devastating impact on society. A common feature of neurodegenerative diseases is progressive dysfunction and death of neurons in key regions of the brain. Observations of dysregulated cell cycle proteins in the brains of patients, along with research in animal models and cultured cells, suggest that aberrant functions of cell cycle proteins contribute to neuronal death and progression of neurodegenerative diseases.

The p53 tumor suppressor is a key component in cell cycle signaling and cell death. p53 maintains multiple functions ...


Rna Oxidation Adducts 8-Ohg And 8-Oha Change With Aβ42 Levels In Late-Stage Alzheimer's Disease, Adam M. Weidner, Melissa A. Bradley, Tina L. Beckett, Dana M. Niedowicz, Amy L.S. Dowling, Sergey V. Matveev, Harry Levine, Mark A. Lovell, M. Paul Murphy Sep 2011

Rna Oxidation Adducts 8-Ohg And 8-Oha Change With Aβ42 Levels In Late-Stage Alzheimer's Disease, Adam M. Weidner, Melissa A. Bradley, Tina L. Beckett, Dana M. Niedowicz, Amy L.S. Dowling, Sergey V. Matveev, Harry Levine, Mark A. Lovell, M. Paul Murphy

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

While research supports amyloid-β (Aβ) as the etiologic agent of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the mechanism of action remains unclear. Evidence indicates that adducts of RNA caused by oxidation also represent an early phenomenon in AD. It is currently unknown what type of influence these two observations have on each other, if any. We quantified five RNA adducts by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy across five brain regions from AD cases and age-matched controls. We then used a reductive directed analysis to compare the RNA adducts to common indices of AD neuropathology and various pools of Aβ. Using data from four ...


Genetic Connections Between Neurological Disorders And Cholesterol Metabolism, Ingemar Bjorkhem, Valerio Leoni, Steve Meaney Jan 2010

Genetic Connections Between Neurological Disorders And Cholesterol Metabolism, Ingemar Bjorkhem, Valerio Leoni, Steve Meaney

Articles

Cholesterol is an essential component of both the peripheral and central nervous systems of mammals. Over the last decade, evidence has accumulated that disturbances in cholesterol metabolism are associated with the development of various neurological conditions. In addition to genetically defined defects in cholesterol synthesis, which will be covered in another review in this Thematic Series, defects in cholesterol metabolism (cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis) and intracellular transport (Niemann Pick Syndrome) lead to neurological disease. A subform of hereditary spastic paresis (type SPG5) and Huntington's disease are neurological diseases with mutations in genes that are of importance for cholesterol metabolism. Neurodegeneration is ...


Human Cerebral Neuropathology Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Peter T. Nelson, Charles D. Smith, Erin L. Abner, Frederick A. Schmitt, Stephen W. Scheff, Gregory J. Davis, Jeffrey N. Keller, Gregory A. Jicha, Daron Davis, Wang-Xia Wang, Adria Hartman, Douglas G. Katz, William R. Markesbery May 2009

Human Cerebral Neuropathology Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Peter T. Nelson, Charles D. Smith, Erin L. Abner, Frederick A. Schmitt, Stephen W. Scheff, Gregory J. Davis, Jeffrey N. Keller, Gregory A. Jicha, Daron Davis, Wang-Xia Wang, Adria Hartman, Douglas G. Katz, William R. Markesbery

Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Faculty Publications

The cerebral neuropathology of Type 2 diabetes (CNDM2) has not been positively defined. This review includes a description of CNDM2 research from before the ‘Pubmed Era’. Recent neuroimaging studies have focused on cerebrovascular and white matter pathology. These and prior studies about cerebrovascular histopathology in diabetes are reviewed. Evidence is also described for and against the link between CNDM2 and Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. To study this matter directly, we evaluated data from University of Kentucky Alzheimer's Disease Center (UK ADC) patients recruited while non-demented and followed longitudinally. Of patients who had come to autopsy (N = 234), 139 met ...


Chronic Administration Of R-Flurbiprofen Attenuates Learning Impairments In Transgenic Amyloid Precursor Protein Mice, Thomas Kukar, Sonya Prescott, Jason L. Eriksen, Vallie Holloway, M. Paul Murphy, Edward H. Koo, Todd E. Golde, Michelle M. Nicolle Jul 2007

Chronic Administration Of R-Flurbiprofen Attenuates Learning Impairments In Transgenic Amyloid Precursor Protein Mice, Thomas Kukar, Sonya Prescott, Jason L. Eriksen, Vallie Holloway, M. Paul Murphy, Edward H. Koo, Todd E. Golde, Michelle M. Nicolle

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with a reduced incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We and others have shown that certain NSAIDs reduce secretion of Abeta42 in cell culture and animal models, and that the effect of NSAIDs on Abeta42 is independent of the inhibition of cyclooxygenase by these compounds. Since Abeta42 is hypothesized to be the initiating pathologic molecule in AD, the ability of these compounds to lower Abeta42 selectively may be associated with their protective effect. We have previously identified R-flurbiprofen (tarenflurbil) as a selective Abeta42 lowering agent with greatly reduced cyclooxygenase activity ...