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2014

Medicine and Health Sciences

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Articles 1 - 30 of 180

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Dna-Guided Establishment Of Canonical Nucleosome Patterns In A Eukaryotic Genome, Leslie Y. Beh, Noam Kaplan, Manuel M. Muller, Tom W. Muir, Laura F. Landweber Dec 2014

Dna-Guided Establishment Of Canonical Nucleosome Patterns In A Eukaryotic Genome, Leslie Y. Beh, Noam Kaplan, Manuel M. Muller, Tom W. Muir, Laura F. Landweber

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

A conserved hallmark of eukaryotic chromatin architecture is the distinctive array of well-positioned nucleosomes downstream of transcription start sites (TSS). Recent studies indicate that trans-acting factors establish this stereotypical array. Here, we present the first genome-wide in vitro and in vivo nucleosome maps for the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. In contrast with previous studies in yeast, we find that the stereotypical nucleosome array is preserved in the in vitro reconstituted map, which is governed only by the DNA sequence preferences of nucleosomes. Remarkably, this average in vitro pattern arises from the presence of subsets of nucleosomes, rather than the whole array ...


A Microrna-1280/Jag2 Network Comprises A Novel Biological Target In High-Risk Medulloblastoma, Fengfei Wang, Marc Remke, Tze-Chen Hsieh, Lizi Wu, Cynthia Hawkins, Joseph M. Wu, Erxi Wu Dec 2014

A Microrna-1280/Jag2 Network Comprises A Novel Biological Target In High-Risk Medulloblastoma, Fengfei Wang, Marc Remke, Tze-Chen Hsieh, Lizi Wu, Cynthia Hawkins, Joseph M. Wu, Erxi Wu

NYMC Faculty Publications

Over-expression of PDGF receptors (PDGFRs) has been previously implicated in high-risk medulloblastoma (MB) pathogenesis. However, the exact biological functions of PDGFRα and PDGFRβ signaling in MB biology remain poorly understood. Here, we report the subgroup specific expression of PDGFRα and PDGFRβ and their associated biological pathways in MB tumors. c-MYC, a downstream target of PDGFRβ but not PDGFRα, is involved in PDGFRβ signaling associated with cell proliferation, cell death, and invasion. Concurrent inhibition of PDGFRβ and c-MYC blocks MB cell proliferation and migration synergistically. Integrated analysis of miRNA and miRNA targets regulated by both PDGFRβ and c-MYC reveals that increased ...


Direct Interactions Promote Eviction Of The Sir3 Heterochromatin Protein By The Swi/Snf Chromatin Remodeling Enzyme, Benjamin J. Manning, Craig L. Peterson Dec 2014

Direct Interactions Promote Eviction Of The Sir3 Heterochromatin Protein By The Swi/Snf Chromatin Remodeling Enzyme, Benjamin J. Manning, Craig L. Peterson

GSBS Student Publications

Heterochromatin is a specialized chromatin structure that is central to eukaryotic transcriptional regulation and genome stability. Despite its globally repressive role, heterochromatin must also be dynamic, allowing for its repair and replication. In budding yeast, heterochromatin formation requires silent information regulators (Sirs) Sir2p, Sir3p, and Sir4p, and these Sir proteins create specialized chromatin structures at telomeres and silent mating-type loci. Previously, we found that the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzyme can catalyze the ATP-dependent eviction of Sir3p from recombinant nucleosomal arrays, and this activity enhances early steps of recombinational repair in vitro. Here, we show that the ATPase subunit of ...


Loss Of Thiol Repair Systems In Human Cataractous Lenses, Min Wei, Kui-Yi Xing, Yin-Chuan Fan, Teodosio Libondi, Marjorie F. Lou Dec 2014

Loss Of Thiol Repair Systems In Human Cataractous Lenses, Min Wei, Kui-Yi Xing, Yin-Chuan Fan, Teodosio Libondi, Marjorie F. Lou

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

PURPOSE. The purpose of this study was to investigate the thiol repair systems of thioltransferase (TTase) and thioredoxin (Trx) and oxidation-damaged proteins in human cataractous lenses.

