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2011

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Articles 1 - 30 of 743

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Spt5 Affects The Rate Of Mrna Degradation And Physically Interacts With Ccr4 But Does Not Control Mrna Deadenylation, Yajun Cui, Yueh-Chin Chiang, Palaniswamy Viswanathan, Darren J. Lee, Clyde L. Denis Dec 2011

Spt5 Affects The Rate Of Mrna Degradation And Physically Interacts With Ccr4 But Does Not Control Mrna Deadenylation, Yajun Cui, Yueh-Chin Chiang, Palaniswamy Viswanathan, Darren J. Lee, Clyde L. Denis

New Hampshire Agricultural Experiment Station

The CCR4-NOT complex has been shown to have multiple roles in mRNA metabolism, including that of transcriptional elongation, mRNA transport, and nuclear exosome function, but the primary function of CCR4 and CAF1 is in the deadenylation and degradation of cytoplasmic mRNA. As previous genetic analysis supported an interaction between SPT5, known to be involved in transcriptional elongation, and that of CCR4, the physical association of SPT5 with CCR4 was examined. A two-hybrid screen utilizing the deadenylase domain of CCR4 as a bait identified SPT5 as a potential interacting protein. SPT5 at its physiological concentration was shown to immunoprecipitate CCR4 and ...


Mechanism And Regulation Of Nucleocytoplasmic Trafficking Of Smad, Xiaochu Chen, Lan Xu Dec 2011

Mechanism And Regulation Of Nucleocytoplasmic Trafficking Of Smad, Xiaochu Chen, Lan Xu

Open Access Articles

Smad proteins are the intracellular mediators of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling. Smads function as transcription factors and their activities require carboxyl-terminal phosphorylation by TGF-beta receptor kinases which are embedded in the cell membrane. Therefore, the translocation of activated Smads from the cytoplasm into the nucleus is a rate-limiting step in TGF-beta signal transduction into the nucleus. On the other hand, the export of Smads out of the nucleus turns off TGF-beta effect. Such spatial control of Smad ensures a tight regulation of TGF-beta target genes. Several cross-talk pathways have been shown to affect TGF-beta signaling by impairing nuclear ...


A Review Of Baobab (Adansonia Digitata) Products: Effect Of Processing Techniques, Medicinal Properties And Uses, Donatien Kabore, Hagrétou Sawadogo-Lingani, Bréhima Diawara, Clarise Compaoré, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof., Mogens Jacobsen Dec 2011

A Review Of Baobab (Adansonia Digitata) Products: Effect Of Processing Techniques, Medicinal Properties And Uses, Donatien Kabore, Hagrétou Sawadogo-Lingani, Bréhima Diawara, Clarise Compaoré, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof., Mogens Jacobsen

Pr. Mamoudou H. DICKO, PhD

A general literature review including the effect of processing techniques, medicinal value and uses of baobab tree is reported in this manuscript. Baobab tree has multi-purpose uses, as it produces food and non-food products such as medicines, fuel, timber, fodder. Every part of the baobab tree is reported to be useful. The seeds, leaves, roots, flowers, fruit pulp and bark of baobab are edible. Baobab leaves are used in the preparation of soup. Seeds are used as a thickening agent in soups, but they can be fermented and used as a flavouring agent or roasted and eaten as snacks. The ...


Inhaled Oxygen As A Quantitative Intravascular Mri Contrast Agent, David T. Pilkinton Dec 2011

Inhaled Oxygen As A Quantitative Intravascular Mri Contrast Agent, David T. Pilkinton

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Increasing the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) generates MR contrast by two distinct mechanisms: increased T2 from deoxyhemoglobin dilution in venous compartments (blood oxygenation level-dependent effect or BOLD) and reduced T­1 from paramagnetic molecular oxygen dissolved in blood plasma and tissues. Many research and clinical applications using hyperoxic contrast have recently emerged, including delineating ischemic stroke penumbra, oxygen delivery to tumors, and functional MRI data calibration. However, quantitative measurements using this contrast agent depend on the precise knowledge of its effects on the MR signal – of which there remain many crucial missing pieces.

This thesis aims to ...


