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2016

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Articles 1 - 30 of 1183

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

The Replication Initiator Of The Cholera Pathogen’S Second Chromosome Shows Structural Similarity To Plasmid Initiators, Natalia Orlova, Matthew Gerding, Olha Ivashkiv, Paul Dominic B. Olinares, Brian T. Chait, Matthew K. Waldor, David Jeruzalmi Dec 2016

The Replication Initiator Of The Cholera Pathogen’S Second Chromosome Shows Structural Similarity To Plasmid Initiators, Natalia Orlova, Matthew Gerding, Olha Ivashkiv, Paul Dominic B. Olinares, Brian T. Chait, Matthew K. Waldor, David Jeruzalmi

Publications and Research

The conserved DnaA-oriC system is used to initiate replication of primary chromosomes throughout the bacterial kingdom; however, bacteria with multipartite genomes evolved distinct systems to initiate replication of secondary chromosomes. In the cholera pathogen, Vibrio cholerae, and in related species, secondary chromosome replication requires the RctB initiator protein. Here, we show that RctB consists of four domains. The structure of its central two domains resembles that of several plasmid replication initiators. RctB contains at least three DNA binding winged-helix-turn-helix motifs, and mutations within any of these severely compromise biological activity. In the structure, RctB adopts a headto- head dimeric configuration ...


Phosphorylation Of The Mdm2 Oncoprotein By The C-Abl Tyrosine Kinase Regulates P53 Tumor Suppression And The Radiosensitivity Of Mice, Michael I. Carr, Justine E. Roderick, Hong Zhang, Bruce A. Woda, Michelle A. Kelliher, Stephen N. Jones Dec 2016

Phosphorylation Of The Mdm2 Oncoprotein By The C-Abl Tyrosine Kinase Regulates P53 Tumor Suppression And The Radiosensitivity Of Mice, Michael I. Carr, Justine E. Roderick, Hong Zhang, Bruce A. Woda, Michelle A. Kelliher, Stephen N. Jones

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

The p53 tumor suppressor acts as a guardian of the genome by preventing the propagation of DNA damage-induced breaks and mutations to subsequent generations of cells. We have previously shown that phosphorylation of the Mdm2 oncoprotein at Ser394 by the ATM kinase is required for robust p53 stabilization and activation in cells treated with ionizing radiation, and that loss of Mdm2 Ser394 phosphorylation leads to spontaneous tumorigenesis and radioresistance in Mdm2S394A mice. Previous in vitro data indicate that the c-Abl kinase phosphorylates Mdm2 at the neighboring residue (Tyr393) in response to DNA damage to regulate p53-dependent apoptosis. In this present ...


Wzb117 (2-Fluoro-6-(M-Hydroxybenzoyloxy) Phenyl M-Hydroxybenzoate) Inhibits Glut1-Mediated Sugar Transport By Binding Reversibly At The Exofacial Sugar Binding Site, Ogooluwa A. Ojelabi, Kenneth P. Lloyd, Andrew Simon, Julie K. De Zutter, Anthony Carruthers Dec 2016

Wzb117 (2-Fluoro-6-(M-Hydroxybenzoyloxy) Phenyl M-Hydroxybenzoate) Inhibits Glut1-Mediated Sugar Transport By Binding Reversibly At The Exofacial Sugar Binding Site, Ogooluwa A. Ojelabi, Kenneth P. Lloyd, Andrew Simon, Julie K. De Zutter, Anthony Carruthers

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

WZB117 (2-fluoro-6-(m-hydroxybenzoyloxy) phenyl m-hydroxybenzoate) inhibits passive sugar transport in human erythrocytes and cancer cell lines and, by limiting glycolysis, inhibits tumor growth in mice. This study explores how WZB117 inhibits the erythrocyte sugar transporter glucose transport protein 1 (GLUT1) and examines the transporter isoform specificity of inhibition. WZB117 reversibly and competitively inhibits erythrocyte 3-O-methylglucose (3MG) uptake with Ki(app) = 6 mum but is a noncompetitive inhibitor of sugar exit. Cytochalasin B (CB) is a reversible, noncompetitive inhibitor of 3MG uptake with Ki(app) = 0.3 mum but is a competitive inhibitor of sugar exit indicating that WZB117 and CB ...