METHODS. Cataractous lenses in humans (57–85 years of age) were classified into cortical, nuclear, mixed, mature, and hypermature cataract types by using a lens opacity classification system, and were obtained by extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) procedure. Cortical and nuclear cataracts were grouped by decreasing order of visual acuity into optical chart reading (R), counting fingers (CF), hand motion (HM), and light perception (LP). ECCE lens homogenate was analyzed for glutathione (GSH) level and ...


Gaip Interacting Protein C-Terminus Regulates Autophagy And Exosome Biogenesis Of Pancreatic Cancer Through Metabolic Pathways, Santanu Bhattacharya, Krishnendu Pal, Anil K. Sharma, Shamit K. Dutta, Julie S. Lau, Irene K. Yan, Enfeng Wang, Ahmed Elkhanany, Khalid M. Alkharfy, Arunik Sanyal, Tushar C. Patel, Suresh T. Chari, Mark R. Spaller, Debabrata Mukhopadhyay Dec 2014

Gaip Interacting Protein C-Terminus Regulates Autophagy And Exosome Biogenesis Of Pancreatic Cancer Through Metabolic Pathways, Santanu Bhattacharya, Krishnendu Pal, Anil K. Sharma, Shamit K. Dutta, Julie S. Lau, Irene K. Yan, Enfeng Wang, Ahmed Elkhanany, Khalid M. Alkharfy, Arunik Sanyal, Tushar C. Patel, Suresh T. Chari, Mark R. Spaller, Debabrata Mukhopadhyay

Open Dartmouth: Peer-reviewed articles by Dartmouth faculty

GAIP interacting protein C terminus (GIPC) is known to play an important role in a variety of physiological and disease states. In the present study, we have identified a novel role for GIPC as a master regulator of autophagy and the exocytotic pathways in cancer. We show that depletion of GIPC-induced autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells, as evident from the upregulation of the autophagy marker LC3II. We further report that GIPC regulates cellular trafficking pathways by modulating the secretion, biogenesis, and molecular composition of exosomes. We also identified the involvement of GIPC on metabolic stress pathways regulating autophagy and microvesicular ...


Understanding Ten-Eleven Translocation-2 In Hematological And Nervous Systems, Feng Pan Dec 2014

Understanding Ten-Eleven Translocation-2 In Hematological And Nervous Systems, Feng Pan

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

I proposed the study of two distinct aspects of Ten-Eleven Translocation 2 (TET2) protein for understanding specific functions in different body systems.

In Part I, I characterized the molecular mechanisms of Tet2 in the hematological system. As the second member of Ten-Eleven Translocation protein family, TET2 is frequently mutated in leukemic patients. Previous studies have shown that the TET2 mutations frequently occur in 20% myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN), 10% T-cell lymphoma leukemia and 2% B-cell lymphoma leukemia. Genetic mouse models also display distinct phenotypes of various types of hematological malignancies. I performed 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq ...


Measuring The Role Of Inhibition In Auditory Discrimination In Mice, Tazima Nur Dec 2014

Measuring The Role Of Inhibition In Auditory Discrimination In Mice, Tazima Nur

Theses and Dissertations

Understanding how inhibitory neurons affect sensory information processing in the cerebral cortex is an ongoing goal of both neuroscience and statistical physics research. In this master's thesis research project, an experimental system has been designed and built for studying how auditory dynamic range depends on inhibitory neurons, based on observations of mouse behavior. In this thesis, firstly, the topic of inhibition and information processing has been introduced. Then two papers related to inhibition and dynamic range has been reviewed in detail. One of the papers is an experimental work that analyzes the affect of inhibition on dynamic range. The ...


Redesign Of Trans-Splicing Molecules For The Correction Of Dystrophia Myotonica Type 1 Toxic Rna Transcripts, Eleanor G. Harrison Dec 2014

Redesign Of Trans-Splicing Molecules For The Correction Of Dystrophia Myotonica Type 1 Toxic Rna Transcripts, Eleanor G. Harrison

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Dystrophia myotonica (DM1), one of the most common forms of muscular dystrophy, is caused by a repeated trinucleotide expansion in the DMPK gene. This mutation results in the accumulation of toxic cellular RNA transcripts. Spliceosome-mediated RNA trans-splicing (SMaRT) technology is a form of gene therapy that possesses the potential to correct these toxic RNA transcripts and thus cure the disease. Despite its promise, prior research applications of SMaRT technology to DM1 have been hampered by poor efficiency and have not been validated in a relevant model of the disease. In order to improve the efficiency of trans-splicing, this study examined ...


