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2011

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Articles 1 - 30 of 263

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Spt5 Affects The Rate Of Mrna Degradation And Physically Interacts With Ccr4 But Does Not Control Mrna Deadenylation, Yajun Cui, Yueh-Chin Chiang, Palaniswamy Viswanathan, Darren J. Lee, Clyde L. Denis Dec 2011

Spt5 Affects The Rate Of Mrna Degradation And Physically Interacts With Ccr4 But Does Not Control Mrna Deadenylation, Yajun Cui, Yueh-Chin Chiang, Palaniswamy Viswanathan, Darren J. Lee, Clyde L. Denis

New Hampshire Agricultural Experiment Station

The CCR4-NOT complex has been shown to have multiple roles in mRNA metabolism, including that of transcriptional elongation, mRNA transport, and nuclear exosome function, but the primary function of CCR4 and CAF1 is in the deadenylation and degradation of cytoplasmic mRNA. As previous genetic analysis supported an interaction between SPT5, known to be involved in transcriptional elongation, and that of CCR4, the physical association of SPT5 with CCR4 was examined. A two-hybrid screen utilizing the deadenylase domain of CCR4 as a bait identified SPT5 as a potential interacting protein. SPT5 at its physiological concentration was shown to immunoprecipitate CCR4 and ...


Mechanism And Regulation Of Nucleocytoplasmic Trafficking Of Smad, Xiaochu Chen, Lan Xu Dec 2011

Mechanism And Regulation Of Nucleocytoplasmic Trafficking Of Smad, Xiaochu Chen, Lan Xu

Open Access Articles

Smad proteins are the intracellular mediators of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling. Smads function as transcription factors and their activities require carboxyl-terminal phosphorylation by TGF-beta receptor kinases which are embedded in the cell membrane. Therefore, the translocation of activated Smads from the cytoplasm into the nucleus is a rate-limiting step in TGF-beta signal transduction into the nucleus. On the other hand, the export of Smads out of the nucleus turns off TGF-beta effect. Such spatial control of Smad ensures a tight regulation of TGF-beta target genes. Several cross-talk pathways have been shown to affect TGF-beta signaling by impairing nuclear ...


Reactions With Platinum (Ll) Complexes And Selenium-Containing Amino Acids, Stephanie Robey Dec 2011

Reactions With Platinum (Ll) Complexes And Selenium-Containing Amino Acids, Stephanie Robey

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

We have reacted [Pt(Me4en)(D2O)2]2+ [Me4En=N,N,N’N’-tetramethylethylenediamine] with Selenomethionine (SeMet), Methionine (Met), and Methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys). When MeSeCys was reacted with [Pt(Me4en)(D2O)2]2+, we observed both stereoisomers of Se,N chelates, as well as [Pt(Me4en)(MeSeCys)Cl]+ from ­1­H NMR Spectroscopy; the latter formed due to the presence of Cl- in the solution. Both isomers of the chelate seemed to form proportionally to one another, not favoring a specific stereoisomer. Eventually the [Pt(Me4en)(MeSeCys ...


Son Maintains Accurate Splicing For A Subset Of Human Pre-Mrnas, Alok Sharma, Michael P. Markey, Keshia Torres-Munoz, Sapna Varia, Madhavi P. Kadakia, Athanasios Bubulya, Paula A. Bubulya Dec 2011

Son Maintains Accurate Splicing For A Subset Of Human Pre-Mrnas, Alok Sharma, Michael P. Markey, Keshia Torres-Munoz, Sapna Varia, Madhavi P. Kadakia, Athanasios Bubulya, Paula A. Bubulya

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

Serine-arginine-rich (SR) proteins play a key role in alternative pre-mRNA splicing in eukaryotes. We recently showed that a large SR protein called Son has unique repeat motifs that are essential for maintaining the subnuclear organization of pre-mRNA processing factors in nuclear speckles. Motif analysis of Son highlights putative RNA interaction domains that suggest a direct role for Son in pre-mRNA splicing. Here, we used in situ approaches to show that Son localizes to a reporter minigene transcription site, and that RNAi-mediated Son depletion causes exon skipping on reporter transcripts at this transcription site. A genome-wide exon microarray analysis was performed ...