Rit1 Gtpase Regulates Sox2 Transcriptional Activity And Hippocampal Neurogenesis, Sajad Mir, Weikang Cai, Douglas A. Andres Dec 2016

Rit1 Gtpase Regulates Sox2 Transcriptional Activity And Hippocampal Neurogenesis, Sajad Mir, Weikang Cai, Douglas A. Andres

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Adult neurogenesis, the process of generating mature neurons from neuronal progenitor cells, makes critical contributions to neural circuitry and brain function in both healthy and disease states. Neurogenesis is a highly regulated process in which diverse environmental and physiological stimuli are relayed to resident neural stem cell populations to control the transcription of genes involved in self-renewal and differentiation. Understanding the molecular mechanisms governing neurogenesis is necessary for the development of translational strategies to harness this process for neuronal repair. Here we report that the Ras-related GTPase RIT1 serves to control the sequential proliferation and differentiation of adult hippocampal neural ...


The Chemistry Of The Flint Water Crisis, Ernest M. Oleksy Dec 2016

The Chemistry Of The Flint Water Crisis, Ernest M. Oleksy

The Downtown Review

Politics and science do not always go hand-in-hand. Nowhere was this more clear than in the Flint Water Crisis. Negligence towards growing levels of lead poisoning in drinking water led to incredibly deleterious effects on Flint's citizens. The chemistry of equilibrium and the shortcomings of local leaders led to Flint's water becoming a crisis.


New Open Conformation Of Smyd3 Implicates Conformational Selection And Allostery, Nicholas Spellmon, Xiaonan Sun, Wen Xue, Joshua Holcomb, Srinivas Chakravarthy, Weifeng Shang, Brian Fp Edwards, Nualpun Sirinupong, Chunying Li, Zhe Yang Dec 2016

New Open Conformation Of Smyd3 Implicates Conformational Selection And Allostery, Nicholas Spellmon, Xiaonan Sun, Wen Xue, Joshua Holcomb, Srinivas Chakravarthy, Weifeng Shang, Brian Fp Edwards, Nualpun Sirinupong, Chunying Li, Zhe Yang

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

SMYD3 plays a key role in cancer cell viability, adhesion, migration and invasion. SMYD3 promotes formation of inducible regulatory T cells and is involved in reducing autoimmunity. However, the nearly “closed” substrate-binding site and poor in vitro H3K4 methyltransferase activity have obscured further understanding of this oncogenically related protein. Here we reveal that SMYD3 can adopt an “open” conformation using molecular dynamics simulation and small-angle X-ray scattering. This ligand-binding-capable open state is related to the crystal structure-like closed state by a striking clamshell-like inter-lobe dynamics. The two states are characterized by many distinct structural and dynamical differences and the conformational ...


Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Hepatocellular Death Pathways Mediate Liver Injury And Fibrosis Via Stimulator Of Interferon Genes., Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Jan Petrasek, Benedek Gyongyosi, Abhishek Satishchandran, Patrick Lowe, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Charles D. Calenda, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Kate A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo Dec 2016

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Hepatocellular Death Pathways Mediate Liver Injury And Fibrosis Via Stimulator Of Interferon Genes., Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Jan Petrasek, Benedek Gyongyosi, Abhishek Satishchandran, Patrick Lowe, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Charles D. Calenda, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Kate A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo

Katherine A. Fitzgerald

Fibrosis, driven by inflammation, marks the transition from benign to progressive stages of chronic liver diseases. Although inflammation promotes fibrogenesis, it is not known whether other events, such as hepatocyte death, are required for the development of fibrosis. Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 (IRF3) regulates hepatocyte apoptosis and production of Type-I interferons (IFNs). In the liver, IRF3 is activated via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling or the ER adapter, Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING). We hypothesized that IRF3-mediated hepatocyte death is an independent determinant of chemically-induced liver fibrogenesis. To test this, we performed acute or chronic carbontetrachloride (CCl4) administration to WT ...


Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Hepatocellular Death Pathways Mediate Liver Injury And Fibrosis Via Stimulator Of Interferon Genes., Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Jan Petrasek, Benedek Gyongyosi, Abhishek Satishchandran, Patrick Lowe, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Charles D. Calenda, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Kate A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo Dec 2016

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Hepatocellular Death Pathways Mediate Liver Injury And Fibrosis Via Stimulator Of Interferon Genes., Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Jan Petrasek, Benedek Gyongyosi, Abhishek Satishchandran, Patrick Lowe, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Charles D. Calenda, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Kate A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

Fibrosis, driven by inflammation, marks the transition from benign to progressive stages of chronic liver diseases. Although inflammation promotes fibrogenesis, it is not known whether other events, such as hepatocyte death, are required for the development of fibrosis. Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 (IRF3) regulates hepatocyte apoptosis and production of Type-I interferons (IFNs). In the liver, IRF3 is activated via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling or the ER adapter, Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING). We hypothesized that IRF3-mediated hepatocyte death is an independent determinant of chemically-induced liver fibrogenesis. To test this, we performed acute or chronic carbontetrachloride (CCl4) administration to WT ...


Id4 And Fkbp52 Interaction Regulates Androgen Receptor Activity: Mechanistic Insight, Jugal Bharat Joshi Dec 2016

Id4 And Fkbp52 Interaction Regulates Androgen Receptor Activity: Mechanistic Insight, Jugal Bharat Joshi

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

The inhibitor of DNA binding protein 4 (ID4) is a dominant negative regulator of basic helix loop helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors.1 Recently, Patel et al., demonstrated that inhibitor of differentiation 4 (ID4) acts as a tumor suppressor and its loss, frequently observed in prostate cancer, promotes castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) through constitutive androgen receptor (AR) activation.2 However, the mechanism by which loss of ID4 promotes constitutively active AR signaling in the CRPC conditions is unknown. The rationale of the present study was to unravel the underlying molecular mechanisms through which loss of ID4 potentiates AR signaling ...


The Functions Of The Cid And Lrg Operons In S. Aureus Programmed Cell Death, Xinyan Zhang Dec 2016

The Functions Of The Cid And Lrg Operons In S. Aureus Programmed Cell Death, Xinyan Zhang

Theses & Dissertations

Staphylococcus aureus cid/lrg operons regulate the formation of S.aureus biofilm formation and programmed cell death based on previous in vivo work done in Dr. Bayles's lab. cid operon, which encodes CidA/CidB/CidC proteins, has been shown to be an effector in leading to the lysis and death of the S.aureus; While lrg operon, encoding LrgA and LrgB proteins, is an inhibitor of the lysis and death. Recent studies suggest that CidA behaves like holin proteins from bacterial phage, by increasing the murein hydrolysis activity under aerobic culturing conditions. LrgA, together with LrgB, appears ...


Regulation Of Alteration/Deficiency In Activation 3 (Ada3) By Acetylation And Its Role In Cell Cycle Regulation And Oncogenesis, Shashank Srivastava Dec 2016

Regulation Of Alteration/Deficiency In Activation 3 (Ada3) By Acetylation And Its Role In Cell Cycle Regulation And Oncogenesis, Shashank Srivastava

Theses & Dissertations

The ADA3 (Alteration/Deficiency in Activation 3) protein is a transcriptional adaptor protein that was initially discovered as a component of several HAT (Histone Acetyltransferase) complexes, the enzyme complex responsible for histone acetylation, which is a prerequisite for transcription. Earlier the studies from Dr. Band’s laboratory and that of others’ have deciphered a crucial role of ADA3 in cell cycle regulation (both through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions) and in maintaining the genomic stability.

While our laboratory investigated the mechanism behind the role of ADA3 in G1/S transition, the same remained unknown for ...


Defining The Role Of Phosphorylation And Dephosphorylation In The Regulation Of Gap Junction Proteins, Hanjun Li Dec 2016

Defining The Role Of Phosphorylation And Dephosphorylation In The Regulation Of Gap Junction Proteins, Hanjun Li

Theses & Dissertations

Gap junctions are intercellular channels that permit the free passage of ions, small metabolites, and signaling molecules between neighboring cells. In the diseased human heart, altered ventricular gap junction organization and connexin expression (i.e., remodeling) are key contributors to rhythm disturbances and contractile dysfunction. Connexin43 (Cx43) is the dominant gap junction protein isoform in the ventricle which is under tight regulation by serine/tyrosine phosphorylation. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation regulate many aspects of Cx43 function including trafficking, assembly and disassembly, electrical and metabolic coupling at the plaque, as well as to modulate the interaction with other proteins.

Serine phosphorylation has ...