Regulation Of C-Reactive Protein Gene Expression And Function, Avinash N. Thirumalai Dec 2014

Regulation Of C-Reactive Protein Gene Expression And Function, Avinash N. Thirumalai

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Human C-reactive protein (CRP) is the prototypic acute phase protein whose serum concentration increases rapidly during inflammation. CRP is also associated with atherosclerosis; it is deposited at lesion sites where it may interact with modified lipoproteins. There are 2 major questions regarding CRP: 1. How is the serum concentration of CRP regulated? 2. What are the functions of CRP in atherosclerosis?

Our first aim was to determine the role of the constitutively expressed transcription factor Oct-1 in regulating CRP gene expression. We found that Oct-1 overexpression inhibited (IL-6+IL-1β)- induced CRP gene expression; maximal inhibition required the binding of Oct-1 ...


Glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2) Gene Deletion Induces Early Onset Of Age-Dependent Cataracts In Mice, Hongli Wu, Yibo Yu, Larry David, Ye-Shih Ho, Marjorie . F. Lou Dec 2014

Glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2) Gene Deletion Induces Early Onset Of Age-Dependent Cataracts In Mice, Hongli Wu, Yibo Yu, Larry David, Ye-Shih Ho, Marjorie . F. Lou

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2) is an isozyme of glutaredoxin1 (thioltransferase) present in the mitochondria and nucleus with disulfide reductase and peroxidase activities, and it controls thiol/ disulfide balance in cells. In this study, we investigated whether Grx2 gene deletion could induce faster age-related cataract formation and elucidated the biochemical changes effected by Grx2 gene deletion that may contribute to lens opacity. Slit lamp was used to examine the lenses in Grx2 knock-out (KO) mice and age-matched wild-type (WT) mice ages 1 to 16 months. In the Grx2 null mice, the lens nuclear opacity began at 5 months, 3 months sooner than ...


Modulation Of T Lymphocytes By Tumor-Released Survivin, Jessica Marie Jutzy Dec 2014

Modulation Of T Lymphocytes By Tumor-Released Survivin, Jessica Marie Jutzy

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

The tumor microenvironment is an area of intense interaction between normal and malignant cells. Factors and cell types within this environment can play a crucial role in the progression or regression of the tumor. Of primary interest are tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes, which have been shown to have a key role in modifying the dynamics of the tumor microenvironment to promote or prevent tumor growth. While there is much in vitro and in vivo evidence for a modification of the tumor infiltrating T cell population toward a pro-tumor environment, what induces these changes within the tumor microenvironment has remained elusive. Our ...


Synchronous Opening And Closing Motions Are Essential For Camp-Dependent Protein Kinase A Signaling, Atul K. Srivastava, Leanna R. Mcdonald, Alessandro Cembran, Jonggul Kim, Larry R. Masterson, Christopher L. Mcclendon, Susan S. Taylor, Gianluigi Veglia Nov 2014

Synchronous Opening And Closing Motions Are Essential For Camp-Dependent Protein Kinase A Signaling, Atul K. Srivastava, Leanna R. Mcdonald, Alessandro Cembran, Jonggul Kim, Larry R. Masterson, Christopher L. Mcclendon, Susan S. Taylor, Gianluigi Veglia

Larry Masterson

Conformational fluctuations play a central role in enzymatic catalysis. However, it is not clear how the rates and the coordination of the motions affect the different catalytic steps. Here, we used NMR spectroscopy to analyze the conformational fluctuations of the catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA-C), a ubiquitous enzyme involved in a myriad of cell signaling events. We found that the wild-type enzyme undergoes synchronous motions involving several structural elements located in the small lobe of the kinase, which is responsible for nucleotide binding and release. In contrast, a mutation (Y204A) located far from the active site desynchronizes ...


