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2013

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Articles 1 - 30 of 938

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Partitioning The Fitness Components Of Rna Populations Evolving In Vitro, Carolina Diaz Arenas, Niles Lehman Dec 2013

Partitioning The Fitness Components Of Rna Populations Evolving In Vitro, Carolina Diaz Arenas, Niles Lehman

Chemistry Faculty Publications and Presentations

All individuals in an evolving population compete for resources, and their performance is measured by a fitness metric. The performance of the individuals is relative to their abilities and to the biotic surroundings – the conditions under which they are competing – and involves many components. Molecules evolving in a test tube can also face complex environments and dynamics, and their fitnessmeasurements should reflect the complexity of various contributing factors as well. Here, the fitnesses of a set of ligase ribozymes evolved by the continuous in vitroevolution system were measured. During these evolution cycles there are three different catalytic steps, ligation ...


The Global Translation Profile In A Ribosomal Protein Mutant Resembles That Of An Eif3 Mutant, Bayu Sisay Tiruneh, Byung-Hoon Kim, Daniel R. Gallie, Bijoyita Roy, Albrecht G. Von Arnim Dec 2013

The Global Translation Profile In A Ribosomal Protein Mutant Resembles That Of An Eif3 Mutant, Bayu Sisay Tiruneh, Byung-Hoon Kim, Daniel R. Gallie, Bijoyita Roy, Albrecht G. Von Arnim

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Biochemistry, Cellular and Molecular Biology

Background

Genome-wide assays performed in Arabidopsis and other organisms have revealed that the translation status of mRNAs responds dramatically to different environmental stresses and genetic lesions in the translation apparatus. To identify additional features of the global landscape of translational control, we used microarray analysis of polysomal as well as non-polysomal mRNAs to examine the defects in translation in a poly(A) binding protein mutant, pab2 pab8, as well as in a mutant of a large ribosomal subunit protein, rpl24b/shortvalve1.

Results

The mutation of RPL24B stimulated the ribosome occupancy of mRNAs for nuclear encoded ribosomal proteins. Detailed analysis yielded ...


Novel And Predominant Pathogen Responsible For The Enterovirus-Associated Encephalitis In Eastern China, Lei Zhang, Jie Yan, David M. Ojcius, Huakun Lv, Ziping Miao, Yin Chen, Yanjun Zhang, Jvying Yan Dec 2013

Novel And Predominant Pathogen Responsible For The Enterovirus-Associated Encephalitis In Eastern China, Lei Zhang, Jie Yan, David M. Ojcius, Huakun Lv, Ziping Miao, Yin Chen, Yanjun Zhang, Jvying Yan

Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles

Enteroviruses (EV) have been increasingly identified as the causative agent for unknown etiological encephalitis in many parts of the world, but the long period surveillance for enterovirus-associated encephalitis (EAE) was not reported in China. From 2002-2012 in Zhejiang, Coxsackieviruses A9, B1, B2, B3, B4, B5; and echoviruses 3, 4, 6, 9, 14, 25, 30 were detected from the unknown etiological encephalitis cases, with coxsackievirus B4 been identified here for the first time. From 2002-2004 and 2010-2012, echovirus 30 was found to be the periodically predominant serotype for in the EAE. The molecular typing results showed that all the EV isolates ...


The Function Of Carmil1 In Migrating Cells, Marc Edwards Dec 2013

The Function Of Carmil1 In Migrating Cells, Marc Edwards

All Theses and Dissertations (ETDs)

This dissertation describes the physiological role of the Capping Protein- CARMIL interaction in migrating cells. I establish the CARMIL-CP complex as a key regulator of lamellipodial actin assembly and of lamellipodial dynamics. Membrane ruffling at the leading edge of motile cells and macropinocytosis were also found to be dependent on the CARMIL1-CP interaction. This is consistent with macropinocytosis and ruffling being dependent on a functional and dynamic lamellipodium.: Kerr and Teasdale, 2009).

In chapter two I demonstrate that the CBR of CARMIL1 is competent to inhibit CP in cells. I show that overexpression of the CBR in cells leads to ...