Dna Polymerase Zeta-Dependent Mutagenesis: Molecular Specificity, Extent Of Error-Prone Synthesis, And The Role Of Dntp Pools, Olga V. Kochenova Dec 2016

Dna Polymerase Zeta-Dependent Mutagenesis: Molecular Specificity, Extent Of Error-Prone Synthesis, And The Role Of Dntp Pools, Olga V. Kochenova

Theses & Dissertations

Despite multiple DNA repair pathways, DNA lesions can escape repair and compromise normal chromosomal replication, leading to genome instability. Cells utilize specialized low-fidelity Translesion Synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases to bypass lesions and rescue arrested replication forks. TLS is a highly conserved two-step process that involves insertion of a nucleotide opposite a lesion and extension of the resulting aberrant primer terminus. The first step can be performed by both replicative and TLS DNA polymerases and, because of non-instructive DNA lesions, often results in a nucleotide misincorporation. The second step is almost exclusively catalyzed by DNA polymerase ζ ...


Mitogen And Morphogen Signaling Dysregulation: Pathophysiological Influence In Pancreatic Cancer And Alzheimer’S Disease, Eric Cruz Dec 2016

Mitogen And Morphogen Signaling Dysregulation: Pathophysiological Influence In Pancreatic Cancer And Alzheimer’S Disease, Eric Cruz

Theses & Dissertations

Although the etiology of a particular disease will vary, there are genetic and epigenetic bottlenecks that frequently converge resulting in dysregulation of mitogenic and morphogenetic signaling. This propensity is acutely experienced in malignancy and neurodegenerative disease.

Here, we have first investigated the role of dysregulated signaling in the context of pancreatic cancer (PC). Morphogenetic signaling has been regarded as a pleiotropic pathway with the potential to promote and inhibit metastatic features. Our investigation of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), an archetypical member of the BMP superfamily, has revealed the presence of extracellular, intracellular, and long non-coding RNA products. Our findings ...


High Epstein-Barr Virus Load And Genomic Diversity Are Associated With Generation Of Gp350-Specific Neutralizing Antibodies Following Acute Infectious Mononucleosis, Eric R. Weiss, Galit Alter, Javier Gordon Ogembo, Jennifer L. Henderson, Barbara Tabak, Yasin Bakis, Mohan Somasundaran, Manuel Garber, Liisa K. Selin, Katherine Luzuriaga Dec 2016

High Epstein-Barr Virus Load And Genomic Diversity Are Associated With Generation Of Gp350-Specific Neutralizing Antibodies Following Acute Infectious Mononucleosis, Eric R. Weiss, Galit Alter, Javier Gordon Ogembo, Jennifer L. Henderson, Barbara Tabak, Yasin Bakis, Mohan Somasundaran, Manuel Garber, Liisa K. Selin, Katherine Luzuriaga

Garber Lab Publications

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) gp350 glycoprotein interacts with the cellular receptor to mediate viral entry and is thought to be the major target for neutralizing antibodies. To better understand the role of EBV-specific antibodies in the control of viral replication and the evolution of sequence diversity, we measured EBV gp350-specific antibody responses and sequenced the gp350 gene in samples obtained from individuals experiencing primary EBV infection (acute infectious mononucleosis [AIM]) and again 6 months later (during convalescence [CONV]). EBV gp350-specific IgG was detected in the sera of 17 (71%) of 24 individuals at the time of AIM and all 24 ...


The Association Between Oxidative Stress, Cellular Differentiation And Galectins In Human Promyelocytic Leukemia Cells (Hl-60), James R. Vinnai Dec 2016

The Association Between Oxidative Stress, Cellular Differentiation And Galectins In Human Promyelocytic Leukemia Cells (Hl-60), James R. Vinnai

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Galectins are a group of β-galactoside-binding proteins involved in different cellular processes including stress responses and differentiation. The role and expression of galectins under oxidative stress and during neutrophilic differentiation was examined in HL-60 cells. Galectin gene (LGALS), and galectin protein expression were determined using RT-qPCR and immunoblotting, respectively. Neutrophilic differentiation was measured via a spectrofluorometric assay. DNA methylation and JNK signaling were investigated as galectin regulatory mechanisms. Menadione-induced oxidative stress, DMSO-induced differentiation, DNA hypomethylation and JNK signaling all promoted similar galectin expression profiles. Antioxidant N-acetylcysteine attenuated the menadione-induced galectin expression but only partially attenuated DMSO-induced galectin expression. Galectin inhibitory ...


