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2009

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Articles 1 - 30 of 219

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Chromatin 'Programming' By Sequence - Is There More To The Nucleosome Code Than %Gc, Amanda Hughes, Oliver J. Rando Dec 2009

Chromatin 'Programming' By Sequence - Is There More To The Nucleosome Code Than %Gc, Amanda Hughes, Oliver J. Rando

Open Access Articles

The role of genomic sequence in directing the packaging of eukaryotic genomes into chromatin has been the subject of considerable recent debate. A new paper from Tillo and Hughes shows that the intrinsic thermodynamic preference of a given sequence in the yeast genome for the histone octamer can largely be captured with a simple model, and in fact is mostly explained by %GC. Thus, the rules for predicting nucleosome occupancy from genomic sequence are much less complicated than has been claimed.


The Danger Signal Adenosine Induces Persistence Of Chlamydial Infection Through Stimulation Of A2b Receptors, Matthew A. Pettengill, Verissa W. Lam, David M. Ojcius Dec 2009

The Danger Signal Adenosine Induces Persistence Of Chlamydial Infection Through Stimulation Of A2b Receptors, Matthew A. Pettengill, Verissa W. Lam, David M. Ojcius

Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles

Infections with intracellular bacteria such as chlamydiae affect the majority of the world population. Infected tissue inflammation and granuloma formation help contain the short-term expansion of the invading pathogen, leading also to local tissue damage and hypoxia. However, the effects of key aspects of damaged inflamed tissues and hypoxia on continued infection with intracellular bacteria remain unknown. We find that development of Chlamydia trachomatis is reversibly retarded by prolonged exposure of infected cells to extracellular adenosine, a hallmark of hypoxia and advanced inflammation. In epithelial cells, this effect was mediated by the A2b adenosine receptor, unique in the adenosine receptor ...


Inactivation Of The Fliy Gene Encoding A Flagellar Motor Switch Protein Attenuates Mobility And Virulence Of Leptospira Interrogans Strain Lai, Sumei Liao, Ai-Hua Sun, David M. Ojcius, Senlin Wu, Jinfang Zhao, Jie Yan Dec 2009

Inactivation Of The Fliy Gene Encoding A Flagellar Motor Switch Protein Attenuates Mobility And Virulence Of Leptospira Interrogans Strain Lai, Sumei Liao, Ai-Hua Sun, David M. Ojcius, Senlin Wu, Jinfang Zhao, Jie Yan

Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles

Background: Pathogenic Leptospira species cause leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease of global importance. The spirochete displays active rotative mobility which may contribute to invasion and diffusion of the pathogen in hosts. FliY is a flagellar motor switch protein that controls flagellar motor direction in other microbes, but its role in Leptospira, and paricularly in pathogenicity remains unknown.

Results: A suicide plasmid for the fliY gene of Leptospira interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar Lai strain Lai that was disrupted by inserting the ampicillin resistance gene (bla) was constructed, and the inactivation of fliY gene in a mutant (fliY-) was confirmed by PCR and ...


Charge Switch Nucleotides, John G. K. Williams, Gregory R. Bashford, Jiyan Chen, Dan Draney, Nara Narayanan, Bambi Reynolds, Pamela Sheaff Dec 2009

Charge Switch Nucleotides, John G. K. Williams, Gregory R. Bashford, Jiyan Chen, Dan Draney, Nara Narayanan, Bambi Reynolds, Pamela Sheaff

Biomedical Imaging and Biosignal Analysis Laboratory

The present invention provides compounds, methods and systems for sequencing nucleic acid using single molecule detection. Using labeled NPs that exhibit charged-switching behavior, single-molecule DNA sequencing in a microchannel sorting system is realized. In operation, sequencing products are detected enabling real-time sequencing as successive detectable moieties flow through a detection channel. By electrically sorting charged molecules, the cleaved product molecules are detected in isolation Without interference from unincorporated NPs and Without illuminating the polymerase-DNA complex.


Distribution And Diversity Of Archaeal And Bacterial Ammonia Oxidizers In Salt Marsh Sediments, Nicole S. Moin, Katelyn A. Nelson, Alexander Bush, Anne E. Bernhard Dec 2009

Distribution And Diversity Of Archaeal And Bacterial Ammonia Oxidizers In Salt Marsh Sediments, Nicole S. Moin, Katelyn A. Nelson, Alexander Bush, Anne E. Bernhard

Biology Faculty Publications

Diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria (β-AOB) and archaea (AOA) were investigated in a New England salt marsh at sites dominated by short or tall Spartina alterniflora (SAS and SAT sites, respectively) or Spartina patens (SP site). AOA amoA gene richness was higher than β-AOB amoA richness at SAT and SP, but AOA and β-AOB richness were similar at SAS. β-AOB amoA clone libraries were composed exclusively of Nitrosospira-like amoA genes. AOA amoA genes at SAT and SP were equally distributed between the water column/sediment and soil/sediment clades, while AOA amoA sequences at SAS were primarily affiliated ...