The Effects Of Chronic Simvastatin Treatment On The Expression Of Behavioral Symptoms In A Transgenic Mouse Model Of Huntington’S Disease, Ashley Whitmarsh Dec 2013

The Effects Of Chronic Simvastatin Treatment On The Expression Of Behavioral Symptoms In A Transgenic Mouse Model Of Huntington’S Disease, Ashley Whitmarsh

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Huntington’s disease (HD) is a heritable, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive, and psychiatric disturbances. An unstable CAG expansion within the gene normally encoding for the Huntingtin protein is responsible. The expanded mutant form of Huntingtin and the putative protein co-factor Rhes interact and cause cell death within the striatum. We hypothesized chronic treatment with simvastatin, a cholesterol lowering drug, would disrupt the biosynthetical pathway which gives both Rhes and its target cells binding sites and render Rhes inactive. Healthy and HD mice were treated with simvastatin or a vehicle. Animals’ motor behavior was assessed with three separate tests ...


Using Expression Profiling To Understand The Effects Of Chronic Cadmium Exposure On Mcf-7 Breast Cancer Cells, Zelmina Lubovac-Pilav, Daniel M. Borras, Esmeralda Ponce, Maggie Louie Dec 2013

Using Expression Profiling To Understand The Effects Of Chronic Cadmium Exposure On Mcf-7 Breast Cancer Cells, Zelmina Lubovac-Pilav, Daniel M. Borras, Esmeralda Ponce, Maggie Louie

Collected Faculty and Staff Scholarship

Cadmium is a metalloestrogen known to activate the estrogen receptor and promote breast cancer cell growth. Previous studies have implicated cadmium in the development of more malignant tumors; however the molecular mechanisms behind this cadmium-induced malignancy remain elusive. Using clonal cell lines derived from exposing breast cancer cells to cadmium for over 6 months (MCF-7-Cd4, -Cd6, -Cd7, -Cd8 and -Cd12), this study aims to identify gene expression signatures associated with chronic cadmium exposure. Our results demonstrate that prolonged cadmium exposure does not merely result in the deregulation of genes but actually leads to a distinctive expression profile. The genes deregulated ...


Anion-Peptide Adduct Formation And Decomposition As Studied By Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (Ft-Icr) Mass Spectrometry, Xiaohua Liu Dec 2013

Anion-Peptide Adduct Formation And Decomposition As Studied By Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (Ft-Icr) Mass Spectrometry, Xiaohua Liu

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

A new “best match” match model has been developed to account for adduct formation on multiply charged peptides observed in negative ion electrospray mass spectrometry. To obtain a stable adduct, the model necessitates an approximate matching of apparent gas-phase basicity (GBapp) of a given proton bearing site on the peptide with the gas-phase basicity (GB) of the anion attaching at that site. Evidence supporting the model is derived from the fact that singly charged adducts were only observed for lower GB anions: HSO4-, I-, CF3COO-. Ions that have medium GBs (NO3-, Br-, H2PO4-) only form adducts ...


The Effects Of Salinity, Ph, Temperature, And Dissolved Oxygen On Sensitivity Of Pcr Identification Of T4 Bacteriophage, Joesph F. Cannon, Nicholas A. Thurn, Paul E. Richardson Dec 2013

The Effects Of Salinity, Ph, Temperature, And Dissolved Oxygen On Sensitivity Of Pcr Identification Of T4 Bacteriophage, Joesph F. Cannon, Nicholas A. Thurn, Paul E. Richardson

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Bacteriophages are used as indicators of pathogenic bacteria in drinking, and wastewaters. They also show potential in limiting aquatic bacterial populations through their lytic properties. The effect of different water characteristics (salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, and temperature) on the sensitivity of the PCR identification of virus particles were analyzed to determine at what levels bacteriophage can be detected in environmental samples. Results from this preliminary study indicate that a PCR bacteriophage detection technique has potential as a relatively efficient and economical indicator of coliform contamination in multiple aquatic environments. While further evaluation is needed, the protocol appears to function in ...