Ctcf-Mediated Topological Boundaries During Development Foster Appropriate Gene Regulation, Varun Narendra, Milica Bulajic, Job Dekker, Esteban O. Mazzoni, Danny Reinberg Dec 2016

Ctcf-Mediated Topological Boundaries During Development Foster Appropriate Gene Regulation, Varun Narendra, Milica Bulajic, Job Dekker, Esteban O. Mazzoni, Danny Reinberg

Program in Systems Biology Publications and Presentations

The genome is organized into repeating topologically associated domains (TADs), each of which is spatially isolated from its neighbor by poorly understood boundary elements thought to be conserved across cell types. Here, we show that deletion of CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor)-binding sites at TAD and sub-TAD topological boundaries that form within the HoxA and HoxC clusters during differentiation not only disturbs local chromatin domain organization and regulatory interactions but also results in homeotic transformations typical of Hox gene misregulation. Moreover, our data suggest that CTCF-dependent boundary function can be modulated by competing forces, such as the self-assembly of polycomb domains ...


Jmh Dissertation 2016.Pdf, Jennifer Hayashi Dec 2016

Jmh Dissertation 2016.Pdf, Jennifer Hayashi

Jennifer Hayashi

Mycobacterium is a diverse genus of actinobacteria that includes the causative agents of human tuberculosis and leprosy. Mycobacteria are protected by their unique, multilaminar cell envelope, which grants them intrinsic resistance to environmental challenges such as antibiotics. This essential cellular structure is elongated at the polar ends of cells, but the regulation of cytosolic precursor synthesis and localized envelope synthesis remains unclear. Here, we present the PMf (plasma membrane free of cell wall components), a membrane domain distinct from the bulk plasma membrane of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Proteomic and lipidomic characterization demonstrate that the PMf contains lipidic substrates ...


Stability Of Peatland Carbon To Rising Temperatures, R. M. Wilson, A. M. Hopple, M. M. Tfaily, S. D. Sebestyen, C. W. Schadt, L. Pfeifer-Meister, Cassandra Medvedeff, K. J. Mcfarlane, J. E. Kostka, M. Kolton, R. K. Kolka, L. A. Kluber, Jason K. Keller, T. P. Guilderson, N. A. Griffiths, J. P. Chanton, S. D. Brigham, P. J. Hanson Dec 2016

Stability Of Peatland Carbon To Rising Temperatures, R. M. Wilson, A. M. Hopple, M. M. Tfaily, S. D. Sebestyen, C. W. Schadt, L. Pfeifer-Meister, Cassandra Medvedeff, K. J. Mcfarlane, J. E. Kostka, M. Kolton, R. K. Kolka, L. A. Kluber, Jason K. Keller, T. P. Guilderson, N. A. Griffiths, J. P. Chanton, S. D. Brigham, P. J. Hanson

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Peatlands contain one-third of soil carbon (C), mostly buried in deep, saturated anoxic zones (catotelm). The response of catotelm C to climate forcing is uncertain, because prior experiments have focused on surface warming. We show that deep peat heating of a 2 m-thick peat column results in an exponential increase in CH4 emissions. However, this response is due solely to surface processes and not degradation of catotelm peat. Incubations show that only the top 20–30 cm of peat from experimental plots have higher CH4 production rates at elevated temperatures. Radiocarbon analyses demonstrate that CH4 and CO2 are produced primarily ...


The Structural Basis For The Interdependence Of Drug Resistance In The Hiv-1 Protease, Debra A. Ragland Dec 2016

The Structural Basis For The Interdependence Of Drug Resistance In The Hiv-1 Protease, Debra A. Ragland

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease (PR) is a critical drug target as it is responsible for virion maturation. Mutations within the active site (1°) of the PR directly interfere with inhibitor binding while mutations distal to the active site (2°) to restore enzymatic fitness. Increasing mutation number is not directly proportional to the severity of resistance, suggesting that resistance is not simply additive but that it is interdependent. The interdependency of both primary and secondary mutations to drive protease inhibitor (PI) resistance is grossly understudied.

To structurally and dynamically characterize the direct role of secondary mutations in ...