Discrimination And Aggregative Patterns Among And Between Populations Of Entamoeba Spp., Katelyn M. Higgins Dec 2011

Discrimination And Aggregative Patterns Among And Between Populations Of Entamoeba Spp., Katelyn M. Higgins

Honors Theses

Kin recognition facilitates the evolution of cooperation in animals, but its relevance in microorganisms and their behavior toward relatives remains unclear. The Entamoeba lineage constitutes an ideal model to determine the behavioral and signaling cues needed for aggregative preference. Chemical cues have been reported for E. histolytica but not E. dispar, suggesting cell-communication between con-specifics and behavioral differences with relevance for disease. Entamoeba varieties have been reported as ‘morphologically undistinguishable’. Two strains of E. invadens have been isolated from different hosts (VK-1: NS - Varanus komodoensis and IP1- serpentes) but were classified within the same ‘species’. Trophozoites of each strain aggregate ...


Juvenile Hormone Regulates Vitellogenin Gene Expression Through Insulin-Like Peptide Signaling Pathway In The Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium Castaneum, Zhentao Sheng, Jingjing Xu, Hua Bai, Fang Zhu, Subba R. Palli Dec 2011

Juvenile Hormone Regulates Vitellogenin Gene Expression Through Insulin-Like Peptide Signaling Pathway In The Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium Castaneum, Zhentao Sheng, Jingjing Xu, Hua Bai, Fang Zhu, Subba R. Palli

Entomology Faculty Publications

Our recent studies identified juvenile hormone (JH) and nutrition as the two key signals that regulate vitellogenin (Vg) gene expression in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Juvenile hormone regulation of Vg synthesis has been known for a long time in several insects, but the mechanism of JH action is not known. Experiments were conducted to determine the mechanism of action of these two signals in regulation of Vg gene expression. Injection of bovine insulin or FOXO double-stranded RNA into the previtellogenic, starved, or JH-deficient female adults increased Vg mRNA and protein levels, thereby implicating the pivotal role for insulin-like ...


Aptamer Functionalized Microcantilever Sensors For Cocaine Detection, Kyungho Kang, Ashish Sachan, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton, Pranav Shrotriya Dec 2011

Aptamer Functionalized Microcantilever Sensors For Cocaine Detection, Kyungho Kang, Ashish Sachan, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton, Pranav Shrotriya

Mechanical Engineering Publications

A cocaine-specific aptamer was used as a receptor molecule in a microcantilever-based surface stress sensor for detection of cocaine molecules. An interferometric technique that relies on measuring differential displacement between two microcantilevers (a sensing/reference pair) was utilized to measure the cocaine/aptamer binding induced surface stress changes. Sensing experiments were performed for different concentrations of cocaine from 25 to 500 μM in order to determine the sensor response as a function of cocaine concentration. In the lower concentration range from 25 to 100 μM, surface stress values increased proportionally to coverage of aptamer/cocaine complexes from 11 to 26 ...


Impact Of Crop And Residue Management On The Physical And Chemical Stabilization Of Soil Organic Matter At Farm Level, Ana B. Wingeyer Dec 2011

Impact Of Crop And Residue Management On The Physical And Chemical Stabilization Of Soil Organic Matter At Farm Level, Ana B. Wingeyer

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

This dissertation explores changes over time in soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization of two irrigated production fields: a continuous maize sequence that was converted from no-till to conservation deep tillage (Site 1), and a no-till maize-soybean rotation (Site 2). An integrated approach using humic acid extractions and density-based physical fractionation of SOM within aggregate size classes was developed to evaluate the changes in SOM stabilization (physical protection, organo-mineral associations and humification). At Site 1, loss of SOM in the surface layer was compensated for by increased SOM in deeper soil layers with no net change in C stocks. Whole field ...