Prmt7 Is Dispensable In Tissue Culture Models For Adipogenic Differentiation, Yu-Jie Hu, Said Sif, Anthony N. Imbalzano Dec 2013

Prmt7 Is Dispensable In Tissue Culture Models For Adipogenic Differentiation, Yu-Jie Hu, Said Sif, Anthony N. Imbalzano

Imbalzano Lab Publications

Protein arginine methylation is a common posttranslational modification that has been implicated in numerous biological processes including gene expression. The mammalian genome encodes nine protein arginine methyltransferases (Prmts) that catalyze monomethylation, asymmetric dimethylation, and symmetric dimethylation on arginine residues. Protein arginine methyltransferase 7 (Prmt7) is categorized as a type II and type III enzyme that produces symmetric dimethylated arginine and monomethylated arginine, respectively. However, the biological role of Prmt7 is not well characterized. We previously showed that Prmt5, a type II Prmt that associates with Brg1-based SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, is required for adipocyte differentiation. Since Prmt7 also associates ...


Valproic Acid Causes Proteasomal Degradation Of Dicer And Influences Mirna Expression, Zhaiyi Zhang, Paolo Convertini, Manli Shen, Xiu Xu, Frédéric Lemoine, Pierre De La Grange, Douglas A. Andres, Stefan Stamm Dec 2013

Valproic Acid Causes Proteasomal Degradation Of Dicer And Influences Mirna Expression, Zhaiyi Zhang, Paolo Convertini, Manli Shen, Xiu Xu, Frédéric Lemoine, Pierre De La Grange, Douglas A. Andres, Stefan Stamm

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Valproic acid (VPA) is a commonly used drug to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorders. Known properties of VPA are inhibitions of histone deacetylases and activation of extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERK), which cannot fully explain VPA's clinical features. We found that VPA induces the proteasomal degradation of DICER, a key protein in the generation of micro RNAs. Unexpectedly, the concentration of several micro RNAs increases after VPA treatment, which is caused by the upregulation of their hosting genes prior to DICER degradation. The data suggest that a loss of DICER protein and changes in micro RNA concentration contributes to ...


Base Excision Repair Of Oxidative Dna Damage Coupled With Removal Of A Cag Repeat Hairpin Attenuates Trinucleotide Repeat Expansion, Meng Xu, Yanhao Lai, Justin Torner, Yanbin Zhang, Zunzhen Zhang, Yuan Liu Dec 2013

Base Excision Repair Of Oxidative Dna Damage Coupled With Removal Of A Cag Repeat Hairpin Attenuates Trinucleotide Repeat Expansion, Meng Xu, Yanhao Lai, Justin Torner, Yanbin Zhang, Zunzhen Zhang, Yuan Liu

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry

Trinucleotide repeat (TNR) expansion is responsible for numerous human neurodegenerative diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies have shown that DNA base excision repair (BER) can mediate TNR expansion and deletion by removing base lesions in different locations of a TNR tract, indicating that BER can promote or prevent TNR expansion in a damage location–dependent manner. In this study, we provide the first evidence that the repair of a DNA base lesion located in the loop region of a CAG repeat hairpin can remove the hairpin, attenuating repeat expansion. We found that an 8-oxoguanine located in the ...


Biochemical Assay Optimization And Computational Screening Efforts To Identify Potential Luxs Inhibitors, Keeshia Q. Wang Dec 2013

Biochemical Assay Optimization And Computational Screening Efforts To Identify Potential Luxs Inhibitors, Keeshia Q. Wang

Master's Theses

Quorum sensing (QS) is a process of coordination of bacterial gene expression in response to cell population. System two QS is regulated by the small signaling molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2) and is implicated in the infectious behaviors of various bacterial species. AI-2 is biosynthesized from S-ribosylhomocysteine (SRH) by the enzyme LuxS and induces interspecies cell-to-cell communication. Inhibition of LuxS would therefore inhibit interspecies QS. Herein, a search for novel molecular species that will competitively bind with SRH in the LuxS binding site is performed in silico. Computational screening results are then validated in vitro using an optimized LuxS inhibition assay.


