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2012

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Articles 1 - 30 of 787

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Preclinical Single-Dose Safety And Pharmacokinetic Evaluation Of Fluorocoxib A: Pilot Study Of Novel Cyclooxygenase-2-Targeted Optical Imaging Agent In A Canine Model, Maria Cekanova, M Uddin, Alfred Legendre, Gina Gaylon, Joseph Bartges, Amanda Callens, L Marnett May 2013

Preclinical Single-Dose Safety And Pharmacokinetic Evaluation Of Fluorocoxib A: Pilot Study Of Novel Cyclooxygenase-2-Targeted Optical Imaging Agent In A Canine Model, Maria Cekanova, M Uddin, Alfred Legendre, Gina Gaylon, Joseph Bartges, Amanda Callens, L Marnett

Alfred M Legendre DVM, MS, DACVIM

We evaluated preclinical single-dose safety, pharmacokinetic properties, and specific uptake of the new optical imaging agent fluorocoxib A in dogs. Fluorocoxib A, N-[(5-carboxy-X-rhodaminyl)but-4-yl]-2-[1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl]acetamide, selectively binds and inhibits the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme, which is overexpressed in many cancers. Safety pilot studies were performed in research dogs following intravenous (i.v.) administration of 0.1 and 1  mg/kg fluorocoxib A. Blood and urine samples collected three days after administration of each dose of fluorocoxib A revealed no evidence of toxicity, and no clinically relevant adverse events were noted on physical examination of exposed dogs ...


13c-Metabolic Flux Analysis Of Soybean Somatic Embryos For Identification Of Metabolic Control Points In Developing Seed, Quyen Xuan Truong Dec 2012

13c-Metabolic Flux Analysis Of Soybean Somatic Embryos For Identification Of Metabolic Control Points In Developing Seed, Quyen Xuan Truong

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Of the world's major agronomic food crops soybeans rank highest in protein content (~40% Dwt) while also containing significant quantities of oil (~20% Dwt). Based on these unique characteristics soy has become a mainstay in world agriculture, providing a protein source for livestock and human nutrition (68% of global vegetable protein meal consumption in 2011) as well as a primary source of vegetable oil (28% of global vegetable oil consumption in 2011; http://www.soystats.com/2012). The value of soy is therefore found both in its oil and protein content and increasing the content of both is therefore ...


Strand-Specific Libraries For High Throughput Rna Sequencing (Rna-Seq) Prepared Without Poly(A) Selection, Zhao Zhang, William E. Theurkauf, Zhiping Weng, Phillip D. Zamore Dec 2012

Strand-Specific Libraries For High Throughput Rna Sequencing (Rna-Seq) Prepared Without Poly(A) Selection, Zhao Zhang, William E. Theurkauf, Zhiping Weng, Phillip D. Zamore

Program in Bioinformatics and Integrative Biology Publications and Presentations

BACKGROUND: High throughput DNA sequencing technology has enabled quantification of all the RNAs in a cell or tissue, a method widely known as RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). However, non-coding RNAs such as rRNA are highly abundant and can consume >70% of sequencing reads. A common approach is to extract only polyadenylated mRNA; however, such approaches are blind to RNAs with short or no poly(A) tails, leading to an incomplete view of the transcriptome. Another challenge of preparing RNA-Seq libraries is to preserve the strand information of the RNAs.

DESIGN: Here, we describe a procedure for preparing RNA-Seq libraries from 1 ...