Cellular Poly(C) Binding Proteins 1 And 2 Interact With Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus Nonstructural Protein 1Β And Support Viral Replication, Lalit Beura, Phat X. Dinh, Fernando A. Osorio, Asit K. Pattnaik Dec 2011

Cellular Poly(C) Binding Proteins 1 And 2 Interact With Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus Nonstructural Protein 1Β And Support Viral Replication, Lalit Beura, Phat X. Dinh, Fernando A. Osorio, Asit K. Pattnaik

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection of swine results in substantial economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Identification of cellular factors involved in PRRSV life cycle not only will enable a better understanding of virus biology but also has the potential for the development of antiviral therapeutics. The PRRSV nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) has been shown to be involved in at least two important functions in the infected hosts: (i) mediation of viral subgenomic (sg) mRNA transcription and (ii) suppression of the host’s innate immune response mechanisms. To further our understanding of the role of the ...


Homologous Recombination In Nannochloropsis: A Powerful Tool In An Industrially Relevant Alga, Donald P. Weeks Dec 2011

Homologous Recombination In Nannochloropsis: A Powerful Tool In An Industrially Relevant Alga, Donald P. Weeks

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The availability of facile methods for targeted gene knockout and gene replacement based on homologous recombination in bacteria and yeast systems has driven rapid progress in understanding many of the complex metabolic and regulatory networks in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The lack of such tools in other organisms is a major impediment to progress both in fundamental research and in research that is directed toward practical economic and societal outcomes. For example, the current goal to replace fossil fuels with renewable energy sources produced by plants and algae is hampered in both the short term and the long term by ...


Domain Loss Has Independently Occurred Multiple Times In Plant Terpene Synthase Evolution, Matthew L. Hillwig, Meimei Xu, Tomonobu Toyomasu, Mollie S. Tiernan, Gao Wei, Guanghong Cui, Luqi Huang, Reuben J. Peters Dec 2011

Domain Loss Has Independently Occurred Multiple Times In Plant Terpene Synthase Evolution, Matthew L. Hillwig, Meimei Xu, Tomonobu Toyomasu, Mollie S. Tiernan, Gao Wei, Guanghong Cui, Luqi Huang, Reuben J. Peters

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

The extensive family of plant terpene synthases (TPSs) generally has a bi-domain structure, yet phylogenetic analyses consistently indicate that these evolved from larger diterpene synthases. In particular, that duplication of the diterpene synthase genes required for gibberellin phytohormone biosynthesis provided an early predecessor, whose loss of a ~220 amino acid “internal sequence element” (now recognized as the γ domain) gave rise to the precursor of modern mono- and sesqui-TPSs found in all higher plants. Intriguingly, TPSs are conserved by taxonomic relationships rather than function, demonstrating that such functional radiation has occurred both repeatedly and relatively recently, yet phylogenetic analyses assume ...


Conformational Lability In The Class Ii Mhc 3-10 Helix And Adjacent Extended Strand Dictate Hla-Dm Susceptibility And Peptide Exchange, Corrie A. Painter, Maria P. Negroni, Kathy A. Kellersberger, Zarixia Zavala-Ruiz, James E. Evans, Lawrence J. Stern Nov 2011

Conformational Lability In The Class Ii Mhc 3-10 Helix And Adjacent Extended Strand Dictate Hla-Dm Susceptibility And Peptide Exchange, Corrie A. Painter, Maria P. Negroni, Kathy A. Kellersberger, Zarixia Zavala-Ruiz, James E. Evans, Lawrence J. Stern

GSBS Student Publications

HLA-DM is required for efficient peptide exchange on class II MHC molecules, but its mechanism of action is controversial. We trapped an intermediate state of class II MHC HLA-DR1 by substitution of αF54, resulting in a protein with increased HLA-DM binding affinity, weakened MHC-peptide hydrogen bonding as measured by hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, and increased susceptibility to DM-mediated peptide exchange. Structural analysis revealed a set of concerted conformational alterations at the N-terminal end of the peptide-binding site. These results suggest that interaction with HLA-DM is driven by a conformational change of the MHC II protein in the region of the ...