Synthesis, Characterization, And Application Of High Surface Area, Mesoporous, Stabilized Anatase Tio2 Catalyst Supports, Rebecca Elizabeth Olsen Dec 2013

Synthesis, Characterization, And Application Of High Surface Area, Mesoporous, Stabilized Anatase Tio2 Catalyst Supports, Rebecca Elizabeth Olsen

All Theses and Dissertations

Nanomaterials have attracted substantial attention in the area of catalysis due to the unique properties they exhibit such as high surface areas, intricate pore networks and unique morphologies. TiO2 has attracted attention as a catalyst since the discovery of its high photocatalytic activity by Fuishima and Honda in 1972. Given its high thermal stability, low cost, low environmental impact, and versatility, TiO2 is a widely used commercial catalyst and catalyst support. TiO2 is used in many applications such as photocatalysis is also an excellent support material for noble metals in a number of oxidative synthesis and pollution-control reactions. Though TiO2 ...


Characterizing The Human Vaginal Microbiome Using High-Throughput Sequencing, Jean Megan E. Macklaim Dec 2013

Characterizing The Human Vaginal Microbiome Using High-Throughput Sequencing, Jean Megan E. Macklaim

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The human vaginal microbiome undoubtedly has a significant role in reproductive health and for protection from infectious organisms. Recent efforts to characterize the bacterial species of the vagina using molecular techniques have uncovered an unexpected diversity. Using high-throughput sequencing I sought to describe the structure and function of the vaginal microbiome under different physiological states including healthy, bacterial vaginosis (BV), post-menopausal vaginal atrophy, and acute vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC).

Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that healthy, asymptomatic women most often have vaginal biotas dominated by Lactobacillus iners or L. crispatus. In contrast, BV is a heterogeneous, highly diversified condition with ...


Nonlinear Spectroscopic Investigation Of Adsorption To C-18 Model Stationary Phase, Anthony D. Peterson Dec 2013

Nonlinear Spectroscopic Investigation Of Adsorption To C-18 Model Stationary Phase, Anthony D. Peterson

All Theses and Dissertations

Reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) is a commonly used separation technique in chemistry. Nevertheless, the mechanistic interactions at the molecular level among the eluent, analyte, and the stationary phase are not fully understood. Because of this limited understanding, optimization of the separation must be done experimentally. Learning more about molecular interactions should aid in improving separations. We are currently using second-harmonic generation (SHG) spectroscopy to investigate how analytes adsorb to the surface. SHG is a spectroscopic technique that produces signal only at places of non-isotropic symmetry; this typically occurs at surfaces. SHG can be used to produce surface isotherms of test ...


Exploring The Structure And Biochemistry Of Oxidation-Mediated Inhibitation Of The Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerase Pin1, Brendan T. Innes Dec 2013

Exploring The Structure And Biochemistry Of Oxidation-Mediated Inhibitation Of The Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerase Pin1, Brendan T. Innes

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Pin1 is a phosphorylation-dependent peptidyl-prolyl isomerase that has been shown to be neuroprotective in aging-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it is not active in AD brain, and a recent proteomic screen of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) brain samples revealed that Pin1 is oxidized in the brains of these pre-AD patients. This suggests that this oxidation may be the cause of the loss of the neuroprotective Pin1 function in AD. The Pin1 active site contains a functionally critical cysteine residue (Cys113) with a low predicted pKa, making it highly susceptible to oxidation. We hypothesize that Pin1 ...


Regulation Of Eukaryotic Mcm2-7 Activity, Lance F. Dasilva Dec 2013

Regulation Of Eukaryotic Mcm2-7 Activity, Lance F. Dasilva

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The transfer of genetic material from one cell generation to the next requires precise genome duplication. Aberrant DNA replication can lead to genomic instability and contribute to diseases arising from an unregulated cell cycle, such as cancer. Replicative DNA polymerases require a single-stranded (ssDNA) template from which to produce newly synthesized DNA. In eukaryotes, ssDNA is generated by the heterohexameric minichromosome maintenance 2 through 7 (Mcm2-7) replicative helicase that unwinds duplex DNA. Strict temporal separation of helicase loading and activation at multiple replication origins ensures once per cell cycle replication. The processes involved in activating Mcm2-7 to unwind DNA during ...