Morc2 Signaling Integrates Phosphorylation-Dependent, Atpase-Coupled Chromatin Remodeling During The Dna Damage Response, Da-Qiang Li, Sujit S. Nair, Kazufumi Ohshiro, Anupam Kumar, Vasudha S. Nair, Suresh B. Pakala, Sirigiri Divijendra Natha Reddy, Rajendra P. Gajula, Jeyanthy Eswaran, L. Aravind, Rakesh Kumar Dec 2012

Morc2 Signaling Integrates Phosphorylation-Dependent, Atpase-Coupled Chromatin Remodeling During The Dna Damage Response, Da-Qiang Li, Sujit S. Nair, Kazufumi Ohshiro, Anupam Kumar, Vasudha S. Nair, Suresh B. Pakala, Sirigiri Divijendra Natha Reddy, Rajendra P. Gajula, Jeyanthy Eswaran, L. Aravind, Rakesh Kumar

Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine Faculty Publications

Chromatin dynamics play a central role in maintaining genome integrity, but how this is achieved remains largely unknown. Here, we report that microrchidia CW-type zinc finger 2 (MORC2), an uncharacterized protein with a derived PHD finger domain and a conserved GHKL-type ATPase module, is a physiological substrate of p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), an important integrator of extracellular signals and nuclear processes. Following DNA damage, MORC2 is phosphorylated on serine 739 in a PAK1-dependent manner, and phosphorylated MORC2 regulates its DNA-dependent ATPase activity to facilitate chromatin remodeling. Moreover, MORC2 associates with chromatin and promotes gamma-H2AX induction in a PAK1 phosphorylation-dependent manner ...


16s Ribosomal Dna Sequencing Confirms The Synonymy Of Vibrio Harveyi And V. Carchariae, Eric J. Gauger, Marta Gomez-Chiarri Dec 2012

16s Ribosomal Dna Sequencing Confirms The Synonymy Of Vibrio Harveyi And V. Carchariae, Eric J. Gauger, Marta Gomez-Chiarri

Marta Gomez-Chiarri

Seventeen bacterial strains previously identified as Vibrio harveyi (Baumann et al. 1981) or V. carchariae (Grimes et al. 1984) and the type strains of V. harveyi, V. carchariae and V. campbellii were analyzed by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing. Four clusters were identified in a phylogenetic analysis performed by comparing a 746 base pair fragment of the 16S rDNA and previously published sequences of other closely related Vibrio species. The type strains of V. harveyi and V. carchariae and about half of the strains identified as V. harveyi or V. carchariae formed a single, wellsupported cluster designed as ‘bona fide ...


Cloning, Expression, And Characterization Of Ara H 3, A Major Peanut Allergen, Cathryn E. Garvey Dec 2012

Cloning, Expression, And Characterization Of Ara H 3, A Major Peanut Allergen, Cathryn E. Garvey

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Abstract There are eight foods that contribute to food allergies in the western world and peanut is the most common. Currently, there are no medical treatments that can cure an individual of food allergy, so avoidance of the allergic food is the only option. In the United States, there are three immunodominant allergic proteins accountable for patient sensitization to peanut, Arachis hypogea 1, 2, and 3 (Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3). Therefore, research into why peanuts are more allergic than other foods that have homologous proteins is critical and may be obtained by studying the structural ...


Nuclear Pore Component Nup98 Is A Potential Tumor Suppressor And Regulates Posttranscriptional Expression Of Select P53 Target Genes, Stephan Singer, Ruiying Zhao, Anthony M. Barsotti, Anette Ouwehand, Mina Fazollahi, Elias Coutavas, Kai Breuhahn, Olaf Neumann, Thomas Longerich, Tobias Pusterla, Maureen A. Powers, Keith M. Giles, Peter J. Leedman, Jochen Hess, David Grunwald, Harmen J. Bussemaker, Robert H. Singer, Peter Schirmacher, Carol Prives Dec 2012

Nuclear Pore Component Nup98 Is A Potential Tumor Suppressor And Regulates Posttranscriptional Expression Of Select P53 Target Genes, Stephan Singer, Ruiying Zhao, Anthony M. Barsotti, Anette Ouwehand, Mina Fazollahi, Elias Coutavas, Kai Breuhahn, Olaf Neumann, Thomas Longerich, Tobias Pusterla, Maureen A. Powers, Keith M. Giles, Peter J. Leedman, Jochen Hess, David Grunwald, Harmen J. Bussemaker, Robert H. Singer, Peter Schirmacher, Carol Prives

Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology Publications and Presentations

The p53 tumor suppressor utilizes multiple mechanisms to selectively regulate its myriad target genes, which in turn mediate diverse cellular processes. Here, using conventional and single-molecule mRNA analyses, we demonstrate that the nucleoporin Nup98 is required for full expression of p21, a key effector of the p53 pathway, but not several other p53 target genes. Nup98 regulates p21 mRNA levels by a posttranscriptional mechanism in which a complex containing Nup98 and the p21 mRNA 3'UTR protects p21 mRNA from degradation by the exosome. An in silico approach revealed another p53 target (14-3-3sigma) to be similarly regulated by Nup98. The ...