Planning Combinatorial Disulfide Cross-Links For Protein Fold Determination, Fei Xiong, Alan M Friedman, Chris Bailey-Kellogg Nov 2011

Planning Combinatorial Disulfide Cross-Links For Protein Fold Determination, Fei Xiong, Alan M Friedman, Chris Bailey-Kellogg

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Fold recognition techniques take advantage of the limited number of overall structural organizations, and have become increasingly effective at identifying the fold of a given target sequence. However, in the absence of sufficient sequence identity, it remains difficult for fold recognition methods to always select the correct model. While a native-like model is often among a pool of highly ranked models, it is not necessarily the highest-ranked one, and the model rankings depend sensitively on the scoring function used. Structure elucidation methods can then be employed to decide among the models based on relatively rapid biochemical/biophysical experiments.


The Loss Of C-Jun N-Terminal Protein Kinase Activity Prevents The Amyloidogenic Cleavage Of Amyloid Precursor Protein And The Formation Of Amyloid Plaques In Vivo, Sonia Mazzitelli, Ping Xu, Isidre Ferrer, Roger J. Davis, Cathy Tournier Nov 2011

The Loss Of C-Jun N-Terminal Protein Kinase Activity Prevents The Amyloidogenic Cleavage Of Amyloid Precursor Protein And The Formation Of Amyloid Plaques In Vivo, Sonia Mazzitelli, Ping Xu, Isidre Ferrer, Roger J. Davis, Cathy Tournier

Davis Lab Publications

Phosphorylation plays a central role in the dynamic regulation of the processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the production of amyloid-beta (Abeta), one of the clinically most important factors that determine the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This has led to the hypothesis that aberrant Abeta production associated with AD results from regulatory defects in signal transduction. However, conflicting findings have raised a debate over the identity of the signaling pathway that controls APP metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that activation of the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) is essential for mediating the apoptotic response of neurons to ...


Parsing A Multifunctional Biosynthetic Gene Cluster From Rice: Biochemical Characterization Of Cyp71z6 & 7, Yinsheng Wu, Matthew L. Hillwig, Qiang Wang, Reuben J. Peters Nov 2011

Parsing A Multifunctional Biosynthetic Gene Cluster From Rice: Biochemical Characterization Of Cyp71z6 & 7, Yinsheng Wu, Matthew L. Hillwig, Qiang Wang, Reuben J. Peters

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Rice (Oryza sativa) contains a biosynthetic gene cluster associated with production of at least two groups of diterpenoid phytoalexins, the antifungal phytocassanes and antibacterial oryzalides. While cytochromes P450 (CYP) from this cluster are known to be involved in phytocassane production, such mono-oxygenase activity relevant to oryzalide biosynthesis was unknown. Here we report biochemical characterization demonstrating that CYP71Z6 from this cluster acts as an ent-isokaurene C2-hydroxylase that is presumably involved in the biosynthesis of oryzalides. Our results further suggest that the closely related and co-clustered CYP71Z7 likely acts as a C2- hydroxylase involved in a latter step of phytocassane biosynthesis. Thus ...


Differential Il-21 Signaling In Apcs Leads To Disparate Th17 Differentiation In Diabetes-Susceptible Nod And Diabetes-Resistant Nod.Idd3 Mice., Sue M. Liu, David H. Lee, Jenna M. Sullivan, Denise Chung, Anneli Jäger, Bennett O V. Shum, Nora E. Sarvetnick, Ana C. Anderson, Vijay K. Kuchroo Nov 2011

Differential Il-21 Signaling In Apcs Leads To Disparate Th17 Differentiation In Diabetes-Susceptible Nod And Diabetes-Resistant Nod.Idd3 Mice., Sue M. Liu, David H. Lee, Jenna M. Sullivan, Denise Chung, Anneli Jäger, Bennett O V. Shum, Nora E. Sarvetnick, Ana C. Anderson, Vijay K. Kuchroo

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that shows familial aggregation in humans and likely has genetic determinants. Disease linkage studies have revealed many susceptibility loci for T1D in mice and humans. The mouse T1D susceptibility locus insulin-dependent diabetes susceptibility 3 (Idd3), which has a homologous genetic interval in humans, encodes cytokine genes Il2 and Il21 and regulates diabetes and other autoimmune diseases; however, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of this regulation are still being elucidated. Here we show that T cells from NOD mice produce more Il21 and less Il2 and exhibit enhanced Th17 cell generation compared with ...