Acquisition And Reconstruction Techniques For Fat Quantification Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Abraam S. Soliman Nov 2014

Acquisition And Reconstruction Techniques For Fat Quantification Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Abraam S. Soliman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Quantifying the tissue fat concentration is important for several diseases in various organs including liver, heart, skeletal muscle and kidney. Uniquely, MRI can separate the signal from water and fat in-vivo, rendering it the most suitable imaging modality for non-invasive fat quantification. Chemical-shift-encoded MRI is commonly used for quantitative fat measurement due to its unique ability to generate a separate image for water and fat. The tissue fat concentration can be consequently estimated from the two images. However, several confounding factors can hinder the water/fat separation process, leading to incorrect estimation of fat concentration.

The inhomogeneities of the main ...


The Pathological Effects Of Ccr2+ Inflammatory Monocytes Are Amplified By An Ifnar1-Triggered Chemokine Feedback Loop In Highly Pathogenic Influenza Infection, Sue-Jane Lin, Ming Lo, Rei-Lin Kuo, Shin-Ru Shih, David M. Ojcius, Jean Lu, Chien-Kuo Lee, Hui-Chen Chen, Meei Yun Lin, Chuen-Miin Leu, Chia-Ni Lin, Ching-Hwa Tsai Nov 2014

The Pathological Effects Of Ccr2+ Inflammatory Monocytes Are Amplified By An Ifnar1-Triggered Chemokine Feedback Loop In Highly Pathogenic Influenza Infection, Sue-Jane Lin, Ming Lo, Rei-Lin Kuo, Shin-Ru Shih, David M. Ojcius, Jean Lu, Chien-Kuo Lee, Hui-Chen Chen, Meei Yun Lin, Chuen-Miin Leu, Chia-Ni Lin, Ching-Hwa Tsai

Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles

Background: Highly pathogenic influenza viruses cause high levels of morbidity, including excessive infiltration of leukocytes into the lungs, high viral loads and a cytokine storm. However, the details of how these pathological features unfold in severe influenza infections remain unclear. Accumulation of Gr1 + CD11b + myeloid cells has been observed in highly pathogenic influenza infections but it is not clear how and why they accumulate in the severely inflamed lung. In this study, we selected this cell population as a target to investigate the extreme inflammatory response during severe influenza infection.

Results: We established H1N1 IAV-infected mouse models using three viruses ...


The Three-Dimensional Structure Of The Cystic Fibrosis Locus: A Dissertation, Emily M. Smith Nov 2014

The Three-Dimensional Structure Of The Cystic Fibrosis Locus: A Dissertation, Emily M. Smith

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The three dimensional structure of the human genome is known to play a critical role in gene function and expression. I used chromosome conformation capture (3C) and 3C-carbon copy (5C) techniques to investigate the three-dimensional structure of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) locus. This is an important disease gene that, when mutated, causes cystic fibrosis. 3C experiments identified four distinct looping elements that contact the CFTR gene promoter only in CFTR-expressing cells. Using 5C, I expanded the region of study to a 2.8 Mb region surrounding the CFTR gene. The 5C study shows 7 clear topologically associating ...


Id2 Complexes With The Snag Domain Of Snai1 Inhibiting Snai1-Mediated Repression Of Integrin Beta4, Cheng Chang, Xiaofang Yang, Bryan Pursell, Arthur M. Mercurio Nov 2014

Id2 Complexes With The Snag Domain Of Snai1 Inhibiting Snai1-Mediated Repression Of Integrin Beta4, Cheng Chang, Xiaofang Yang, Bryan Pursell, Arthur M. Mercurio

Arthur M. Mercurio

The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental process that underlies development and cancer. Although the EMT involves alterations in the expression of specific integrins that mediate stable adhesion to the basement membrane, such as alpha6beta4, the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here, we report that Snai1 inhibits beta4 transcription by increasing repressive histone modification (trimethylation of histone H3 at K27 [H3K27Me3]). Surprisingly, Snai1 is expressed and localized in the nucleus in epithelial cells, but it does not repress beta4. We resolved this paradox by discovering that Id2 complexes with the SNAG domain of Snai1 on the beta4 promoter and constrains ...


Er-Associated Degradation And Cadmium Dependent Rescue Of Pca1, Nathan Smith Nov 2014

Er-Associated Degradation And Cadmium Dependent Rescue Of Pca1, Nathan Smith

Theses and Dissertations in Biochemistry

Protein synthesis and proper folding is an essential process for all organisms. In eukaryotes proteins of the secretory pathway are synthesized and inserted into the lumen or membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. Eukaryotic cells maintain a mechanism for removal of proteins unable to fold properly. This process is known as ER-associated degradation (ERAD). A poorly functioning ERAD can lead to a build-up of misfolded proteins which has been implicated in several degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Parkinson’s. Thus, the study of how proteins are recognized, extracted from the ER, and degraded is essential for ...