Pot1 Proteins In Green Algae And Land Plants: Dna-Binding Properties And Evidence Of Co-Evolution With Telomeric Dna, Eugene V. Shakirov, Xiangyu Song, Jessica A. Joseph, Dorothy E. Shippen Dec 2009

Pot1 Proteins In Green Algae And Land Plants: Dna-Binding Properties And Evidence Of Co-Evolution With Telomeric Dna, Eugene V. Shakirov, Xiangyu Song, Jessica A. Joseph, Dorothy E. Shippen

Biological Sciences Faculty Research

Telomeric DNA terminates with a single-stranded 3′ G-overhang that in vertebrates and fission yeast is bound by POT1 (Protection Of Telomeres). However, no in vitro telomeric DNA binding is associated with Arabidopsis POT1 paralogs. To further investigate POT1–DNA interaction in plants, we cloned POT1 genes from 11 plant species representing major branches of plant kingdom. Telomeric DNA binding was associated with POT1 proteins from the green alga Ostreococcus lucimarinus and two flowering plants, maize and Asparagus. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that several residues critical for telomeric DNA recognition in vertebrates are functionally conserved in plant POT1 proteins. However, the plant ...


Cloning Of "Animal Cryptochrome" Cdna From The Model Organism Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii For Functional Analysis Of Its Protein Product, Shobha Lavanya Silparasetty Dec 2009

Cloning Of "Animal Cryptochrome" Cdna From The Model Organism Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii For Functional Analysis Of Its Protein Product, Shobha Lavanya Silparasetty

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

reinhardtii, a unicellular green alga, is a model organism to study the circadian clock. Cryptochromes are the blue light photoreceptors that entrain the clock in some organisms. The CPH1 protein of C. reinhardtii resembles the cryptochromes of the plant model Arabidopsis, but whether CPH1 entrains the circadian clock in C. reinhardtii is not yet known. Recent reports have suggested the existence of one more cryptochrome in C. reinhardtii, which resembles the cryptochromes of animals. However, the amino acid sequence of this protein shows even higher sequence similarity with the 6-4 DNA photolyase of Arabidopsis. DNA photolyases are involved in the ...


Computational Prediction Of The Agregated Structure Of Denatured Lysozyme, Pongsathorn Chotikasemsri Dec 2009

Computational Prediction Of The Agregated Structure Of Denatured Lysozyme, Pongsathorn Chotikasemsri

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Mis-folded proteins and their associated aggregates are a contributing factor in some human diseases. In this study we used the protein lysozyme as a model to define aggregation structures under denaturing conditions. Sasahara et al. (2007), Frare et al. (2009, 2006), and Rubin et al. (2008) observed conditions where heat denatured lysozyme formed fibril structures that were observed to be 8-17 nanometers in diameter under the electron microscope. Even though the crystal structure of lysozyme is known, the denatured form of this protein is still unknown. Therefore, we used Rosetta++ protein folding and blind docking software to create in silico ...


Collaborative Research: Differential Expression Of Oxygen-Binding Proteins In Antarctic Fishes Affects Nitric Oxide-Mediated Pathways Of Angiogenesis And Mitochondrial Biogenesis, Bruce Sidell Nov 2009

Collaborative Research: Differential Expression Of Oxygen-Binding Proteins In Antarctic Fishes Affects Nitric Oxide-Mediated Pathways Of Angiogenesis And Mitochondrial Biogenesis, Bruce Sidell

University of Maine Office of Research Administration: Grant Reports

The polar ocean presently surrounding Antarctica is the coldest, most thermally stable marine environment on earth. Because oxygen solubility in seawater is inversely proportional to temperature, the cold Antarctic seas are an exceptionally oxygen-rich aquatic habitat. Eight families of a single perciform suborder, the Notothenioidei, dominate the present fish fauna surrounding Antarctica. Notothenioids account for approximately 35% of fish species and 90% of fish biomass south of the Antarctic Polar Front. Radiation of closely related notothenioid species thus has occurred rapidly and under a very unusual set of conditions: relative oceanographic isolation from other faunas due to circumpolar currents and ...