Evolution Of Spur-Length Diversity In Aquilegia Petals Is Achieved Solely Through Cell-Shape Anisotropy, Joshua R. Puzey, Sharon J. Gerbode, Scott A. Hodges, Elena M. Kramer, L. Mahadevan Nov 2011

Evolution Of Spur-Length Diversity In Aquilegia Petals Is Achieved Solely Through Cell-Shape Anisotropy, Joshua R. Puzey, Sharon J. Gerbode, Scott A. Hodges, Elena M. Kramer, L. Mahadevan

All HMC Faculty Publications and Research

The role of petal spurs and specialized pollinator interactions has been studied since Darwin. Aquilegia petal spurs exhibit striking size and shape diversity, correlated with specialized pollinators ranging from bees to hawkmoths in a textbook example of adaptive radiation. Despite the evolutionary significance of spur length, remarkably little is known about Aquilegia spur morphogenesis and its evolution. Using experimental measurements, both at tissue and cellular levels, combined with numerical modelling, we have investigated the relative roles of cell divisions and cell shape in determining the morphology of the Aquilegia petal spur. Contrary to decades-old hypotheses implicating a discrete meristematic zone ...


Boron Stress Activates The General Amino Acid Control Mechanism And Inhibits Protein Synthesis, Irem Uluisik, Alaattin Kaya, Dmitri E. Fomenko, Huseyin C. Karakaya, Bradley A. Carlson, Vadim N. Gladyshev, Ahmet Koc Nov 2011

Boron Stress Activates The General Amino Acid Control Mechanism And Inhibits Protein Synthesis, Irem Uluisik, Alaattin Kaya, Dmitri E. Fomenko, Huseyin C. Karakaya, Bradley A. Carlson, Vadim N. Gladyshev, Ahmet Koc

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Boron is an essential micronutrient for plants, and it is beneficial for animals. However, at high concentrations boron is toxic to cells although the mechanism of this toxicity is not known. Atr1 has recently been identified as a boron efflux pump whose expression is upregulated in response to boron treatment. Here, we found that the expression of ATR1 is associated with expression of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis. These mechanisms are strictly controlled by the transcription factor Gcn4 in response to boron treatment. Further analyses have shown that boron impaired protein synthesis by promoting phosphorylation of eIF2α in a ...


Mlk3 Regulates Bone Development Downstream Of The Faciogenital Dysplasia Protein Fgd1 In Mice, Weiguo Zou, Matthew B. Greenblatt, Jae-Hyuck Shim, Shashi Kant, Bo Zhai, Sutada Lotinun, Nicholas Brady, Dorothy Zhang Hu, Steven P. Gygi, Roland Baron, Roger J. Davis, Dallas Jones, Laurie H. Glimcher Nov 2011

Mlk3 Regulates Bone Development Downstream Of The Faciogenital Dysplasia Protein Fgd1 In Mice, Weiguo Zou, Matthew B. Greenblatt, Jae-Hyuck Shim, Shashi Kant, Bo Zhai, Sutada Lotinun, Nicholas Brady, Dorothy Zhang Hu, Steven P. Gygi, Roland Baron, Roger J. Davis, Dallas Jones, Laurie H. Glimcher

Davis Lab Publications

Mutations in human FYVE, RhoGEF, and PH domain-containing 1 (FGD1) cause faciogenital dysplasia (FGDY; also known as Aarskog syndrome), an X-linked disorder that affects multiple skeletal structures. FGD1 encodes a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that specifically activates the Rho GTPase CDC42. However, the mechanisms by which mutations in FGD1 affect skeletal development are unknown. Here, we describe what we believe to be a novel signaling pathway in osteoblasts initiated by FGD1 that involves the MAP3K mixed-lineage kinase 3 (MLK3). We observed that MLK3 functions downstream of FGD1 to regulate ERK and p38 MAPK, which in turn phosphorylate and activate ...


