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Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology Commons

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Articles 1 - 8 of 8

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Characterizing The Role Of The Bacterial Metallothionein, Smta, In Mammalian Infection, Stephanie R. Davis May 2011

Characterizing The Role Of The Bacterial Metallothionein, Smta, In Mammalian Infection, Stephanie R. Davis

Honors Scholar Theses

Mammalian metallothioneins (MT) are induced by various immunomodulatory molecules and are involved in a spectrum of immune processes such as essential metal homeostasis, detoxification of certain heavy metals, inflammation, and immune cell trafficking [1-3]. A bacterial metallothionein, SmtA, shares some sequence homology with mammalian MT as well as its metal-binding capabilities [4]. In addition to its ability to sequester heavy metals, eukaryotic MT has also been shown to scavenge free radicals such as reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS, RNS), interfering with their toxic effects on cells and potentially influencing their regulatory roles in cell proliferation and differentiation [5, 6 ...


Modeling Human Immune Response To The Lyme Disease-Causing Bacteria, Yevhen Rutovytskyy May 2011

Modeling Human Immune Response To The Lyme Disease-Causing Bacteria, Yevhen Rutovytskyy

Honors Scholar Theses

The purpose of this project is to develop and analyze a mathematical model for the pathogen-host interaction that occurs during early Lyme disease.

Based on the known biophysics of motility of Borrelia burgdorferi and a simple model for the immune response, a PDE model was created which tracks the time evolution of the concentrations of bacteria and activated immune cells in the dermis. We assume that a tick bite inoculates a highly localized population of bacteria into the dermis. These bacteria can multiply and migrate. The diffusive nature of the migration is assumed and modeled using the heat equation. Bacteria ...


Quorum Sensing In Archaea, Charles Mackin May 2011

Quorum Sensing In Archaea, Charles Mackin

Honors Scholar Theses

Bacteria coordinate cell density dependent behaviors by communicating through chemical intermediaries in a process called quorum sensing. In a bacterial culture, individual cells will constitutively produce signal molecules, termed autoinducers, and export them into the environment. When the concentration of autoinducers reaches a threshold, the cells sense that they are in a specific situation, which requires the upregulation of certain genes. This upregulation causes the bacteria to produce proteins that allow them to take part in a coordinated population-wide behavior.

In bacteria that are naturally competent, or capable of importing DNA from the environment, the expression of competence genes is ...


Biomarker Signature Classification Of Various Stress Forms, Chana L. Rich May 2011

Biomarker Signature Classification Of Various Stress Forms, Chana L. Rich

Honors Scholar Theses

Various types of stressful conditions can have unique and important effects on immunity and can lead to dramatic consequences to health. For my University Scholar project, the characteristic biomarker signatures produced from a set of diverse stressors (e.g. psychological, biological and chemical) are being investigated. A biomarker signature is a distinctive biological indicator of a specific condition. High-throughput tools for the measurement of different cellular products have the potential to further our understanding of human disease and facilitated the identification of new biomarkers in all areas of medicine. The hypothesis that each form of stress, psychological, chemical and physical ...


Characterization Of Arginine-82 Mutants With Non-Native Chromophores, Vivek Alaigh May 2011

Characterization Of Arginine-82 Mutants With Non-Native Chromophores, Vivek Alaigh

Honors Scholar Theses

Bacteriorhodopsin, found in most halobacteria, is an integral protein that contains seven transmembrane alpha helices and an organic chromophore, all-trans retinal. Light energy is captured by the protein and results in a series of spectrally discrete intermediates that conclude with a proton being pumped across the membrane from the cytoplasmic side to the extracellular milieu. The most blue-shifted photo-intermediate, the M state, has been of interest for protein-based holographic memory storage devices. Bacteriorhodopsin mutants were prepared with either a 4-hydroxy retinal or 3,4-dihydro retinal analog: R82A, R82C, R82H, R82K, R82N and R82Q. The objective of this research was to ...


Design And Bio-Production Of A Nanoparticle Avian Influenza Vaccine, Kashif N. Ather May 2011

Design And Bio-Production Of A Nanoparticle Avian Influenza Vaccine, Kashif N. Ather

Honors Scholar Theses

Influenza is one of the most common diseases in the world and the cause for numerous deaths every year. The primary method of combating the disease is the influenza vaccine, which is produced by inoculating chicken eggs with inactivated virus. An emerging solution is to use Self-Assembling Polypeptide Nanoparticles (SAPN) to elicit an immune response in the body, rather than using inactivated viruses. This project focuses on the synthesis, purification, and refolding of two peptide constructs, BN5C and S43, which are specific protein sequences that under the right conditions will refold into the 3-dimensional structures necessary for producing an immune ...


Expression Of The Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus Non-Structural Protein 3 (Nsp 3) In Escherichia Coli, Lidia Beka May 2011

Expression Of The Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus Non-Structural Protein 3 (Nsp 3) In Escherichia Coli, Lidia Beka

Honors Scholar Theses

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) is single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus in the family Arteriviridae, order Nidovirales. PRRSV is the most economically significant viral infection of swine herds in the United States. The single-stranded RNA genome is 15 kb in length and encodes 9 open reading frames (ORF1a, ORF1b, ORF2a, ORF2b and ORFs 3 through 7). ORFs 1a and 1b encode for 13 non-structural proteins (nsp) that are suggested to be involved in transcription and viral genome replication. The exact role of non-structural proteins in PRRSV cycle is still unknown. Moreover, there is a limited availability of reagents such ...


Modeling Human Immune Response To The Lyme Disease-Causing Bacteria, Yevhen Rutovytskyy May 2011

Modeling Human Immune Response To The Lyme Disease-Causing Bacteria, Yevhen Rutovytskyy

Honors Scholar Theses

The purpose of this project is to develop and analyze a mathematical model

for the pathogen-host interaction that occurs during early Lyme disease.

Based on the known biophysics of motility of Borrelia burgdorferi and a

simple model for the immune response, a PDE model was created which tracks

the time evolution of the concentrations of bacteria and activated immune

cells in the dermis. We assume that a tick bite inoculates a highly

localized population of bacteria into the dermis. These bacteria can

multiply and migrate. The diffusive nature of the migration is assumed and

modeled using the heat equation. Bacteria ...