Making Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii A Better Model Organism: Tackling The Inefficiency Of Nuclear Transgene Expression And Improving Methods For The Generation And Characterization Of Insertional Mutant Libraries, Thomas M. Plucinak Dec 2013

Making Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii A Better Model Organism: Tackling The Inefficiency Of Nuclear Transgene Expression And Improving Methods For The Generation And Characterization Of Insertional Mutant Libraries, Thomas M. Plucinak

Theses and Dissertations in Biochemistry

The green algal species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii possesses many beneficial features that have made it a useful model organism for many decades. Many types of experimentation however are difficult to conduct with this organism due to the relative under-development of genetic tools available for use. Tasks such as transgene expression, overexpression of proteins of interest (POIs) or site specific genomic modification that are routine in other more facile microbial model organisms such as Escherichia coli and yeast are difficult to accomplish in C. reinhardtii. The second chapter of this thesis describes the development of a novel nuclear transgene expression system that ...


From Heart Beats To Health Recipes: The Role Of Fractal Physiology In The Ancestral Health Movement, Aaron P. Blaisdell, Brent Pottenger, John S. Torday Dec 2013

From Heart Beats To Health Recipes: The Role Of Fractal Physiology In The Ancestral Health Movement, Aaron P. Blaisdell, Brent Pottenger, John S. Torday

Journal of Evolution and Health

The human body—an amazing biological system that scales up fractally from its cellular building blocks—exhibits an incredible ability to self heal. Why then, are chronic diseases and degeneration on the rise in the population? Why are we sicker, more obese, and more depressed and stressed than ever before in human history? Why can’t we heal? The answers to these questions may lie in our ancestry, and modern departure from the human ecological niche. The ability to heal requires proper spatio-temporal inputs—nutrition, sleep, stress, activity, and socialization—in order for cellular signaling to occur properly across semi-permeable ...


Metabolic Remodeling And Mitochondrial Dysfunction In Maladaptive Right Ventricular Hypertrophy Secondary To Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, Jose Gomez-Arroyo Dec 2013

Metabolic Remodeling And Mitochondrial Dysfunction In Maladaptive Right Ventricular Hypertrophy Secondary To Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, Jose Gomez-Arroyo

Theses and Dissertations

Right ventricular dysfunction is the most frequent cause of death in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Although abnormal energy substrate use has been implicated in the development of chronic left heart failure, data describing such metabolic remodeling in failing right ventricular tissue remain incomplete. In the present dissertation we sought to characterize metabolic gene expression changes and mitochondrial dysfunction in functional and dysfunctional RV hypertrophy. Two different rat models of RV hypertrophy were studied. The model of right ventricular failure (SU5416/hypoxia) exhibited a significantly decreased gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- coactivator-1α, peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor-α and estrogen-related receptor-α ...


Functional Analysis Of The Acetic Acid Resistance (Aar) Gene Cluster In Acetobacter Aceti Strain 1023, Elwood Mullins, T Joseph Kappock Dec 2013

Functional Analysis Of The Acetic Acid Resistance (Aar) Gene Cluster In Acetobacter Aceti Strain 1023, Elwood Mullins, T Joseph Kappock

Department of Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Vinegar production requires acetic acid bacteria that produce, tolerate, and conserve high levels of acetic acid. When ethanol is depleted, aerobic acetate overoxidation to carbon dioxide ensues. The resulting diauxic growth pattern has two logarithmic growth phases, the first associated with ethanol oxidation and the second associated with acetate overoxidation. The vinegar factory isolate Acetobacter aceti strain 1023 has a long intermediate stationary phase that persists at elevated acetic acid levels. Strain 1023 conserves acetic acid despite possessing a complete set of citric acid cycle (CAC) enzymes, including succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (SCACT), the product of the acetic acid resistance (aar ...