A Lipid-Anchored Snare Supports Membrane Fusion, Hao Xu, Michael Zick, William T. Wickner, Youngsoo Jun Oct 2011

A Lipid-Anchored Snare Supports Membrane Fusion, Hao Xu, Michael Zick, William T. Wickner, Youngsoo Jun

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Intracellular membrane fusion requires R-SNAREs and Q-SNAREs to assemble into a four-helical parallel coiled-coil, with their hydrophobic anchors spanning the two apposed membranes. Based on the fusion properties of chemically defined SNARE- proteoliposomes, it has been proposed that the assembly of this helical bundle transduces force through the entire bilayer via the transmembrane SNARE anchor domains to drive fusion. However, an R-SNARE, Nyv1p, with a genetically engineered lipid anchor that spans half of the bilayer suffices for the fusion of isolated vacuoles, although this organelle has other R-SNAREs. To demonstrate unequivocally the fusion activity of lipid-anchored Nyv1p, we reconstituted proteoliposomes ...


Chitosan But Not Chitin Activates The Inflammasome By A Mechanism Dependent Upon Phagocytosis, Chelsea L. Bueter, Chrono K. Lee, Vijay A. K. Rathinam, Gloria J. Healy, Christopher H. Taron, Charles A. Specht, Stuart M. Levitz Oct 2011

Chitosan But Not Chitin Activates The Inflammasome By A Mechanism Dependent Upon Phagocytosis, Chelsea L. Bueter, Chrono K. Lee, Vijay A. K. Rathinam, Gloria J. Healy, Christopher H. Taron, Charles A. Specht, Stuart M. Levitz

GSBS Student Publications

Chitin is an abundant polysaccharide found in fungal cell walls, crustacean shells, and insect exoskeletons. The immunological properties of both chitin and its deacetylated derivative chitosan are of relevance because of frequent natural exposure and their use in medical applications. Depending on the preparation studied and the end point measured, these compounds have been reported to induce allergic responses, inflammatory responses, or no response at all. We prepared highly purified chitosan and chitin and examined the capacity of these glycans to stimulate murine macrophages to release the inflammasome-associated cytokine IL-1beta. We found that although chitosan was a potent NLRP3 inflammasome ...


The Crosstalk Between Human Fatty Acid Transport Protein 1 And Fatty Acid Transport Protein 4, Zhe Yuan Oct 2011

The Crosstalk Between Human Fatty Acid Transport Protein 1 And Fatty Acid Transport Protein 4, Zhe Yuan

Theses and Dissertations in Biochemistry

Fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) provide pivotal roles in fatty acid transport and activation and thus are crucial for overall fatty acid homeostasis. Peroxisome Proliferators Activated Receptors (PPARs) are important transcription factors, which control many genes that govern lipid metabolism.

Using 293 T-REx cell lines that stably express FATP1 or FATP4 from a tetracycline-inducible promoter, this work evaluated gene expression of key genes involved in fatty acid metabolism using QPCR, protein expression of FATP1 and FATP4 using Western blots, and fatty acid transport to address the roles of these two FATP isoforms in fatty acid homeostasis. This work found that ...


Electrosensory Ampullary Organs Are Derived From Lateral Line Placodes In Bony Fishes, Melissa S. Modrell, William E. Benis, R. Glenn Northcutt, Marcus C. Davis, Clare V.H. Baker Oct 2011

Electrosensory Ampullary Organs Are Derived From Lateral Line Placodes In Bony Fishes, Melissa S. Modrell, William E. Benis, R. Glenn Northcutt, Marcus C. Davis, Clare V.H. Baker

Faculty Publications

Electroreception is an ancient subdivision of the lateral line sensory system, found in all major vertebrate groups (though lost in frogs, amniotes and most ray-finned fishes). Electroreception is mediated by 'hair cells' in ampullary organs, distributed in fields flanking lines of mechanosensory hair cell-containing neuromasts that detect local water movement. Neuromasts, and afferent neurons for both neuromasts and ampullary organs, develop from lateral line placodes. Although ampullary organs in the axolotl (a representative of the lobe-finned clade of bony fishes) are lateral line placode-derived, non-placodal origins have been proposed for electroreceptors in other taxa. Here we show morphological and molecular ...