Evolution Of Repetitive Proteins: Spider Silks From Nephila Clavipes (Tetragnathidae) And Araneus Bicentenarius (Araneidae), Richard D. Beckwitt, Steven Arcidiacono, Robert Stote Dec 2012

Evolution Of Repetitive Proteins: Spider Silks From Nephila Clavipes (Tetragnathidae) And Araneus Bicentenarius (Araneidae), Richard D. Beckwitt, Steven Arcidiacono, Robert Stote

Richard D Beckwitt

Spider silks are highly repetitive proteins, characterized by regions of polyalanine and glycine-rich repeating units. We have obtained two variants of the Spidroin 1 (NCF-1) silk gene sequence from Nephila clavipes. One sequence (1726 bp) was from a cloned cDNA, and the other (1951 bp) was from PCR of genomic DNA. When these sequences are compared with each other and the previously published Spidroin 1 sequence, there are differences due to sequence rearrangements, as well as single base substitutions. These variations are similar to those that have been reported from other highly repetitive genes, and probably represent the results of ...


Functional Genomic Investigation Of Aromatic Aminotransferases Involved In Ephedrine Alkaloid Biosynthesis In Ephedra Sinica (Stapf), Korey G. Kilpatrick Dec 2012

Functional Genomic Investigation Of Aromatic Aminotransferases Involved In Ephedrine Alkaloid Biosynthesis In Ephedra Sinica (Stapf), Korey G. Kilpatrick

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Ephedra sinica (Ephedraceae) is a broom-like shrub cultivated in arid regions of China, Korea and Japan. This medicinal plant accumulates large amounts of the ephedrine alkaloids, including (S)-cathinone, (1R,2S)-norephedrine, (1R,2S)-ephedrine and (1S,2S)-pseudoephedrine in its aerial tissues. These analogues of amphetamine mimic adrenaline and stimulate the sympathetic nervous system. While much is known about their pharmacological properties, the biological mechanisms by which they are synthesized remains largely unknown. A functional genomics platform was established in order to investigate alkaloid biosynthesis. RNA was extracted from Ephedra sinica stems and ...


Crystal Structures And Kinetics Of Monofunctional Proline Dehydrogenase Provide Insight Into Substrate Recognition And Conformational Changes Associated With Flavin Reduction And Product Release, Min Luo, Benjamin W. Arentson, Dhiraj Srivastava, Donald F. Becker, John J. Tanner Dec 2012

Crystal Structures And Kinetics Of Monofunctional Proline Dehydrogenase Provide Insight Into Substrate Recognition And Conformational Changes Associated With Flavin Reduction And Product Release, Min Luo, Benjamin W. Arentson, Dhiraj Srivastava, Donald F. Becker, John J. Tanner

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Proline dehydrogenase catalyzes the FAD-dependent oxidation of proline to Δ1- pyrroline-5- carboxylate, which is the first step of proline catabolism. Here, we report the structures of proline dehydrogenase from Deinococcus radiodurans in the oxidized state complexed with the proline analog L-tetrahydrofuroic acid and in the reduced state with the proline site vacant. The analog binds against the si face of the FAD isoalloxazine and is protected from bulk solvent by the α8 helix and the β1-α1 loop. The FAD ribityl chain adopts two conformations in the E-S complex, which is unprecedented for flavoenzymes. One of the conformations is novel for ...