Scanning Electron Microscopy Laboratory Portfolio, Ian E. Newcomb Dec 2016

Scanning Electron Microscopy Laboratory Portfolio, Ian E. Newcomb

N.C. Brown Center for Ultrastructure Studies

These images were prepared by Ian Newcomb as part of the class MCR 484 Scanning Electron Microscopy at SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Fall 2016.

All images were acquired on the JEOL JSM 5800 LV Scanning Electron Microscope in the N. C. Brown Center for Ultrastructure Studies


Photoassisted Oxidation Of Sulfides Catalyzed By Artificial Metalloenzymes Using Water As An Oxygen Source, Christian Herrero, Nhung Nguyen-Thi, Fabien Hammerer, Frédéric Banse, Donald Gagne, Nicolas Doucet, Jean-Pierre Mahy, Rémy Ricoux Dec 2016

Photoassisted Oxidation Of Sulfides Catalyzed By Artificial Metalloenzymes Using Water As An Oxygen Source, Christian Herrero, Nhung Nguyen-Thi, Fabien Hammerer, Frédéric Banse, Donald Gagne, Nicolas Doucet, Jean-Pierre Mahy, Rémy Ricoux

Advanced Science Research Center

The Mn(TpCPP)-Xln10A artificial metalloenzyme, obtained by non-covalent insertion of Mn(III)-meso-tetrakis(p-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin [Mn(TpCPP), 1-Mn] into xylanase 10A from Streptomyces lividans (Xln10A) as a host protein, was found able to catalyze the selective photo-induced oxidation of organic substrates in the presence of [RuII(bpy)3] 2+ as a photosensitizer and [CoIII(NH3)5Cl]2+ as a sacrificial electron acceptor, using water as oxygen atom source.


Comprehensive Molecular Characterization Of Human Nodal, Scott D. Findlay Dec 2016

Comprehensive Molecular Characterization Of Human Nodal, Scott D. Findlay

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Nodal and related ligands are highly conserved members of the TGF-beta superfamily with well-established and essential roles in the early embryonic development of vertebrates, and in cell fate decisions in human embryonic stem (hES) cells. Aberrant NODAL signaling also generally promotes pro-tumourigenic phenotypes and the progression of a wide array of human cancers. Despite being pursued as a potential therapeutic target, many aspects of NODAL’s molecular biology remain poorly understood. This thesis provides a comprehensive characterization of gene expression from the human NODAL locus at multiple levels. First, an intronic NODAL SNP known as rs2231947 was found to be ...


Riboregulation Of Bacterial Transposons, Michael J. Ellis Dec 2016

Riboregulation Of Bacterial Transposons, Michael J. Ellis

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Bacterial transposons typically exist in a mutually beneficial relationship with the host cell. Limited transposition can benefit the host while also ensuring the survival of the element. An important component of this relationship is that transposition must be tightly regulated. In this thesis I explore ways that the host and transposon each control transposition in E. coli and provide evidence that a transposon can also control host gene expression in S. enterica Typhimurium. Post-transcriptional regulation with small non-coding RNAs (sRNA) has emerged as a key way that bacteria respond to stress and regulate many cellular processes. The RNA-binding protein Hfq ...


Phthalate Plasticizers Covalently Linked To Pvc Via Copper-Free Or Copper Catalyzed Axide-Alkyne Cycloadditions, Aruna Earla, Li Longbo, Philip Costanzo, Rebecca Braslau Dec 2016

Phthalate Plasticizers Covalently Linked To Pvc Via Copper-Free Or Copper Catalyzed Axide-Alkyne Cycloadditions, Aruna Earla, Li Longbo, Philip Costanzo, Rebecca Braslau

Chemistry and Biochemistry

Plasticization of PVC was carried out by covalently linking phthalate derivatives via copper-free (thermal) or copper catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloadditions. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate derivatives (DEHP-ether and DEHP-ester) were synthesized and appended to PVC at two different densities. The glass transition temperatures of the modified PVC decreased with increasing content of plasticizer. PVC-DEHP-ether gave lower glass transition temperatures than PVC-DEHP-ester, reflecting the enhanced flexibility of the ether versus ester linker.