Nanofluidity Of Fatty Acid Hydrocarbon Chains As Monitored By Benchtop Time-Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, David P. Cistola Oct 2014

Nanofluidity Of Fatty Acid Hydrocarbon Chains As Monitored By Benchtop Time-Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, David P. Cistola

David P Cistola

The functional properties of lipid-rich assemblies such as serum lipoproteins, cell membranes, and intracellular lipid droplets are modulated by the fluidity of the hydrocarbon chain environment. Existing methods for monitoring hydrocarbon chain fluidity include fluorescence, electron spin resonance, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy; each possesses advantages and limitations. Here we introduce a new approach based on benchtop time-domain 1H NMR relaxometry (TD-NMR). Unlike conventional NMR spectroscopy, TD-NMR does not rely on the chemical shift resolution made possible by homogeneous, high-field magnets and Fourier transforms. Rather, it focuses on a multiexponential analysis of the time-decay signal. In this study, we ...


Cross-Disciplinary Sciences At Gettysburg College: Second Annual Poster Presentation, X-Sig Oct 2014

Cross-Disciplinary Sciences At Gettysburg College: Second Annual Poster Presentation, X-Sig

Student Publications

This booklet includes Biology student presentations by: Taylor Bury, Abigail Dworkin-Brodsky, Mary Pearce, Jasper Leavitt, Morgan Panzer, Ellen Petley, Kalli Qutub, Taylor Randell, Samantha Eck, Lana McDowell, Jenn Soroka, Celina Harris, Natalie Tanke, Alexandra Turano, and Caroline Garliss.

This booklet includes Biochemistry & Molecular Biology student presentations by: Matthew Dunworth, Andrew Sydenstricker, Brianne Tomko, Albert Vill, Warren Campbell, David Van Doren, Kevin Mrugalski, Stacey Heaver, Alecia Achimovich, and Katherine Boas.

This booklet includes Chemistry student presentations by: Kristen Baker, Laura Lee, Kathryn Fodale, Daniel Ruff, Michael Counihan, Ida DiMucci, Joshua Sgroi, Celina Harris, and Natalie Tanke.

This booklet include Health Science ...


Characterization Of Severe Fever With Thrombocytopenia Syndrome In Rural Regions Of Zhejiang, China, Lei Zhang, Ling Ye, David M. Ojcius, Xiuyu Lou, Chengwei Wang, Cen Feng, Yi Sun, Zhongfa Wang, Shibo Li, Yanjun Zhang Oct 2014

Characterization Of Severe Fever With Thrombocytopenia Syndrome In Rural Regions Of Zhejiang, China, Lei Zhang, Ling Ye, David M. Ojcius, Xiuyu Lou, Chengwei Wang, Cen Feng, Yi Sun, Zhongfa Wang, Shibo Li, Yanjun Zhang

Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) infections have recently been found in rural regions of Zhejiang. A severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) surveillance and sero-epidemiological investigation was conducted in the districts with outbreaks. During the study period of 2011–2014, a total of 51 SFTSV infection cases were identified and the case fatality rate was 12% (6/51). Ninety two percent of the patients (47/51) were over 50 years of age, and 63% (32/51) of laboratory confirmed cases occurred from May to July. Nine percent (11/120) of the serum samples from local healthy people without ...


Identifying Diagnostic Dna Methylation Profiles For Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy In Blood And Saliva Using Bisulfite Sequencing, Takako I. Jones, Chi Yan, Peter C. Sapp, Diane Mckenna-Yasek, Peter B. Kang, Colin Quinn, Johnny S. Salameh, Oliver D. King, Peter L. Jones Oct 2014

Identifying Diagnostic Dna Methylation Profiles For Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy In Blood And Saliva Using Bisulfite Sequencing, Takako I. Jones, Chi Yan, Peter C. Sapp, Diane Mckenna-Yasek, Peter B. Kang, Colin Quinn, Johnny S. Salameh, Oliver D. King, Peter L. Jones