Evolution Of Molecular Function In Mammalian Neurons, Chantal Francis Dec 2011

Evolution Of Molecular Function In Mammalian Neurons, Chantal Francis

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

A common question in neuroscience is what forms the neurological basis of the variety of behaviors in mammals. While many studies have compared mammalian anatomy and evolution, few have investigated the physiologic functions of individual neurons in a comparative manner. Neurons’ ability to modify their features in response to stimuli, known as synaptic plasticity, is fundamental for learning and memory. A key feature of synaptic plasticity involves delivering mRNA to distinct domains where they are locally translated. Regulatory coordination of these events is critical for synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity as defects in these processes can lead to neurological diseases. In ...


Design And Synthesis Of Cationic Steroid Antimicrobial Compounds, Synthesis Of Glycolipids Recognized By Natural Killer T Cells And Development Of Tlr-1, Tlr-6 Heterodimer Binders And Studies Of Their Immunology Activities, Yanshu Feng Dec 2011

Design And Synthesis Of Cationic Steroid Antimicrobial Compounds, Synthesis Of Glycolipids Recognized By Natural Killer T Cells And Development Of Tlr-1, Tlr-6 Heterodimer Binders And Studies Of Their Immunology Activities, Yanshu Feng

Theses and Dissertations

Cationic steroid antimicrobial agents (CSAs) are a family of bile acid derivatives. These compounds are amphiphilic and mimic endogenous antimicrobial peptides. The antimicrobial activities of CSA-13 have been investigated and due to portent bactericidal activities and low toxicity, a large amount of CSA-13 is demanded for clinic trails and other antimicrobial applications. During our studies, we optimized the synthetic route of CSA-13, so that it can be prepared at the kilogram, even in tons scale. We investigated three routes and one of them is suitable for industry, because only recrystallization is needed in the synthesis. Natural killer T cells (NKT ...


Synthesis Of Resveratrol Esters And Aliphatic Acids., Stanley Mofor Jing Dec 2011

Synthesis Of Resveratrol Esters And Aliphatic Acids., Stanley Mofor Jing

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Resveratrol (RV) is a naturally occurring phytoalexin of the stilbenoid family produced by some plant species, and present in grape skin, peanuts, and red wine. It has been found to exhibit anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-aging, cardio protective, and anti-oxidant properties. Bioavailability is a huge setback that limits the potentials of RV. As a result, efforts have been made to design and synthesize RV esters and aliphatic acids in an attempt to increase its bioavailability, solubility in water, and possibly improving its biological activities. Resveratrol esters, 3,5,4'-triacetyloxystilbene (2) and Methyl 1,1',1''- (3,4',5-stilbenyl)-1,6-hexanedioate ...


Influence Of Weak Interactions On Supramolecular Binding: Characterization Of Cucurbituril Complexes With Alkylmonoammonium Ions Using Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry, Ruijan Shi Dec 2011

Influence Of Weak Interactions On Supramolecular Binding: Characterization Of Cucurbituril Complexes With Alkylmonoammonium Ions Using Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry, Ruijan Shi

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis focuses on using mass spectrometry-based techniques for characterizing the structure and behavior of cucurbituril complexes in the gas phase. Both solvent and counter ion effects can be completely eliminated in the gas phase and the intrinsic interactions in the system are directly shown in the experimental results. Chapter 1 introduces the structures, properties and host-guest chemistry of cucurbituril, and FTICR mass spectrometry including instrumentation, performance and working principles. Two mass spectrometry-based methods for supramolecular characterization, sustained off-resonance irradiation collision induced dissociation (SORI CID) and ion molecule equilibrium measurements, are also discussed in this chapter. Chapter 2 characterizes the ...


Reactions With Platinum (Ll) Complexes And Selenium-Containing Amino Acids, Stephanie Robey Dec 2011

Reactions With Platinum (Ll) Complexes And Selenium-Containing Amino Acids, Stephanie Robey

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

We have reacted [Pt(Me4en)(D2O)2]2+ [Me4En=N,N,N’N’-tetramethylethylenediamine] with Selenomethionine (SeMet), Methionine (Met), and Methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys). When MeSeCys was reacted with [Pt(Me4en)(D2O)2]2+, we observed both stereoisomers of Se,N chelates, as well as [Pt(Me4en)(MeSeCys)Cl]+ from ­1­H NMR Spectroscopy; the latter formed due to the presence of Cl- in the solution. Both isomers of the chelate seemed to form proportionally to one another, not favoring a specific stereoisomer. Eventually the [Pt(Me4en)(MeSeCys ...