Splice Variant–Specific Cellular Function Of The Formin Inf2 In Maintenance Of Golgi Architecture, Vinay Ramabhadran, Farida Korobova, Gilbert J. Rahme, Henry N. Higgs Oct 2011

Splice Variant–Specific Cellular Function Of The Formin Inf2 In Maintenance Of Golgi Architecture, Vinay Ramabhadran, Farida Korobova, Gilbert J. Rahme, Henry N. Higgs

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

INF2 is a unique formin that can both polymerize and depolymerize actin filaments. Mutations in INF2 cause the kidney disease focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. INF2 can be expressed as two C-terminal splice variants: CAAX and non-CAAX. The CAAX isoform contains a C-terminal prenyl group and is tightly bound to endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The localization pattern and cellular function of the non-CAAX isoform have not been studied. Here we find that the two isoforms are expressed in a cell type-dependent manner, with CAAX predominant in 3T3 fibroblasts and non-CAAX predominant in U2OS, HeLa, and Jurkat cells. Although INF2-CAAX is ER localized ...


The Rice Miniature Inverted Repeat Transposable Element Mping Is An Effective Insertional Mutagen In Soybean, C. Nathan Hancock, Feng Zhang, Kristen Floyd, Aaron O. Richardson, Peter Lafayette, Donna Tucker, Susan R. Wessler, Wayne A. Parrott Oct 2011

The Rice Miniature Inverted Repeat Transposable Element Mping Is An Effective Insertional Mutagen In Soybean, C. Nathan Hancock, Feng Zhang, Kristen Floyd, Aaron O. Richardson, Peter Lafayette, Donna Tucker, Susan R. Wessler, Wayne A. Parrott

Faculty Publications

Insertional mutagenesis of legume genomes such as soybean (Glycine max) should aid in identifying genes responsible for key traits such as nitrogen fixation and seed quality. The relatively low throughput of soybean transformation necessitates the use of a transposon-tagging strategy where a single transformation event will produce many mutations over a number of generations. However, existing transposon-tagging tools being used in legumes are of limited utility because of restricted transposition (Ac/Ds: soybean) or the requirement for tissue culture activation (Tnt1: Medicago truncatula). A recently discovered transposable element from rice (Oryza sativa), mPing, and the genes required for its mobilization ...


A Brain-Derived Mecp2 Complex Supports A Role For Mecp2 In Rna Processing, Steven W. Long, Jenny Y. Y. Ooi, Peter M. Yau, Peter L. Jones Oct 2011

A Brain-Derived Mecp2 Complex Supports A Role For Mecp2 In Rna Processing, Steven W. Long, Jenny Y. Y. Ooi, Peter M. Yau, Peter L. Jones

Peter Jones Lab Publications

Mutations in MECP2 (methyl-CpG-binding protein 2) are linked to the severe postnatal neurodevelopmental disorder RTT (Rett syndrome). MeCP2 was originally characterized as a transcriptional repressor that preferentially bound methylated DNA; however, recent results indicate MeCP2 is a multifunctional protein. MeCP2 binding is now associated with certain expressed genes and involved in nuclear organization as well, indicating that its gene regulatory function is context-dependent. In addition, MeCP2 is proposed to regulate mRNA splicing and a mouse model for RTT shows aberrant mRNA splicing. To further understand MeCP2 and potential roles in RTT pathogenesis, we have employed a biochemical approach to identify ...