Wellstone Center for FSHD Publications

BACKGROUND: Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is linked to chromatin relaxation due to epigenetic changes at the 4q35 D4Z4 macrosatellite array. Molecular diagnostic criteria for FSHD are complex and involve analysis of high molecular weight (HMW) genomic DNA isolated from lymphocytes, followed by multiple restriction digestions, pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and Southern blotting. A subject is genetically diagnosed as FSHD1 if one of the 4q alleles shows a contraction in the D4Z4 array to below 11 repeats, while maintaining at least 1 repeat, and the contraction is in cis with a disease-permissive A-type subtelomere. FSHD2 is contraction-independent and cannot be diagnosed ...


A Cytoplasmic Rna Virus Generates Functional Viral Small Rnas And Regulates Viral Ires Activity In Mammalian Cells, Kuo-Feng Weng, Chuan-Tien Hung, Po-Ting Hsieh, Mei-Ling L. Li, Guang-Wu Chen, Yu-An Kung, Peng-Nien Huang, Rei-Lin Kuo, Li-Lien Chen, Jing-Yi Lin, Robert Yung-Liang Wang, Shu-Jen Chen, Petrus Tang, Jim-Tong Horng, Hsing-I Huang, Jen-Ren Wang, David M. Ojcius, Gary Brewer, Shin-Ru Shih Oct 2014

A Cytoplasmic Rna Virus Generates Functional Viral Small Rnas And Regulates Viral Ires Activity In Mammalian Cells, Kuo-Feng Weng, Chuan-Tien Hung, Po-Ting Hsieh, Mei-Ling L. Li, Guang-Wu Chen, Yu-An Kung, Peng-Nien Huang, Rei-Lin Kuo, Li-Lien Chen, Jing-Yi Lin, Robert Yung-Liang Wang, Shu-Jen Chen, Petrus Tang, Jim-Tong Horng, Hsing-I Huang, Jen-Ren Wang, David M. Ojcius, Gary Brewer, Shin-Ru Shih

Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles

The roles of virus-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) have been studied in plants and insects. However, the generation and function of small RNAs from cytoplasmic RNA viruses in mammalian cells remain unexplored. This study describes four vsRNAs that were detected in enterovirus 71-infected cells using next-generation sequencing and northern blots. Viral infection produced substantial levels (>105 copy numbers per cell) of vsRNA1, one of the four vsRNAs. We also demonstrated that Dicer is involved in vsRNA1 generation in infected cells. vsRNA1 overexpression inhibited viral translation and internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) activity in infected cells. Conversely, blocking vsRNA1 enhanced viral ...


Differential Muscle Hypertrophy Is Associated With Satellite Cell Numbers And Akt Pathway Activation Following Activin Type Iib Receptor Inhibition In Mtm1 P.R69c Mice, Michael Lawlor, Marissa Viola, Hui Meng, Rachel Edelstein, Fujun Liu, Ke Yan, Elizabeth Luna, Alexandra Lerch-Gaggl, Raymond Hoffmann, Christopher Pierson, Anna Buj-Bello, Jennifer Lachey, Scott Pearsall, Lin Yang, Cecilia Hillard, Alan Beggs Oct 2014

Differential Muscle Hypertrophy Is Associated With Satellite Cell Numbers And Akt Pathway Activation Following Activin Type Iib Receptor Inhibition In Mtm1 P.R69c Mice, Michael Lawlor, Marissa Viola, Hui Meng, Rachel Edelstein, Fujun Liu, Ke Yan, Elizabeth Luna, Alexandra Lerch-Gaggl, Raymond Hoffmann, Christopher Pierson, Anna Buj-Bello, Jennifer Lachey, Scott Pearsall, Lin Yang, Cecilia Hillard, Alan Beggs

Elizabeth J. Luna

X-linked myotubular myopathy is a congenital myopathy caused by deficiency of myotubularin. Patients often present with severe perinatal weakness, requiring mechanical ventilation to prevent death from respiratory failure. We recently reported that an activin receptor type IIB inhibitor produced hypertrophy of type 2b myofibers and modest increases of strength and life span in the severely myopathic Mtm1δ4 mouse model of X-linked myotubular myopathy. We have now performed a similar study in the less severely symptomatic Mtm1 p.R69C mouse in hopes of finding greater treatment efficacy. Activin receptor type IIB inhibitor treatment of Mtm1 p.R69C animals produced behavioral and ...