Ceramide Kinase Regulates Phospholipase C And Phosphatidylinositol 4, 5, Bisphosphate In Phototransduction, Ujjaini Dasgupta, Takeshi Bamba, Salvatore Chiantia, Pusha Karim, Ahmad N. Abou Tayoun Nov 2009

Ceramide Kinase Regulates Phospholipase C And Phosphatidylinositol 4, 5, Bisphosphate In Phototransduction, Ujjaini Dasgupta, Takeshi Bamba, Salvatore Chiantia, Pusha Karim, Ahmad N. Abou Tayoun

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) is a central effector for many biological responses regulated by G-protein-coupled receptors including Drosophila phototransduction where light sensitive channels are activated downstream of NORPA, a PLCbeta homolog. Here we show that the sphingolipid biosynthetic enzyme, ceramide kinase, is a novel regulator of PLC signaling and photoreceptor homeostasis. A mutation in ceramide kinase specifically leads to proteolysis of NORPA, consequent loss of PLC activity, and failure in light signal transduction. The mutant photoreceptors also undergo activity-dependent degeneration. Furthermore, we show that a significant increase in ceramide, resulting from lack of ceramide kinase, perturbs the membrane microenvironment of ...


Quantifying And Resolving Multiple Vector Transformants In S. Cerevisiae Plasmid Libraries, Thomas C. Scanlon, Elizabeth C. Gray, Karl E. Griswold Nov 2009

Quantifying And Resolving Multiple Vector Transformants In S. Cerevisiae Plasmid Libraries, Thomas C. Scanlon, Elizabeth C. Gray, Karl E. Griswold

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

In addition to providing the molecular machinery for transcription and translation, recombinant microbial expression hosts maintain the critical genotype-phenotype link that is essential for high throughput screening and recovery of proteins encoded by plasmid libraries. It is known that Escherichia coli cells can be simultaneously transformed with multiple unique plasmids and thusly complicate recombinant library screening experiments. As a result of their potential to yield misleading results, bacterial multiple vector transformants have been thoroughly characterized in previous model studies. In contrast to bacterial systems, there is little quantitative information available regarding multiple vector transformants in yeast. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the ...


Expression And Function Of Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 Alpha In Human Melanoma Under Non-Hypoxic Conditions, Caroline N. Mills, Sandeep S. Joshi, Richard M. Niles Nov 2009

Expression And Function Of Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 Alpha In Human Melanoma Under Non-Hypoxic Conditions, Caroline N. Mills, Sandeep S. Joshi, Richard M. Niles

Biochemistry and Microbiology

Background

Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) protein is rapidly degraded under normoxic conditions. When oxygen tensions fall HIF-1α protein stabilizes and transactivates genes involved in adaptation to hypoxic conditions. We have examined the normoxic expression of HIF-1α RNA and protein in normal human melanocytes and a series of human melanoma cell lines isolated from radial growth phase (RGP), vertical growth phase (VGP) and metastatic (MET) melanomas.

Results

HIF-1α mRNA and protein was increased in RGP vs melanocytes, VGP vs RGP and MET vs VGP melanoma cell lines. We also detected expression of a HIF-1α mRNA splice variant that lacks part ...


The Energy Profiles Of Atomic Conformational Transition Intermediates Of Adenylate Kinase, Yaping Feng, Lei Yang, Andrzej Kloczkowski, Robert L. Jernigan Nov 2009

The Energy Profiles Of Atomic Conformational Transition Intermediates Of Adenylate Kinase, Yaping Feng, Lei Yang, Andrzej Kloczkowski, Robert L. Jernigan

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

The elastic network interpolation (ENI)1 is a computationally efficient and physically realistic method to generate conformational transition intermediates between two forms of a given protein. However it can be asked whether these calculated conformations provide good representatives for these intermediates. In this study, we use ENI to generate conformational transition intermediates between the open form and the closed forms of adenylate kinase (AK). Based on Cα-only intermediates, we construct atomic intermediates by grafting all the atoms of known AK structures onto the Cα atoms and then perform CHARMM energy minimization to remove steric conflicts and optimize ...