Hdac6 Regulates Tip60-P400 Function In Stem Cells, Poshen B. Chen, Jui-Hung Hung, Taylor L. Hickman, Andrew H. Coles, James F. Carey, Zhiping Weng, Feixia Chu, Thomas G. Fazzio Dec 2013

Hdac6 Regulates Tip60-P400 Function In Stem Cells, Poshen B. Chen, Jui-Hung Hung, Taylor L. Hickman, Andrew H. Coles, James F. Carey, Zhiping Weng, Feixia Chu, Thomas G. Fazzio

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations

In embryonic stem cells (ESCs), the Tip60 histone acetyltransferase activates genes required for proliferation and silences genes that promote differentiation. Here we show that the class II histone deacetylase Hdac6 co-purifies with Tip60-p400 complex from ESCs. Hdac6 is necessary for regulation of most Tip60-p400 target genes, particularly those repressed by the complex. Unlike differentiated cells, where Hdac6 is mainly cytoplasmic, Hdac6 is largely nuclear in ESCs, neural stem cells (NSCs), and some cancer cell lines, and interacts with Tip60-p400 in each. Hdac6 localizes to promoters bound by Tip60-p400 in ESCs, binding downstream of transcription start sites. Surprisingly, Hdac6 does not ...


Regulation Of Satiety Quiescence: Cyclic Gmp, Tgf Beta, And The Asi Neuron, Thomas Gallagher Dec 2013

Regulation Of Satiety Quiescence: Cyclic Gmp, Tgf Beta, And The Asi Neuron, Thomas Gallagher

Theses and Dissertations

The worm Caenorhabditis elegans is a well-studied model organism in numerous aspects of its biology. This small free living nematode has less than 1,000 cells, but shows clear conservation in both signaling and behavior to mammals in aspects of appetite control. This is of importance to humans, where failure of appetite control is a major factor in the unprecedented obesity epidemic that we see today. In general, worm behavior reflects its internal nutritional state and the availability and quality of food. Specifically, worms show a behavioral state that mimics aspects of the mammalian behavioral satiety sequence, which has been ...


Effects Of Water Availability And Pest Pressures On Tea (Camellia Sinensis) Growth And Functional Quality, Selena Ahmed, Colin M. Orians, Timothy S. Griffin, Sarabeth Buckley, Uchenna Unachukwu, Anne Elise Stratton, John Richard Stepp, Albert Robbat Jr, Sean Cash, Edward J. Kennelly Dec 2013

Effects Of Water Availability And Pest Pressures On Tea (Camellia Sinensis) Growth And Functional Quality, Selena Ahmed, Colin M. Orians, Timothy S. Griffin, Sarabeth Buckley, Uchenna Unachukwu, Anne Elise Stratton, John Richard Stepp, Albert Robbat Jr, Sean Cash, Edward J. Kennelly

Publications and Research

Extreme shifts in water availability linked to global climate change are impacting crops worldwide. The present study examines the direct and interactive effects of water availability and pest pressures on tea (Camellia sinensis; Theaceae) growth and functional quality. Manipulative greenhouse experiments were used to measure the effects of variable water availability and pest pressures simulated by jasmonic acid (JA) on tea leaf growth and secondary metabolites that determine tea quality. Water treatments were simulated to replicate ideal tea growing conditions and extreme precipitation events in tropical southwestern China, a major centre of tea production. Results show that higher water availability ...


Comparative Lipid Profiles Of Milk Bank Breast Milk And Infant Formulas, Anya Oleynik, Tatiana Eliseeva, Jack Y. Vanderhoek Dec 2013

Comparative Lipid Profiles Of Milk Bank Breast Milk And Infant Formulas, Anya Oleynik, Tatiana Eliseeva, Jack Y. Vanderhoek

Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine Faculty Publications

Lipid profiles of seven human breast milk samples obtained from milk banks and four infant formulas were compared in view of the potential food hypersensitivities of certain infants to human milk.The cholesterol (0.15-0.26 mM) content of the human samples was about 50% lower than that found in the infant formulas whereas the triglyceride (TG, 173-386 mM) contents of these products were found to be comparable.The major saturated fatty acid (SFA) and mono-unsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) were 16:0 and 18:1 respectively. The major poly-unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) was 18:2 with otherPUFA members of the ...