Comprehensive Identification Of Host Modulators Of Hiv-1 Replication Using Multiple Orthologous Rnai Reagents, Jian Zhu, Jill Perreira, Christopher R. Chin, Richard E. Baker, Louise Maranda, Stephen J. Elledge, Abraham L. Brass Oct 2014

Comprehensive Identification Of Host Modulators Of Hiv-1 Replication Using Multiple Orthologous Rnai Reagents, Jian Zhu, Jill Perreira, Christopher R. Chin, Richard E. Baker, Louise Maranda, Stephen J. Elledge, Abraham L. Brass

Open Access Articles

RNAi screens have implicated hundreds of host proteins as HIV-1 dependency factors (HDFs). While informative, these early studies overlap poorly due to false positives and false negatives. To ameliorate these issues, we combined information from the existing HDF screens together with new screens performed with multiple orthologous RNAi reagents (MORR). In addition to being traditionally validated, the MORR screens and the historical HDF screens were quantitatively integrated by the adaptation of an established analysis program, RIGER, for the collective interpretation of each gene's phenotypic significance. False positives were addressed by the removal of poorly expressed candidates through gene expression ...


A Systematic Survey Of An Intragenic Epistatic Landscape, Claudia Bank, Ryan T. Hietpas, Jeffrey D. Jensen, Daniel N. Bolon Oct 2014

A Systematic Survey Of An Intragenic Epistatic Landscape, Claudia Bank, Ryan T. Hietpas, Jeffrey D. Jensen, Daniel N. Bolon

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Mutations are the source of evolutionary variation. The interactions of multiple mutations can have important effects on fitness and evolutionary trajectories. We have recently described the distribution of fitness effects of all single mutations for a nine amino acid region of yeast Hsp90 (Hsp82) implicated in substrate binding. Here, we report and discuss the distribution of intragenic epistatic effects within this region in seven Hsp90 point mutant backgrounds of neutral to slightly deleterious effect, resulting in an analysis of more than 1000 double-mutants. We find negative epistasis between substitutions to be common, and positive epistasis to be rare – resulting in ...


Hydroxamic Acid-Based Histone Deacetylase (Hdac) Inhibitors Can Mediate Neuroprotection Independent Of Hdac Inhibition, Sama Sleiman, Yan-Ling Zhang, Jennifer Gale, Manuela Basso, Giovanni Coppola, John T. Pinto, Rajiv Ratan Oct 2014

Hydroxamic Acid-Based Histone Deacetylase (Hdac) Inhibitors Can Mediate Neuroprotection Independent Of Hdac Inhibition, Sama Sleiman, Yan-Ling Zhang, Jennifer Gale, Manuela Basso, Giovanni Coppola, John T. Pinto, Rajiv Ratan

NYMC Faculty Publications

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition improves function and extends survival in rodent models of a host of neurological conditions, including stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases. Our understanding, however, of the contribution of individual HDAC isoforms to neuronal death is limited. In this study, we used selective chemical probes to assess the individual roles of the Class I HDAC isoforms in protecting Mus musculus primary cortical neurons from oxidative death. We demonstrated that the selective HDAC8 inhibitor PCI-34051 is a potent neuroprotective agent; and by taking advantage of both pharmacological and genetic tools, we established that HDAC8 is not critically involved in PCI-34051 ...


Reassessment Of The Role Of Tsc, Mtorc1 And Micrornas In Amino Acids-Meditated Translational Control Of Top Mrnas, Ilona Patursky-Polischuk, Judith Kasir, Rachel Miloslavski, Zvi Hayouka, Mirit Hausner-Hanochi, Miri Stolovich-Rain, Pinchas Tsukerman, Moshe Biton, Rajini R. Mudhasani, Stephen N. Jones, Oded Meyuhas Oct 2014

Reassessment Of The Role Of Tsc, Mtorc1 And Micrornas In Amino Acids-Meditated Translational Control Of Top Mrnas, Ilona Patursky-Polischuk, Judith Kasir, Rachel Miloslavski, Zvi Hayouka, Mirit Hausner-Hanochi, Miri Stolovich-Rain, Pinchas Tsukerman, Moshe Biton, Rajini R. Mudhasani, Stephen N. Jones, Oded Meyuhas