Microfluidic Devices With Integrated Sample Preparation For Improved Analysis Of Protein Biomarkers, Pamela Nsang Nge Dec 2012

Microfluidic Devices With Integrated Sample Preparation For Improved Analysis Of Protein Biomarkers, Pamela Nsang Nge

Theses and Dissertations

Biomarkers present a non-invasive means of detecting cancer because they can be obtained from body fluids. They can also be used for prognosis and assessing response to treatment. To limit interferences it is essential to pretreat biological samples before analysis. Sample preparation methods include extraction of analyte from an unsuitable matrix, purification, concentration or dilution and labeling. The many advantages offered by microfluidics include portability, speed, automation and integration. Because of the difficulties encountered in integrating this step in microfluidic devices most sample preparation methods are often carried out off-chip. In the fabrication of micro-total analysis systems it is important ...


Involvement Of Interleukin-33/St2 In Myocardial Dysfunction In Murine Model Of Sepsis, Yoonmi Choe Dec 2012

Involvement Of Interleukin-33/St2 In Myocardial Dysfunction In Murine Model Of Sepsis, Yoonmi Choe

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The disruption of myocardial extracellular matrix (ECM) has been implicated in myocardial dysfunction during sepsis. However, the underlying mechanism(s) are not clear. Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a cytokine which regulates collagen synthesis in various cardiac pathologies. The purpose of the present study is to test whether IL-33 contributes to sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction through regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). The in vivo, feces-induced peritonitis (FIP) in mice and in vitro lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatments to isolated cardiomyocytes were used. In FIP mice, myocardial IL-33 and MMP-9 expression were increased and myocardial contractility was decreased. Myocardial function in FIP mice was improved when ...


Transcription-Coupled Dna Supercoiling In Escherichia Coli: Mechanisms And Biological Functions, Xiaoduo Zhi Dec 2012

Transcription-Coupled Dna Supercoiling In Escherichia Coli: Mechanisms And Biological Functions, Xiaoduo Zhi

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Transcription by RNA polymerase can induce the formation of hypernegatively supercoiled DNA both in vivo and in vitro. This phenomenon has been explained by a “twin-supercoiled-domain” model of transcription where a positively supercoiled domain is generated ahead of the RNA polymerase and a negatively supercoiled domain behind it. In E. coli cells, transcription-induced topological change of chromosomal DNA is expected to actively remodel chromosomal structure and greatly influence DNA transactions such as transcription, DNA replication, and recombination.

In this study, an IPTG-inducible, two-plasmid system was established to study transcription-coupled DNA supercoiling (TCDS) in E. coli topA strains. By performing topology ...


Us Patent #8,326,389 - A System For In Vivo Biosensing Based On The Optical Response, Arthur Epstein, Louis R. Nemzer Dec 2012

Us Patent #8,326,389 - A System For In Vivo Biosensing Based On The Optical Response, Arthur Epstein, Louis R. Nemzer

Louis R Nemzer

A system for continuous in vivo biosensing of specific analyte molecule concentrations based on the dynamic optical properties of electronic polymers is disclosed. The biosensor system includes at least one implant member subcutaneously exposed to the interstitial fluid of the subject, and a reader member at least temporarily positioned over the implant member to probe it with light of specific wavelengths through the skin. The system has many potential applications, including the real-time monitoring of blood glucose levels in diabetics as a method to supplement or replace conventional capillary blood testing.


Investigation Of The Quaternary Structure Of An Abc Transporter In Living Cells Using Spectrally Resolved Resonance Energy Transfer, Deo R. Singh Dec 2012

Investigation Of The Quaternary Structure Of An Abc Transporter In Living Cells Using Spectrally Resolved Resonance Energy Transfer, Deo R. Singh

Theses and Dissertations

Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) has become an important tool to study proteins inside living cells. It has been used to explore membrane protein folding and dynamics, determine stoichiometry and geometry of protein complexes, and measure the distance between two molecules. In this dissertation, we use a method based on FRET and optical micro-spectroscopy (OptiMiS) technology, developed in our lab, to probe the structure of dynamic (as opposed to static) protein complexes in living cells. We use this method to determine the association stoichiometry and quaternary structure of an ABC transporter in living cells. Specifically, the transporter we investigate originates ...