Identification Of Functional Lsrb-Like Autoinducer-2 Receptors, C. S. Pereira, Anna Katherine De Regt , '09, P. H. Brito, Stephen T. Miller, K. B. Xavier Nov 2009

Identification Of Functional Lsrb-Like Autoinducer-2 Receptors, C. S. Pereira, Anna Katherine De Regt , '09, P. H. Brito, Stephen T. Miller, K. B. Xavier

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Works

Although a variety of bacterial species have been reported to use the interspecies communication signal autoinducer-2 (AI-2) to regulate multiple behaviors, the molecular mechanisms of AI-2 recognition and signal transduction remain poorly understood. To date, two types of AI-2 receptors have been identified: LuxP, present in Vibrio spp., and LsrB, first identified in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. In S. Typhimurium, LsrB is the ligand binding protein of a transport system that enables the internalization of AI-2. Here, using both sequence analysis and structure prediction, we establish a set of criteria for identifying functional AI-2 receptors. We test our predictions experimentally ...


A Feedback Circuit Involving Let-7-Family Mirnas And Daf-12 Integrates Environmental Signals And Developmental Timing In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Christopher M. Hammell, Xantha Karp, Victor R. Ambros Nov 2009

A Feedback Circuit Involving Let-7-Family Mirnas And Daf-12 Integrates Environmental Signals And Developmental Timing In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Christopher M. Hammell, Xantha Karp, Victor R. Ambros

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations

Animal development is remarkably robust; cell fates are specified with spatial and temporal precision despite physiological and environmental contingencies. Favorable conditions cause Caenorhabditis elegans to develop rapidly through four larval stages (L1-L4) to the reproductive adult. In unfavorable conditions, L2 larvae can enter the developmentally quiescent, stress-resistant dauer larva stage, enabling them to survive for prolonged periods before completing development. A specific progression of cell division and differentiation events occurs with fidelity during the larval stages, regardless of whether an animal undergoes continuous or dauer-interrupted development. The temporal patterning of developmental events is controlled by the heterochronic genes, whose products ...


Ppar Agonists Down-Regulate The Expression Of Atp10c Mrna During Adipogenesis, A Peretich, Maria Cekanova Ms, Rndr, Phd, S Hurst, Sj Baek, Madhu Dahr Nov 2009

Ppar Agonists Down-Regulate The Expression Of Atp10c Mrna During Adipogenesis, A Peretich, Maria Cekanova Ms, Rndr, Phd, S Hurst, Sj Baek, Madhu Dahr

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Biochemistry, Cellular and Molecular Biology

No abstract provided.


Absolute Configuration And Biosynthesis Of Pahayokolide A From Lyngbya Sp. Strain 15-2 Of The Florida Everglades, Li Liu Nov 2009

Absolute Configuration And Biosynthesis Of Pahayokolide A From Lyngbya Sp. Strain 15-2 Of The Florida Everglades, Li Liu

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pahayokolides A-D are cytotoxic cyclic polypeptides produced by the freshwater cyanobacterium Lyngbya sp. strain 15-2 that possess an unusual β-amino acid, 3-amino-2,5,7,8-tetrahydroxy-10-methylundecanoic acid (Athmu). The absolute configuration of pahayokolides A-D was determined using advanced Marfey’s method. It was also confirmed that a pendant N-acetyl-N-methyl leucine moiety in pahayokolide A was absent in pahayokolides B and pahayokolides C-D were conformers of pahayokolide A. Feeding experiments indicated that the biosynthesis of the Athmu sidechain arises from leucine or α-ketoisovalerate, however could not be further extended by three rounds of condensation with malonate units. Putative four peptide and one ...


Protein Flexibility: Coordinate Uncertainties And Interpretation Of Structural Differences, Alexander A. Rashin, Abraham H. L. Rashin, Robert L. Jernigan Nov 2009

Protein Flexibility: Coordinate Uncertainties And Interpretation Of Structural Differences, Alexander A. Rashin, Abraham H. L. Rashin, Robert L. Jernigan

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Valid interpretations of conformational movements in protein structures determined by X-ray crystallography require that the movement magnitudes exceed their uncertainty threshold. Here, it is shown that such thresholds can be obtained from the distance difference matrices (DDMs) of 1014 pairs of independently determined structures of bovine ribonuclease A and sperm whale myoglobin, with no explanations provided for reportedly minor coordinate differences. The smallest magnitudes of reportedly functional motions are just above these thresholds. Uncertainty thresholds can provide objective criteria that distinguish between true conformational changes and apparent `noise', showing that some previous interpretations of protein coordinate changes attributed to external ...