Atpase Regulation In The Maltose Transporter, Alister D. Gould Dec 2011

Atpase Regulation In The Maltose Transporter, Alister D. Gould

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis investigates the mechanism of activity-coupling in the maltose transporter of Escherichia coli (MalFGK2); the way ATP hydrolysis is prevented in the absence of maltose, and then enabled to drive maltose transport. Like other ATP binding cassette importers, MalFGK2 requires substrate to be presented by a peripheral substrate-binding protein, in this case the maltose binding protein (MBP). MBP predominantly adopts an ‘open’ resting state, but undergoes a rotation of its two domains to a ‘closed’ state after maltose binding. In the closed state MBP is able to activate MalFGK2 to stimulate ATP hydrolysis and maltose transport ...


Son Maintains Accurate Splicing For A Subset Of Human Pre-Mrnas, Alok Sharma, Michael P. Markey, Keshia Torres-Munoz, Sapna Varia, Madhavi P. Kadakia, Athanasios Bubulya, Paula A. Bubulya Dec 2011

Son Maintains Accurate Splicing For A Subset Of Human Pre-Mrnas, Alok Sharma, Michael P. Markey, Keshia Torres-Munoz, Sapna Varia, Madhavi P. Kadakia, Athanasios Bubulya, Paula A. Bubulya

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

Serine-arginine-rich (SR) proteins play a key role in alternative pre-mRNA splicing in eukaryotes. We recently showed that a large SR protein called Son has unique repeat motifs that are essential for maintaining the subnuclear organization of pre-mRNA processing factors in nuclear speckles. Motif analysis of Son highlights putative RNA interaction domains that suggest a direct role for Son in pre-mRNA splicing. Here, we used in situ approaches to show that Son localizes to a reporter minigene transcription site, and that RNAi-mediated Son depletion causes exon skipping on reporter transcripts at this transcription site. A genome-wide exon microarray analysis was performed ...


Co-Crystallization And Polymorphism Of Naturally Occurring Peptide Derivatives, Kevin Crowley Dec 2011

Co-Crystallization And Polymorphism Of Naturally Occurring Peptide Derivatives, Kevin Crowley

Honors Theses

Carnosine is a dipeptide compound that is found in many dietary supplements and food products. Carnosine has many functions in the body, such as alleviating oxidative stress on tissues by acting as an antioxidant compound. Carnosine, therefore, has important anti-aging properties. Carnosine is also capable of forming protective sequestration structures around heavy metal ions; this process of chelating metals ions in solutions is very beneficial for maintaining the well-being of cells in the body. Thus, carnosine could be useful in pharmaceutical products for creating anti-aging drugs that would reduce tissue stress and promote a healthy cellular environment. I attempted to ...


Discrimination And Aggregative Patterns Among And Between Populations Of Entamoeba Spp., Katelyn M. Higgins Dec 2011

Discrimination And Aggregative Patterns Among And Between Populations Of Entamoeba Spp., Katelyn M. Higgins

Honors Theses

Kin recognition facilitates the evolution of cooperation in animals, but its relevance in microorganisms and their behavior toward relatives remains unclear. The Entamoeba lineage constitutes an ideal model to determine the behavioral and signaling cues needed for aggregative preference. Chemical cues have been reported for E. histolytica but not E. dispar, suggesting cell-communication between con-specifics and behavioral differences with relevance for disease. Entamoeba varieties have been reported as ‘morphologically undistinguishable’. Two strains of E. invadens have been isolated from different hosts (VK-1: NS - Varanus komodoensis and IP1- serpentes) but were classified within the same ‘species’. Trophozoites of each strain aggregate ...


Mechanism Of G Protein Beta-Gamma Assembly Mediated By Phosducin-Like Protein 1, Chun Wan Jeffrey Lai Dec 2011

Mechanism Of G Protein Beta-Gamma Assembly Mediated By Phosducin-Like Protein 1, Chun Wan Jeffrey Lai

Theses and Dissertations

G-protein coupled receptor signaling (GPCR) is essential for regulating a large variety of hormonal, sensory and neuronal processes in eukaryotic cells. Because the regulation of these physiological responses is critical, GPCR signaling pathways are carefully controlled at different levels within the cascade. Phosducin-like protein 1 (PhLP1) can bind the G protein βγ dimer and participate in GPCR signaling. Recent evidence has supported the concept that PhLP1 can serve as a co-chaperone of the eukaryotic cytosolic chaperonin complex CCT/TRiC to mediate G βγ assembly. Although a general mechanism of PhLP1-mediated G βγ assembly has been postulated, many of the details ...