Manual And Automated Solid Phase Synthesis Of Peptides For Breast Cancer Cell Targeting, Savannah Carlson Dec 2016

Manual And Automated Solid Phase Synthesis Of Peptides For Breast Cancer Cell Targeting, Savannah Carlson

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Four peptides were synthesized using solid phase peptide synthesis. The two target peptides synthesized were based off peptide 18-4 and its negative analog. Each were synthesized once manually, and once using an automatic peptide synthesizer. Peptide 18-4 has a high affinity for breast cancer cells, allowing it to be used to detect circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood (Kaur et. al, 2015). Manual solid phase peptide synthesis is performed by anchoring the first amino acid to Wang resin and coupling each Fmoc protected amino acid individually until the target sequence is achieved. To synthesize the peptides automatically, the automated Tribute ...


Peptidylarginine Deiminase 1-Catalyzed Histone Citrullination Is Essential For Early Embryo Development, Xiaoqian Zhang, Xiaoqiu Liu, Mei Zhang, Tingting Li, Aaron Muth, Paul R. Thompson, Scott A. Coonrod, Xuesen Zhang Dec 2016

Peptidylarginine Deiminase 1-Catalyzed Histone Citrullination Is Essential For Early Embryo Development, Xiaoqian Zhang, Xiaoqiu Liu, Mei Zhang, Tingting Li, Aaron Muth, Paul R. Thompson, Scott A. Coonrod, Xuesen Zhang

Thompson Lab Publications

Peptidylarginine deiminase (PADI) enzymes are increasingly being associated with the regulation of chromatin structure and gene activity via histone citrullination. As one of the PADI family members, PADI1 has been mainly reported to be expressed in the epidermis and uterus, where the protein in keratinocytes is thought to promote differentiation by citrullinating filament proteins. However, the roles of PADI1 in preimplantation development have not been addressed. Using a PADI1-specific inhibitor and Padi1-morpholino knockdown, we found that citrullination of histone tails at H4R3 and H3R2/8/17 were markedly reduced in the 2- and 4-cell embryos. Consistent with this observation, early ...


Design And Synthesis Of Novel Azasteroids And Pseudoazulenyl Nitrones, Nagaraju Birudukota Dec 2016

Design And Synthesis Of Novel Azasteroids And Pseudoazulenyl Nitrones, Nagaraju Birudukota

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Steroids are one of the essential classes of bioactive compounds and are involved in many biological functions which include their role as signaling compounds, the alteration of membrane fluidity and the regulation of a variety of metabolic processes. In order to identify novel compounds with beneficial pharmacological action, the synthesis of modified steroids is gaining much attention in recent years. Among those analogs, azasteroids are one of the most important classes which display a variety of biological activities, often free from undesirable side effects. The challenges in the synthesis of steroids, particularly azasteroids, and the potential of azasteroids as novel ...


Inflammatory Gene Expression In Women Diagnosed With Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, Myles K. Taylor Dec 2016

Inflammatory Gene Expression In Women Diagnosed With Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, Myles K. Taylor

Electronic Thesis Collection

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. The pathophysiology of PCOS has conventionally thought to originate from androgen excess. However, recent evidence suggests that androgen excess is a downstream consequence to inflammatory dysregulation and subsequent metabolic abnormalities. Inflammatory mRNA gene expression of TNFa and IL-1ß in mononuclear cells isolated from women diagnosed with PCOS was explored using qPCR. Additionally, the correlations between body mass index (BMI) and fasting glucose on mRNA expression of TNFa and IL-1ß were explored. mRNA expression of both TNFa and IL-1ß were found to be significantly higher in PCOS ...


An Examination Of Student Outcomes In Studio Chemistry, Alan L. Kiste, Gregory E. Scott, Jesse Paul Bukenberger, Miles Markmann, Jennifer Moore Dec 2016

An Examination Of Student Outcomes In Studio Chemistry, Alan L. Kiste, Gregory E. Scott, Jesse Paul Bukenberger, Miles Markmann, Jennifer Moore

Chemistry and Biochemistry

Twenty years ago, a major curriculum revision at a large, comprehensive university in the Western United States led to the implementation of an integrated lecture/laboratory (studio) experience for our engineering students taking general chemistry. Based on these twenty years of experience, construction of four purpose-built studio classrooms to house the majority of the remaining general chemistry courses was completed in 2013. A detailed study of the effects of the entire ecology of the studio experience on student success was initiated at that time. Data from content knowledge pre- and post-tests, learning attitudes surveys, and student course evaluations show positive ...