Open Access Articles

TOP mRNAs encode components of the translational apparatus, and repression of their translation comprises one mechanism, by which cells encountering amino acid deprivation downregulate the biosynthesis of the protein synthesis machinery. This mode of regulation involves TSC as knockout of TSC1 or TSC2 rescued TOP mRNAs translation in amino acid-starved cells. The involvement of mTOR in translational control of TOP mRNAs is demonstrated by the ability of constitutively active mTOR to relieve the translational repression of TOP mRNA upon amino acid deprivation. Consistently, knockdown of this kinase as well as its inhibition by pharmacological means blocked amino acid-induced translational activation ...


Large Conductance Voltage- And Ca2+-Gated Potassium (Bk) Channel Beta4 Subunit Influences Sensitivity And Tolerance To Alcohol By Altering Its Response To Kinases, Cristina Velazquez-Marrero, Garrett E. Seale, Steven N. Treistman, Gilles E. Martin Oct 2014

Large Conductance Voltage- And Ca2+-Gated Potassium (Bk) Channel Beta4 Subunit Influences Sensitivity And Tolerance To Alcohol By Altering Its Response To Kinases, Cristina Velazquez-Marrero, Garrett E. Seale, Steven N. Treistman, Gilles E. Martin

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Tolerance is a well described component of alcohol abuse and addiction. The large conductance voltage- and Ca(2+)-gated potassium channel (BK) has been very useful for studying molecular tolerance. The influence of association with the beta4 subunit can be observed at the level of individual channels, action potentials in brain slices, and finally, drinking behavior in the mouse. Previously, we showed that 50 mm alcohol increases both alpha and alphabeta4 BK channel open probability, but only alpha BK develops acute tolerance to this effect. Currently, we explore the possibility that the influence of the beta4 subunit on tolerance may ...


Hdac8 And Stat3 Repress Bmf Gene Activity In Colon Cancer Cells, Y Kang, Hui Nian, P Rajendran, W Dashwood, John T. Pinto, E Ho, R Dashwood Oct 2014

Hdac8 And Stat3 Repress Bmf Gene Activity In Colon Cancer Cells, Y Kang, Hui Nian, P Rajendran, W Dashwood, John T. Pinto, E Ho, R Dashwood

NYMC Faculty Publications

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are undergoing clinical trials as anticancer agents, but some exhibit resistance mechanisms linked to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 functions, such as BH3-only protein silencing. HDAC inhibitors that reactivate BH3-only family members might offer an improved therapeutic approach. We show here that a novel seleno-α-keto acid triggers global histone acetylation in human colon cancer cells and activates apoptosis in a p21-independent manner. Profiling of multiple survival factors identified a critical role for the BH3-only member Bcl-2-modifying factor (Bmf). On the corresponding BMF gene promoter, loss of HDAC8 was associated with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)/specificity ...


Development And Evaluation Of A Replicon Particle Vaccine Expressing The E2 Glycoprotein Of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (Bvdv) In Cattle, John Dustin Loy, Jill Gander, Mark Mogler, Ryan Vander Veen, Julia Ridpath, Delbert Hank Harris, Kurt Kamrud Oct 2014

Development And Evaluation Of A Replicon Particle Vaccine Expressing The E2 Glycoprotein Of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (Bvdv) In Cattle, John Dustin Loy, Jill Gander, Mark Mogler, Ryan Vander Veen, Julia Ridpath, Delbert Hank Harris, Kurt Kamrud

John Loy

Background: Bovine viral diarrhea virus is one of the most significant and costly viral pathogens of cattle worldwide. Alphavirus-derived replicon particles have been shown to be safe and highly effective vaccine vectors against a variety of human and veterinary pathogens. Replicon particles are non-propagating, DIVA compatible, and can induce both humoral and cell mediated immune responses. This is the first experiment to demonstrate that Alphavirus-based replicon particles can be utilized in a standard prime/boost vaccination strategy in calves against a commercially significant bovine pathogen. Findings: Replicon particles that express bovine viral diarrhea virus sub-genotype 1b E2 glycoprotein were generated ...