Formation And Analysis Of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles And Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Prisms And Optical Analysis Of Cadmium Selenide Nanoparticles, Jared M. Hancock Dec 2013

Formation And Analysis Of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles And Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Prisms And Optical Analysis Of Cadmium Selenide Nanoparticles, Jared M. Hancock

All Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, methods to synthesize ZnO are reported. First, zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized with small amounts of transition metal ions to create materials called dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS). We employed a low temperature sol-gel method that produces ZnO nanoparticles of reproducible size and incorporates cobalt, nickel, and manganese ions into the nanoparticles. Conditions were controlled such that a range of amounts of Co, Ni, and Mn were incorporated. The incorporation was tracked by color changes in the white ZnO powder to blue for Co, green for Ni and yellow for Mn. XRD measurements showed the nanoparticles were on ...


The Role Of Gap-43 Phosphorylation In Axon Behavior In The Developing Zebrafish Visual System, Jennifer Forecki Dec 2013

The Role Of Gap-43 Phosphorylation In Axon Behavior In The Developing Zebrafish Visual System, Jennifer Forecki

Theses and Dissertations

Developing neurons extend processes to specific targets and establish connections that are essential for future function of the nervous system. One of these processes, the axon, has a motile tip called a growth cone that rearranges its membrane-associated actin cytoskeleton to turn toward or away from environmental guidance cues. Growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43) is one of the most abundant proteins associated with axonal growth cone membranes and is known to modulate the formation and stability of the actin cytoskeleton during axon guidance. Protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated phosphorylation of GAP-43 on serine 42 regulates its interactions with actin. Phosphorylated ...


Structure And Function Of Proteins Investigated By Crystallographic And Spectroscopic Time-Resolved Methods, Namrta Purwar Dec 2013

Structure And Function Of Proteins Investigated By Crystallographic And Spectroscopic Time-Resolved Methods, Namrta Purwar

Theses and Dissertations

Biomolecules play an essential role in performing the necessary functions for life. The goal of this thesis is to contribute to an understanding of how biological systems work on the molecular level. We used two biological systems, beef liver catalase (BLC) and photoactive yellow protein (PYP). BLC is a metalloprotein that protects living cells from the harmful effects of reactive oxygen species by converting H2O2 into water and oxygen. By binding nitric oxide (NO) to the catalase, a complex was generated that mimics the Cat-H2O2 adduct, a crucial intermediate in the reaction promoted by the catalase. The Cat-NO complex is ...


The Gating Charge Should Not Be Estimated By Fitting A Two-State Model To A Q-V Curve, Francisco Bezanilla, Carlos A. Villalba-Galea Dec 2013

The Gating Charge Should Not Be Estimated By Fitting A Two-State Model To A Q-V Curve, Francisco Bezanilla, Carlos A. Villalba-Galea

School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences Faculty Articles

The voltage dependence of charges in voltage-sensitive proteins, typically displayed as charge versus voltage (Q-V) curves, is often quantified by fitting it to a simple two-state Boltzmann function. This procedure overlooks the fact that the fitted parameters, including the total charge, may be incorrect if the charge is moving in multiple steps. We present here the derivation of a general formulation for Q-V curves from multistate sequential models, including the case of infinite number of states. We demonstrate that the commonly used method to estimate the charge per molecule using a simple Boltzmann fit is not only inadequate, but in ...


Evaluation Of Vdr-Coactivator Inhibitors Using Biochemical And Cell-Based Assays, Athena Marie Baranowski Dec 2013

Evaluation Of Vdr-Coactivator Inhibitors Using Biochemical And Cell-Based Assays, Athena Marie Baranowski

Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

EVALUATION OF VDR–COACTIVATOR INHIBITORS USING BIOCHEMICAL AND CELL–BASED ASSAYS

by

Athena Baranowski

The University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, 2013

Under the Supervision of Dr. Alexander Arnold

The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a ligand–dependent transcription factor, which belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily. VDR–mediated gene regulation is governed by coregulators (coactivators and corepressors). VDR coregulator binding inhibitors (CBIs), which were discovered using high throughput screening (HTS), were evaluated using cell–based assays and biochemical assays to determine their ability to inhibit the interaction between VDR and steroid receptor coactivator–2 (SRC–2). Determining their ability to ...