Yeast Ste23p Shares Functional Similarities With Mammalian Insulin-Degrading Enzymes, Benjamin Alper, Jarrad W. Rowse, Walter K. Schmidt Nov 2009

Yeast Ste23p Shares Functional Similarities With Mammalian Insulin-Degrading Enzymes, Benjamin Alper, Jarrad W. Rowse, Walter K. Schmidt

Chemistry & Physics Faculty Publications

The S. cerevisiae genome encodes two M16A enzymes: Axl1p and Ste23p. Of the two, Ste23p shares significantly higher sequence identity with M16A enzymes from other species, including mammalian insulin-degrading enzymes (IDEs). In this study, recombinant Ste23p and R. norvegicus IDE (RnIDE) were isolated from E. coli, and their enzymatic properties compared. Ste23p was found to cleave established RnIDE substrates including the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ 1-40) and insulin B chain. A novel internally quenched fluorogenic substrate (Abz-SEKKDNYIIKGVnitroY-OH) based on the polypeptide sequence of the yeast P2 a-factor mating propheromone was determined to be a suitable substrate for both Ste23p ...


Methods And Compositions For Vaccnation Of Animals With Prrsv Antigens With Improved Immunogenicity, Israrul H. Ansari, Fernando A. Osorio, Asit K. Pattnaik, Oct 2009

Methods And Compositions For Vaccnation Of Animals With Prrsv Antigens With Improved Immunogenicity, Israrul H. Ansari, Fernando A. Osorio, Asit K. Pattnaik,

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Pigs challenged with hypoglycosylated variants of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) major surface protein GP5 exhibited increased production of PRRSV-neutralizing antibodies relative to the levels of neutralizing antibodies produced by pigs immunized with wild type (wt) or glycosylated GP5. This invention provides for methods of obtaining improved immune responses in pigs to PRRSV, compositions useful for obtaining the improved immune responses as well as isolated polynucleotides that encode hypoglycosylated variants of PRRSV major surface protein GP5.


Watching Proteins In Motion, Mary Munson, Daniel N. Bolon Oct 2009

Watching Proteins In Motion, Mary Munson, Daniel N. Bolon

Open Access Articles

A report of the 23rd Protein Symposium 'Proteins in Motion', Boston, USA, 23-27 July 2009.


Integral Membrane Proteins Brr6 And Apq12 Link Assembly Of The Nuclear Pore Complex To Lipid Homeostasis In The Endoplasmic Reticulum, Christine A. Hodge, Vineet Choudhary, Michael J. Wolyniak, John J. Scarcelli, Roger Schneiter, Charles N. Cole Oct 2009

Integral Membrane Proteins Brr6 And Apq12 Link Assembly Of The Nuclear Pore Complex To Lipid Homeostasis In The Endoplasmic Reticulum, Christine A. Hodge, Vineet Choudhary, Michael J. Wolyniak, John J. Scarcelli, Roger Schneiter, Charles N. Cole

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking Apq12, a nuclear envelope (NE)-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) integral membrane protein, are defective in assembly of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), possibly because of defects in regulating membrane fluidity. We identified BRR6, which encodes an essential integral membrane protein of the NE-ER, as a dosage suppressor of apq12 Delta. Cells carrying the temperature-sensitive brr6-1 allele have been shown to have defects in nucleoporin localization, mRNA metabolism and nuclear transport. Electron microscopy revealed that brr6-1 cells have gross NE abnormalities and proliferation of the ER. brr6-1 cells were hypersensitive to compounds that affect membrane biophysical properties and ...


The Leishmania Donovani Lipophosphoglycan Excludes The Vesicular Proton-Atpase From Phagosomes By Impairing The Recruitment Of Synaptotagmin V, Adrien F. Vinet, Mitsunori Fukuda, Salvatore J. Turco, Albert Descoteaux Oct 2009

The Leishmania Donovani Lipophosphoglycan Excludes The Vesicular Proton-Atpase From Phagosomes By Impairing The Recruitment Of Synaptotagmin V, Adrien F. Vinet, Mitsunori Fukuda, Salvatore J. Turco, Albert Descoteaux

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

We recently showed that the exocytosis regulator Synaptotagmin (Syt) V is recruited to the nascent phagosome and remains associated throughout the maturation process. In this study, we investigated the possibility that Syt V plays a role in regulating interactions between the phagosome and the endocytic organelles. Silencing of Syt V by RNA interference revealed that Syt V contributes to phagolysosome biogenesis by regulating the acquisition of cathepsin D and the vesicular proton-ATPase. In contrast, recruitment of cathepsin B, the early endosomal marker EEA1 and the lysosomal marker LAMP1 to phagosomes was normal in the absence of Syt V. As Leishmania ...


