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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Venn, A Tool For Titrating Sequence Conservation Onto Protein Structures, Jay Vyas, Michael R. Gryk, Martin R. Schiller Oct 2009

Venn, A Tool For Titrating Sequence Conservation Onto Protein Structures, Jay Vyas, Michael R. Gryk, Martin R. Schiller

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

Residue conservation is an important, established method for inferring protein function, modularity and specificity. It is important to recognize that it is the 3D spatial orientation of residues that drives sequence conservation. Considering this, we have built a new computational tool, VENN that allows researchers to interactively and graphically titrate sequence homology onto surface representations of protein structures. Our proposed titration strategies reveal critical details that are not readily identified using other existing tools. Analyses of a bZIP transcription factor and receptor recognition of Fibroblast Growth Factor using VENN revealed key specificity determinants. Weblink: http://sbtools.uchc.edu/venn/.


Conservation Of The Glucan Phosphatase Laforin Is Linked To Rates Of Molecular Evolution And The Glucan Metabolism Of The Organism, Matthew S. Gentry, Rachel M. Pace Jun 2009

Conservation Of The Glucan Phosphatase Laforin Is Linked To Rates Of Molecular Evolution And The Glucan Metabolism Of The Organism, Matthew S. Gentry, Rachel M. Pace

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Lafora disease (LD) is a fatal autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease. A hallmark of LD is cytoplasmic accumulation of insoluble glucans, called Lafora bodies (LBs). Mutations in the gene encoding the phosphatase laforin account for approximately 50% of LD cases, and this gene is conserved in all vertebrates. We recently demonstrated that laforin is the founding member of a unique class of phosphatases that dephosphorylate glucans.

RESULTS: Herein, we identify laforin orthologs in a protist and two invertebrate genomes, and report that laforin is absent in the vast majority of protozoan genomes and it is lacking in all other invertebrate ...


Human Cerebral Neuropathology Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Peter T. Nelson, Charles D. Smith, Erin L. Abner, Frederick A. Schmitt, Stephen W. Scheff, Gregory J. Davis, Jeffrey N. Keller, Gregory A. Jicha, Daron Davis, Wang-Xia Wang, Adria Hartman, Douglas G. Katz, William R. Markesbery May 2009

Human Cerebral Neuropathology Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Peter T. Nelson, Charles D. Smith, Erin L. Abner, Frederick A. Schmitt, Stephen W. Scheff, Gregory J. Davis, Jeffrey N. Keller, Gregory A. Jicha, Daron Davis, Wang-Xia Wang, Adria Hartman, Douglas G. Katz, William R. Markesbery

Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Faculty Publications

The cerebral neuropathology of Type 2 diabetes (CNDM2) has not been positively defined. This review includes a description of CNDM2 research from before the ‘Pubmed Era’. Recent neuroimaging studies have focused on cerebrovascular and white matter pathology. These and prior studies about cerebrovascular histopathology in diabetes are reviewed. Evidence is also described for and against the link between CNDM2 and Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. To study this matter directly, we evaluated data from University of Kentucky Alzheimer's Disease Center (UK ADC) patients recruited while non-demented and followed longitudinally. Of patients who had come to autopsy (N = 234), 139 met ...


Polyglutamine Disruption Of The Huntingtin Exon 1 N Terminus Triggers A Complex Aggregation Mechanism, Ashwani K. Thakur, Murali Jayaraman, Rakesh Mishra, Monika Thakur, Veronique M. Chellgren, In-Ja L Byeon, Dalaver H. Anjum, Ravindra Kodali, Trevor P. Creamer, James F. Conway, Angela M. Gronenborn, Ronald Wetzel Apr 2009

Polyglutamine Disruption Of The Huntingtin Exon 1 N Terminus Triggers A Complex Aggregation Mechanism, Ashwani K. Thakur, Murali Jayaraman, Rakesh Mishra, Monika Thakur, Veronique M. Chellgren, In-Ja L Byeon, Dalaver H. Anjum, Ravindra Kodali, Trevor P. Creamer, James F. Conway, Angela M. Gronenborn, Ronald Wetzel

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Simple polyglutamine (polyQ) peptides aggregate in vitro via a nucleated growth pathway directly yielding amyloid-like aggregates. We show here that the 17-amino-acid flanking sequence (HTTNT) N-terminal to the polyQ in the toxic huntingtin exon 1 fragment imparts onto this peptide a complex alternative aggregation mechanism. In isolation, the HTTNT peptide is a compact coil that resists aggregation. When polyQ is fused to this sequence, it induces in HTTNT, in a repeat-length dependent fashion, a more extended conformation that greatly enhances its aggregation into globular oligomers with HTTNT cores and exposed polyQ. In a second step, a ...