Map Kinases Couple Hindbrain-Derived Catecholamine Signals To Hypothalamic Adrenocortical Control Mechanisms During Glycemia-Related Challenges, Arshad M. Khan, Kimberly L. Kaminski, Graciela Sanchez-Watts, Todd A. Ponzio, J. Brent Kuzmiski, Jaideep S. Bains, Alan G. Watts Dec 2011

Map Kinases Couple Hindbrain-Derived Catecholamine Signals To Hypothalamic Adrenocortical Control Mechanisms During Glycemia-Related Challenges, Arshad M. Khan, Kimberly L. Kaminski, Graciela Sanchez-Watts, Todd A. Ponzio, J. Brent Kuzmiski, Jaideep S. Bains, Alan G. Watts

Arshad M. Khan, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Support Of Mitochondrial Dna Replication By Human Rad51: A Dissertation, Jay M. Sage Dec 2011

Support Of Mitochondrial Dna Replication By Human Rad51: A Dissertation, Jay M. Sage

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The function of homologous DNA recombination in human mitochondria has been a topic of ongoing debate for many years, with implications for fields ranging from DNA repair and mitochondrial disease to population genetics. While genetic and biochemical evidence supports the presence of a mitochondrial recombination activity, the purpose for this activity and the proteins involved have remained elusive. The work presented in this thesis was designed to evaluate the mitochondrial localization of the major recombinase protein in human cells, Rad51, as well as determine what function it plays in the maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number that is critical ...


Juvenile Hormone Regulates Vitellogenin Gene Expression Through Insulin-Like Peptide Signaling Pathway In The Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium Castaneum, Zhentao Sheng, Jingjing Xu, Hua Bai, Fang Zhu, Subba R. Palli Dec 2011

Juvenile Hormone Regulates Vitellogenin Gene Expression Through Insulin-Like Peptide Signaling Pathway In The Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium Castaneum, Zhentao Sheng, Jingjing Xu, Hua Bai, Fang Zhu, Subba R. Palli

Entomology Faculty Publications

Our recent studies identified juvenile hormone (JH) and nutrition as the two key signals that regulate vitellogenin (Vg) gene expression in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Juvenile hormone regulation of Vg synthesis has been known for a long time in several insects, but the mechanism of JH action is not known. Experiments were conducted to determine the mechanism of action of these two signals in regulation of Vg gene expression. Injection of bovine insulin or FOXO double-stranded RNA into the previtellogenic, starved, or JH-deficient female adults increased Vg mRNA and protein levels, thereby implicating the pivotal role for insulin-like ...


Aptamer Functionalized Microcantilever Sensors For Cocaine Detection, Kyungho Kang, Ashish Sachan, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton, Pranav Shrotriya Dec 2011

Aptamer Functionalized Microcantilever Sensors For Cocaine Detection, Kyungho Kang, Ashish Sachan, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton, Pranav Shrotriya

Mechanical Engineering Publications

A cocaine-specific aptamer was used as a receptor molecule in a microcantilever-based surface stress sensor for detection of cocaine molecules. An interferometric technique that relies on measuring differential displacement between two microcantilevers (a sensing/reference pair) was utilized to measure the cocaine/aptamer binding induced surface stress changes. Sensing experiments were performed for different concentrations of cocaine from 25 to 500 μM in order to determine the sensor response as a function of cocaine concentration. In the lower concentration range from 25 to 100 μM, surface stress values increased proportionally to coverage of aptamer/cocaine complexes from 11 to 26 ...


Characterizing The Phosphorylation State Of Tie2 Using Sh2 Domain Fusion Proteins, Kenneth Yuth Dec 2011

Characterizing The Phosphorylation State Of Tie2 Using Sh2 Domain Fusion Proteins, Kenneth Yuth

Theses and Dissertations

The cardiovascular system develops through two distinct processes in embryogenesis: vasculogenesis, whereby the primary plexus in the heart is formed along with embryonic and extraembryonic vasculature, and angiogenesis, which begins after vasculogenesis and results in the refinement and maturation of the branched vessel system. In pathological angiogenesis, tumors expand by releasing pro-angiogenic factors in response to hypoxic conditions. The Tie receptors, Tie1 and Tie2, are receptor tyrosine kinases that are integral to angiogenic pathways. A family of Angiopoietins, Ang1-4, have been shown to act as ligands for Tie2, of which Ang1 and Ang2 are best characterized. Activation of the receptor ...