Spatial Patterns Of Mercury In Atmospheric Deposition, Soils And Lake Biota In The Adirondack Park, New York, Xue Yu Dec 2012

Spatial Patterns Of Mercury In Atmospheric Deposition, Soils And Lake Biota In The Adirondack Park, New York, Xue Yu

Civil and Environmental Engineering - Dissertations

Mercury (Hg), as a trace element cycling in the environment, poses a serious health threat to both humans and wildlife due to its toxicity. Atmospheric deposition is the main source of Hg to most remote environments. The Adirondack Park in New York State of the United States receives moderate Hg deposition, and is a region characterized by relatively high concentrations of Hg in the terrestrial and especially aquatic biota. It is important to understand the mechanisms that contribute to the sensitivity of this region to Hg inputs. In my research, studies of the spatial patterns of Hg in atmospheric deposition ...


Part 1. Design And Synthesis Of Cysteine/Cystine Prodrugs And Bioisosteres Including Symmetrical And Unsymmetrical Disulfides Designed To Increase Cystine Levels In The Cns In Order To Drive The Cystine/Glutamate Antiporter: A Novel Treatment For Schizophrenia And Drug Addiction. Part 2. Design And Synthesis Of Subtype Selective Ester Bioisosteres Of Bzr Ligands For Gabaa/Benzodiazepine Receptors To Enhance Metabolic Stability, Edward Merle Johnson Ii Dec 2012

Part 1. Design And Synthesis Of Cysteine/Cystine Prodrugs And Bioisosteres Including Symmetrical And Unsymmetrical Disulfides Designed To Increase Cystine Levels In The Cns In Order To Drive The Cystine/Glutamate Antiporter: A Novel Treatment For Schizophrenia And Drug Addiction. Part 2. Design And Synthesis Of Subtype Selective Ester Bioisosteres Of Bzr Ligands For Gabaa/Benzodiazepine Receptors To Enhance Metabolic Stability, Edward Merle Johnson Ii

Theses and Dissertations

Part 1. Schizophrenia is a debilitating disorder that affects almost 1% of the world's population; pharmacotherapy expenditures for this disorder exceed $10 billion dollars even though existing medications exhibit a poor safety/efficacy profile. It is estimated that 75% of patients discontinue drug treatment, in part due to poor safety/efficacy. The current data set demonstrates that cysteine prodrug NAC reverse the behavioral and neurochemical effects of PCP used to model schizophrenia.

As a result cysteine prodrugs represent a highly novel approach to treating schizophrenia; indeed, these compounds may ultimately be more effective than existing medications because these drugs ...


Reversible Inhibition Of Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection In Epithelial Cells Due To Stimulation Of P2x4 Receptors, Matthew A. Pettengill, Camila Marques-Da-Silva, Maria Luisa Avila, Verissa W. Lam, Ikechukwu Ollawa, Ali Abdul-Sater, Robson Coutinho-Silva, Georg Hacker, David M. Ojcius, Suellen D'Arc Dos Santos Oliveira Dec 2012

Reversible Inhibition Of Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection In Epithelial Cells Due To Stimulation Of P2x4 Receptors, Matthew A. Pettengill, Camila Marques-Da-Silva, Maria Luisa Avila, Verissa W. Lam, Ikechukwu Ollawa, Ali Abdul-Sater, Robson Coutinho-Silva, Georg Hacker, David M. Ojcius, Suellen D'Arc Dos Santos Oliveira

Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles

Bacterial infections of the mucosal epithelium are a major cause of human disease. The prolonged presence of microbial pathogens stimulates inflammation of the local tissues, which leads to changes in the molecular composition of the extracellular milieu. A well-characterized molecule that is released to the extracellular milieu by stressed or infected cells is extracellular ATP and its ecto-enzymatic degradation products, which function as signaling molecules through ligation of purinergic receptors. There has been little information, however, on the effects of the extracellular metabolites on bacterial growth in inflamed tissues. Millimolar concentrations of ATP have been previously shown to inhibit irreversibly ...


Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Neonatal Oocyte Survival And Primordial Follicle Formation In The Mouse Ovary, Robin L. Jones Dec 2012

Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Neonatal Oocyte Survival And Primordial Follicle Formation In The Mouse Ovary, Robin L. Jones

Biology - Dissertations

In mammals, formation of the primordial follicle is a complex process involving the breakdown of germ cell cysts, where oocytes must separate from each other and subsequently become surrounded by somatic cells. As cysts separate, a large number of germ cells are lost by apoptosis, however the mechanisms by which cyst breakdown and germ cell death occur are not well understood. We first hypothesized that two anti-apoptotic regulators from the BCL2 family of proteins, BCL2 and MCL1, may be responsible for regulating neonatal oocyte survival. To elucidate the effects of BCL2 in the neonatal ovary, we examined ovaries of both ...


Gene Expression Response In Early Developmental Stages Of Rainbow Trout Exposed To Ecologically Relevant Concentrations Of Malathion, Susan Miller Dec 2012

Gene Expression Response In Early Developmental Stages Of Rainbow Trout Exposed To Ecologically Relevant Concentrations Of Malathion, Susan Miller

Theses and Dissertations

Understanding the early life stage toxic effects of environmental organophosphate exposure on organism health is crucial to identifying biomarkers that can be used for preventative care. Malathion, a potent organophosphate, is one of the most widely used organophosphates in agriculture and pest eradication. Due to its widespread use, pesticide runoff into area bodies of water poses a great threat to aquatic life and human inhabitants. Acute exposure to high concentrations of malathion causes neurological abnormalities and can result in respiratory failure, muscle spasms, and mental confusion in humans.

In the present study, the effects of malathion are observed following acute ...


A Study On The Function Of 14-3-3sigma In Regulating Cancer Energy Metabolism, Liem M. Phan, Liem M. Phan Dec 2012

A Study On The Function Of 14-3-3sigma In Regulating Cancer Energy Metabolism, Liem M. Phan, Liem M. Phan

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Metabolic reprogramming has been shown to be a major cancer hallmark providing tumor cells with significant advantages for survival, proliferation, growth, metastasis and resistance against anti-cancer therapies. Glycolysis, glutaminolysis and mitochondrial biogenesis are among the most essential cancer metabolic alterations because these pathways provide cancer cells with not only energy but also crucial metabolites to support large-scale biosynthesis, rapid proliferation and tumorigenesis. In this study, we find that 14-3-3σ suppresses all these three metabolic processes by promoting the degradation of their main driver, c-Myc. In fact, 14-3-3s significantly enhances c-Myc poly-ubiquitination and subsequent degradation, reduces c-Myc transcriptional activity, and down-regulates ...


Trim24-Regulated Estrogen Response Is Dependent On Specific Histone Modifications In Breast Cancer Cells, Teresa T. Yiu Dec 2012

Trim24-Regulated Estrogen Response Is Dependent On Specific Histone Modifications In Breast Cancer Cells, Teresa T. Yiu

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

In this dissertation, I discovered that function of TRIM24 as a co-activator

of ERα-mediated transcriptional activation is dependent on specific histone

modifications in tumorigenic human breast cancer-derived MCF7 cells. In the first

part, I proved that TRIM24-PHD finger domain, which recognizes unmethylated

histone H3 lysine K4 (H3K4me0), is critical for ERα-regulated transcription.

Therefore, when LSD1-mediated demethylation of H3K4 is inhibited, activation of

TRIM24-regulated ERα target genes is greatly impaired. Importantly, I

demonstrated that TRIM24 and LSD1 are cyclically recruited to estrogen

responsive elements (EREs) in a time-dependent manner upon estrogen

induction, and depletion of their expression exert corresponding time-dependent

effect ...