Advances In Structural And Functional Analysis Of Membrane Proteins By Electron Crystallography, Goragot Wisedchaisri, Steve Reichow, Tamir Gonen Oct 2011

Advances In Structural And Functional Analysis Of Membrane Proteins By Electron Crystallography, Goragot Wisedchaisri, Steve Reichow, Tamir Gonen

Chemistry Faculty Publications and Presentations

Electron crystallography is a powerful technique for the study of membrane protein structure and function in the lipid environment. When well-ordered two-dimensional crystals are obtained the structure of both protein and lipid can be determined and lipid-protein interactions analyzed. Protons and ionic charges can be visualized by electron crystallography and the protein of interest can be captured for structural analysis in a variety of physiologically distinct states. This review highlights the strengths of electron crystallography and the momentum that is building up in automation and the development of high throughput tools and methods for structural and functional analysis of membrane ...


Iron Insufficiency Compromises Motor Neurons And Their Mitochondrial Function In Irp2-Null Mice, Suh Young Jeong, Daniel R. Crooks, Hayden Wilson-Ollivierre, Manik C. Ghosh, Rachid Sougrat, Jaekwon Lee, Sharon Cooperman, James B. Mitchell, Carole Beaumont, Tracey A. Rouault Oct 2011

Iron Insufficiency Compromises Motor Neurons And Their Mitochondrial Function In Irp2-Null Mice, Suh Young Jeong, Daniel R. Crooks, Hayden Wilson-Ollivierre, Manik C. Ghosh, Rachid Sougrat, Jaekwon Lee, Sharon Cooperman, James B. Mitchell, Carole Beaumont, Tracey A. Rouault

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Genetic ablation of Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (Irp2, Ireb2), which post-transcriptionally regulates iron metabolism genes, causes a gait disorder in mice that progresses to hind-limb paralysis. Here we have demonstrated that misregulation of iron metabolism from loss of Irp2 causes lower motor neuronal degeneration with significant spinal cord axonopathy. Mitochondria in the lumbar spinal cord showed significantly decreased Complex I and II activities, and abnormal morphology. Lower motor neurons appeared to be the most adversely affected neurons, and we show that functional iron starvation due to misregulation of iron import and storage proteins, including transferrin receptor 1 and ferritin, may ...


Activation Of Mmp-9 By Human Lung Epithelial Cells In Response To The Cystic Fibrosis-Associated Pathogen Burkholderia Cenocepacia Reduced Wound Healing In Vitro, Ciara Wright ], Ruth Pilkington, Máire Callaghan, Siobhan Mcclean Oct 2011

Activation Of Mmp-9 By Human Lung Epithelial Cells In Response To The Cystic Fibrosis-Associated Pathogen Burkholderia Cenocepacia Reduced Wound Healing In Vitro, Ciara Wright ], Ruth Pilkington, Máire Callaghan, Siobhan Mcclean

Articles

Burkholderia cepacia complex is a group of bacterial pathogens that cause opportunistic infections in cystic fibrosis (CF). The most virulent of these is Burkholderia cenocepacia. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are upregulated in CF patients. The aim of this work was to examine the role of MMPs in the pathogenesis of B. cepacia complex, which has not been explored to date. Real-time PCR analysis showed that B. cenocepacia infection upregulated MMP-2 and MMP-9 genes in the CF lung cell line CFBE41o- within 1 h, whereas MMP-2, -7, and -9 genes were upregulated in the non-CF lung cell line 16HBE14o-. Conditioned media from ...


Dopamine Regulation Of Cone-Cone Gap Junctions In Ground Squirrel Retina, Xiaoyu Li '12, Steven Devries Oct 2011

Dopamine Regulation Of Cone-Cone Gap Junctions In Ground Squirrel Retina, Xiaoyu Li '12, Steven Devries

Student Publications & Research

Cone photoreceptors are electrically coupled such that when the electrical potential in one cell changes, it also changes in adjacent, coupled cells. Phosphorylation of the cone gap junction protein, connexin 36 (Cx36), determines whether a coupling channel is “open” or “closed”. Cx36- containing gap junctions are phosphorylated in the open state and dephosphorylated in the closed state. Cone-cone gap junction modulation has not been extensively studied, however, the presence of rod-cone gap junction modulation raises the possibility that the same is true for cone pairs. Pieces of thirteen-lined ground squirrel retina were removed from the eye and the tissue was ...