Interaction Of A G Protein-Coupled Receptor (Ste2p) Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae With Its Ligand And Its G-Protein Alpha Subunit, Li-Yin Huang Dec 2011

Interaction Of A G Protein-Coupled Receptor (Ste2p) Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae With Its Ligand And Its G-Protein Alpha Subunit, Li-Yin Huang

Doctoral Dissertations

The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family is composed of hundreds of members and is expressed in eukaryotes. Each GPCR has seven transmembrane domains and is in charge of sensing changes from the environment, transducing signals, and activating a series of biological responses. The signal transduction pathway of the receptor starts from sensing outside signal and then activates G proteins. This signaling requires a tight control for activation without which impaired cellular function leads to pathology. We have used the pheromone alpha-factor receptor (Ste2p) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system to understand ligand binding, receptor activation, and G ...


The Role Of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Axl In Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma And Its Regulation By Hematopoietic Progenitor Kinase 1, Xianzhou Song Dec 2011

The Role Of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Axl In Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma And Its Regulation By Hematopoietic Progenitor Kinase 1, Xianzhou Song

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is one of the most aggressive malignancies with less than 5% of five year survival rate. New molecular markers and new therapeutic targets are urgently needed for patients with PDA. Oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase Axl has been reported to be overexpressed in many types of human malignancies, including diffuse glioma, melanoma, osteosarcoma, and carcinomas of lung, colon, prostate, breast, ovary, esophagus, stomach, and kidney. However, the expression and functions of Axl in PDA are unclear. We hypothesized that Axl contributes to the development and progression of PDA. We examined Axl expression in 54 human PDA samples ...


Definition Of The Landscape Of Chromatin Structure At The Frataxin Gene In Friedreich’S Ataxia, Eunah Kim Dec 2011

Definition Of The Landscape Of Chromatin Structure At The Frataxin Gene In Friedreich’S Ataxia, Eunah Kim

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA) is caused by the transcriptional silencing of the frataxin (FXN) gene. FRDA patients have expansion of GAA repeats in intron 1 of the FXN gene in both alleles. A number of studies demonstrated that specific histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) affect either histone modifications at the FXN gene or FXN expression in FRDA cells, indicating that the hyperexpanded GAA repeat may facilitate heterochromatin formation. However, the correlation between chromatin structure and transcription at the FXN gene is currently limited due to a lack of more detailed analysis. Therefore, I analyzed the effects of the hyperexpanded GAA repeats ...


Conformational Changes In The Extracellular Domain Of Glutamate Receptors, Anu Rambhadran Dec 2011

Conformational Changes In The Extracellular Domain Of Glutamate Receptors, Anu Rambhadran

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The family of membrane protein called glutamate receptors play an important role in the central nervous system in mediating signaling between neurons. Glutamate receptors are involved in the elaborate game that nerve cells play with each other in order to control movement, memory, and learning.

Neurons achieve this communication by rapidly converting electrical signals into chemical signals and then converting them back into electrical signals. To propagate an electrical impulse, neurons in the brain launch bursts of neurotransmitter molecules like glutamate at the junction between neurons, called the synapse. Glutamate receptors are found lodged in the membranes of the post-synaptic ...


Gene Expression And Physiological Analyses To Study Metabolic Shifts In Medicago Truncatula Subjected To Biotic Stresses, Michelle Ryan Martin Dec 2011

Gene Expression And Physiological Analyses To Study Metabolic Shifts In Medicago Truncatula Subjected To Biotic Stresses, Michelle Ryan Martin

Theses and Dissertations

Plants are frequently under attack from pests and deploy various defense mechanisms to fight off predators. Many plant defenses are induced following herbivory or pathogen infection. An investment in defense could potentially lead to a diversion of metabolic resources away from primary metabolism, including reduction in plant commitment to photosynthesis. In this thesis, changes in expression levels of representative genes for primary and secondary metabolism were studied using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in Medicago truncatula Gaertner subjected to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua H¨¹bner) damage or Phoma medicaginis Malbr. & Roum. infection. Photosynthetic yield was also measured using chlorophyll fluorescence ...