Functional Analysis Of Drosophila Integrator Complex In Snrna 3' End Processing, Jiandong Chen Dec 2012

Functional Analysis Of Drosophila Integrator Complex In Snrna 3' End Processing, Jiandong Chen

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Uridine-rich small nuclear RNAs (U snRNAs) play essential roles in eukaryotic gene expression by facilitating the removal of introns from mRNA precursors and the processing of the replication-dependent histone pre-mRNAs. Formation of the 3’ end of these snRNAs is carried out by a poorly characterized, twelve-membered protein complex named Integrator Complex.

In the effort to understand Integrator Complex function in the formation of the snRNA 3’ end, we performed a functional RNAi screen in Drosophila S2 cells to identify protein factors required for snRNA 3’ end formation. This screen was conducted by using a fluorescence-based reporter that elicits GFP expression ...


Biochemical Characterization Of Binding Partners Of Two Hsp70 Co-Chaperones In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Jacob Verghese Dec 2012

Biochemical Characterization Of Binding Partners Of Two Hsp70 Co-Chaperones In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Jacob Verghese

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cells are exposed to a variety of environmental and physiological changes including temperature, pH and nutrient availability. These changes cause stress to cells, which results in protein misfolding and altered cellular protein homeostasis. How proteins fold into their three-dimensional functional structure is a fundamental biological process with important relevance to human health. Misfolded and aggregated proteins are linked to multiple neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular disease and cystic fibrosis. To combat proteotoxic stress, cells deploy an array of molecular chaperones that assist in the repair or removal of misfolded proteins.

Hsp70, an evolutionarily conserved molecular chaperone, promotes protein folding and helps maintain ...


Secondary Structure, A Missing Component Of Sequence- Based Minimotif Definitions, David P. Sargeant, Michael R. Gryk, Mark W. Maciejewsk, Vishal Thapar, Vamsi Kundeti, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Pedro Romero, Keith Dunker, Shun-Cheng Li, Tomonori Kaneko, Martin Schiller Dec 2012

Secondary Structure, A Missing Component Of Sequence- Based Minimotif Definitions, David P. Sargeant, Michael R. Gryk, Mark W. Maciejewsk, Vishal Thapar, Vamsi Kundeti, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Pedro Romero, Keith Dunker, Shun-Cheng Li, Tomonori Kaneko, Martin Schiller

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

Minimotifs are short contiguous segments of proteins that have a known biological function. The hundreds of thousands of minimotifs discovered thus far are an important part of the theoretical understanding of the specificity of protein-protein interactions, posttranslational modifications, and signal transduction that occur in cells. However, a longstanding problem is that the different abstractions of the sequence definitions do not accurately capture the specificity, despite decades of effort by many labs. We present evidence that structure is an essential component of minimotif specificity, yet is not used in minimotif definitions. Our analysis of several known minimotifs as case studies, analysis ...


Genome-Wide Association Study For Oat (Avena Sativa L.) Beta-Glucan Concentration Using Germplasm Of Worldwide Origin, Mark A. Newell, Franco G. Asoro, M. Paul Scott, Pamela J. White, William D. Beavis, Jean-Luc Jannink Dec 2012

Genome-Wide Association Study For Oat (Avena Sativa L.) Beta-Glucan Concentration Using Germplasm Of Worldwide Origin, Mark A. Newell, Franco G. Asoro, M. Paul Scott, Pamela J. White, William D. Beavis, Jean-Luc Jannink

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling complex traits followed by selection has become a common approach for selection in crop plants. The QTL are most often identified by linkage mapping using experimental F2, backcross, advanced inbred, or doubled haploid families. An alternative approach for QTL detection are genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that use pre-existing lines such as those found in breeding programs. We explored the implementation of GWAS in oat (Avena sativa L.) to identify QTL affecting β-glucan concentration, a soluble dietary fiber with several human health benefits when consumed as a whole grain. A total of 431 lines ...