Suppression Of Chronically Induced Breast Carcinogenesis And Role Of Mesenchymal Stem-Like Cells, Kusum Rathore Dec 2011

Suppression Of Chronically Induced Breast Carcinogenesis And Role Of Mesenchymal Stem-Like Cells, Kusum Rathore

Doctoral Dissertations

Sporadic breast cancers are mainly attributable to long-term exposure to environmental factors, via a multi-year, multi-step, and multi-path process of tumorigenesis involving cumulative genetic and epigenetic alterations in the chronic carcinogenesis of breast cells from a non-cancerous stage to precancerous and cancerous stages. Epidemiologic and experimental studies have suggested that various dietary compounds like green tea and grape seed may be used as preventive agents for breast cancer control. In this research, I have developed a cellular model that mimics breast cell carcinogenesis chronically induced by cumulative exposures to low doses of environmental carcinogens. I used the chronic carcinogenesis model ...


Impact Of Crop And Residue Management On The Physical And Chemical Stabilization Of Soil Organic Matter At Farm Level, Ana B. Wingeyer Dec 2011

Impact Of Crop And Residue Management On The Physical And Chemical Stabilization Of Soil Organic Matter At Farm Level, Ana B. Wingeyer

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

This dissertation explores changes over time in soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization of two irrigated production fields: a continuous maize sequence that was converted from no-till to conservation deep tillage (Site 1), and a no-till maize-soybean rotation (Site 2). An integrated approach using humic acid extractions and density-based physical fractionation of SOM within aggregate size classes was developed to evaluate the changes in SOM stabilization (physical protection, organo-mineral associations and humification). At Site 1, loss of SOM in the surface layer was compensated for by increased SOM in deeper soil layers with no net change in C stocks. Whole field ...


A Polymerase Chain Reaction Method For The Detection Of Selenomonas Noxia, Arthuro Mehretu Dec 2011

A Polymerase Chain Reaction Method For The Detection Of Selenomonas Noxia, Arthuro Mehretu

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

In recent studies, periodontal health has been linked to being overweight and/or obese. Among common oral bacteria, Selenomonas noxia has been implicated in converting periodontal health to disease. Selenomonas spp. have also been found in gastric ulcers, and were misdiagnosed as Helicobacter -like organisms, but no further studies were conducted. The increasing clinical and epidemiological importance of S. noxia necessitates the development of a rapid detection method. In this study, a TaqMan 16S rRNA based real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method was developed, optimized and evaluated for the rapid and specific detection of S. noxia . The 16S PCR assay ...


Global And Specific Controls Of Protein Synthesis In Hibernators, Peipei Pan Dec 2011

Global And Specific Controls Of Protein Synthesis In Hibernators, Peipei Pan

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Mammalian hibernation is a highly dynamic physiological process that is composed of a series of torpor bouts, wherein hibernators oscillate between periods of torpor and interbout arousal. Although normally vital to homeostasis, many energetically consumptive processes such as translation or protein synthesis are virtually ceased during hibernation. Earlier studies indicated that protein synthesis had fallen to almost negligible levels. Cap-dependent initiation of translation is well regulated by eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and its binding partner eIF4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) when hibernators cycle in and out the torpor state. Herein, I investigated well-characterized regulatory mechanisms of global and specific ...


Bcl-2 Family Members Regulate The Sensitivity To 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose In Lymphomas, Oksana Zagorodna Dec 2011

Bcl-2 Family Members Regulate The Sensitivity To 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose In Lymphomas, Oksana Zagorodna

Theses and Dissertations

Bcl-2 family members are important regulators of apoptosis, and their tampered expression is often involved in oncogenesis. Of particular importance are the levels of Bcl-2 family members in forming lymphomas. We studied two groups of murine thymic T cell lymphomas derived from either Bcl-2 or Bax overexpression in order to predict their sensitivity and resistance to treatments. While the growth rate and histological characteristics were similar for both lymphoma groups, Bax-derived lymphomas failed to undergo cell cycle arrest following radiation treatment and had frequent p53 mutations. In contrast, Bcl-2-derived lymphomas often halted proliferation following radiation delivery and rarely had p53 ...


The Role Of Dystroglycan In The Prostate Epithelium And Prostate Cancer, Alison K. Esser Dec 2011

The Role Of Dystroglycan In The Prostate Epithelium And Prostate Cancer, Alison K. Esser

Theses and Dissertations

Interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix are essential to the organization and maintenance of tissue architecture and function. ECM receptors serve as a link between the cell and the ECM. Through interactions with various matrix molecules and activation of intracellular signaling pathways, ECM receptors allow cells to sense and respond to their microenvironment. The matrix receptor dystroglycan (DG) has been shown to have roles in tissue morphogenesis, basement membrane formation as well as in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. DG is expressed in many tissues but has primarily been studied in muscle. The function of dystroglycan ...