Tumour Inflammasome-Derived Il-1b Recruits Neutrophils And Improves Local Recurrence-Free Survival In Ebv-Induced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, Lih-Chyang Chen, Li-Jie Wang, Nang-Ming Tsang, David M. Ojcius, Chia-Chen Chen, Chun-Nan Ouyang, Chuen Hsueh, Ying Liang, Kai-Ping Chang, Chiu-Chin Chen, Yu-Sun Chang Dec 2012

Tumour Inflammasome-Derived Il-1b Recruits Neutrophils And Improves Local Recurrence-Free Survival In Ebv-Induced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, Lih-Chyang Chen, Li-Jie Wang, Nang-Ming Tsang, David M. Ojcius, Chia-Chen Chen, Chun-Nan Ouyang, Chuen Hsueh, Ying Liang, Kai-Ping Chang, Chiu-Chin Chen, Yu-Sun Chang

Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles

Inflammasomes sense infection and cellular damage and are critical for triggering inflammation through IL-1β production. In carcinogenesis, inflammasomes may have contradictory roles through facilitating antitumour immunity and inducing oncogenic factors. Their function in cancer remains poorly characterized. Here we show that the NLRP3, AIM2 and RIG-I inflammasomes are overexpressed in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and expression levels correlate with patient survival. In tumour cells, AIM2 and RIG-I are required for IL-1β induction by EBV genomic DNA and EBV-encoded small RNAs, respectively, while NLRP3 responds to extracellular ATP and reactive oxygen species. Irradiation and chemotherapy can further activate ...


A Genetic, Transgenic, And Transcriptomic Analysis Of Larval Salivary Gland Physiology In Drosophila Melanogaster, Elana A. Paladino Dec 2012

A Genetic, Transgenic, And Transcriptomic Analysis Of Larval Salivary Gland Physiology In Drosophila Melanogaster, Elana A. Paladino

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Cholesterol is the precursor to a unique class of lipophilic signaling molecules called steroid hormones that initiate the development of sexual characteristics, reactions to stress, and maintenance of metabolism, among many other functions. Although much progress has been made in understanding the function of these signaling hormones, we do not fully understand how a single steroid can cause many distinct, tissue-specific responses. Drosophila melanogaster is an effective model for understanding steroid hormone action because of its simplicity. The steroid molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (hereafter, 20E) is the primary active steroid in Drosophila and mediates not only larval molts and the emergence ...


Phosphatase Regulation In Cardiovascular Physiology And Disease, Sean Thomas Degrande Dec 2012

Phosphatase Regulation In Cardiovascular Physiology And Disease, Sean Thomas Degrande

Theses and Dissertations

Reversible protein phosphorylation is an essential component of metazoan signaling and cardiovascular physiology. Protein kinase activity is required for regulation of cardiac ion channel and membrane receptor function, metabolism, and transcription, and aberrant kinase function is widely observed across disparate cardiac pathologies. In fact, multiple generations of cardiac therapies (eg. beta-adrenergic receptor blockers) have targeted cardiac kinase regulatory cascades. In contrast, essentially nothing is known regarding the mechanisms that regulate cardiac phosphatase activity at baseline or in cardiovascular disease.

Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a key phosphatase with multiple roles in cardiac physiology. Here we demonstrate the surprisingly complex regulatory ...


Structure-Function Analysis Of A Protein Encoded By The Bhv-1 Latency Related Gene, Devis Sinani Dec 2012

Structure-Function Analysis Of A Protein Encoded By The Bhv-1 Latency Related Gene, Devis Sinani

Dissertations & Theses in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1) is a significant viral pathogen in cattle that induces a myriad of clinical symptoms. These symptoms include: conjunctivitis, upper respiratory tract infections, genital disorders, and abortions. BHV-1 infection can also lead to transient immune-suppression, which predisposes cattle to secondary bacterial infection leading to life-threatening pneumonia referred to as bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Following acute infection, BHV-1 establishes latency in sensory neurons within trigeminal ganglia. Reactivation of the virus can occur periodically, resulting in virus transmission. The latency-related (LR) RNA is the only abundantly expressed transcript in latently infected sensory neurons and it encodes several proteins ...