Selenoproteins Regulate Macrophage Invasiveness And Extracellular Matrix-Related Gene Expression, Bradley A. Carlson, Min-Hyuk Yoo, Yasuyo Sano, Aniruddha Sengupta, Jin Young Kim, Robert Irons, Vadim N. Gladyshev, Dolph L. Hatfield, Jin Mo Park Oct 2009

Selenoproteins Regulate Macrophage Invasiveness And Extracellular Matrix-Related Gene Expression, Bradley A. Carlson, Min-Hyuk Yoo, Yasuyo Sano, Aniruddha Sengupta, Jin Young Kim, Robert Irons, Vadim N. Gladyshev, Dolph L. Hatfield, Jin Mo Park

Vadim Gladyshev Publications

Background: Selenium, a micronutrient whose deficiency in diet causes immune dysfunction and inflammatory disorders, is thought to exert its physiological effects mostly in the form of selenium-containing proteins (selenoproteins). Incorporation of selenium into the amino acid selenocysteine (Sec), and subsequently into selenoproteins is mediated by Sec tRNA[Ser]Sec.
Results: To define macrophage-specific selenoprotein functions, we generated mice with the Sec tRNA[Ser]Sec gene specifically deleted in myeloid cells. These mutant mice were devoid of the "selenoproteome" in macrophages, yet exhibited largely normal inflammatory responses. However, selenoprotein deficiency led to aberrant expression of extracellular matrix-related genes, and diminished migration ...


Flagellar Formation In C-Ring-Defective Mutants By Overproduction Of Flii, The Atpase Specific For Flagellar Type Iii Secretion, Manabu Konishi, Masaomi Kanbe, Jonathan L. Mcmurry, Shin-Ichi Aizawa Oct 2009

Flagellar Formation In C-Ring-Defective Mutants By Overproduction Of Flii, The Atpase Specific For Flagellar Type Iii Secretion, Manabu Konishi, Masaomi Kanbe, Jonathan L. Mcmurry, Shin-Ichi Aizawa

Faculty Publications

The flagellar cytoplasmic ring (C ring), which consists of three proteins, FliG, FliM, and FliN, is located on the cytoplasmic side of the flagellum. The C ring is a multifunctional structure necessary for flagellar protein secretion, torque generation, and switching of the rotational direction of the motor. The deletion of any one of the fliG, fliM, and fliN genes results in a Fla - phenotype. Here, we show that the overproduction of the flagellum-specific ATPase FliI overcomes the inability of basal bodies with partial C-ring structures to produce complete flagella. Flagella made upon FliI overproduction were paralyzed, indicating that an intact ...


Lipid-Protein Interactions Probed By Electron Crystallography, Steve L. Reichow, Tamir Gonen Oct 2009

Lipid-Protein Interactions Probed By Electron Crystallography, Steve L. Reichow, Tamir Gonen

Chemistry Faculty Publications and Presentations

Electron crystallography is arguably the only electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) technique able to deliver an atomic-resolution structure of membrane proteins embedded in the lipid-bilayer. In the electron crystallographic structures of the light driven ion pump, bacteriorhodopsin, and the water channel, aquaporin-0, sufficiently high resolution was obtained and both lipid and protein were visualized, modeled and described in detail. An extensive network of lipid-protein interactions mimicking native membranes is established and maintained in two-dimensional (2D) crystalline vesicles used for structural analysis by electron crystallography. Lipids are tightly integrated into the protein's architecture where they can affect the function, structure, quaternary assembly ...


Cyp76m7 Is An Ent-Cassadiene C11Α-Hydroxylase Defining A Second Multifunctional Diterpenoid Biosynthetic Gene Cluster In Rice, Sivakumar Swaminathan, Dana Morrone, Qiang Wang, D. Bruce Fulton, Reuben J. Peters Oct 2009

Cyp76m7 Is An Ent-Cassadiene C11Α-Hydroxylase Defining A Second Multifunctional Diterpenoid Biosynthetic Gene Cluster In Rice, Sivakumar Swaminathan, Dana Morrone, Qiang Wang, D. Bruce Fulton, Reuben J. Peters

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Biosynthetic gene clusters are common in microbial organisms, but rare in plants, raising questions regarding the evolutionary forces that drive their assembly in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we characterize the biochemical function of a rice (Oryza sativa) cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, CYP76M7, which seems to act in the production of antifungal phytocassanes and defines a second diterpenoid biosynthetic gene cluster in rice. This cluster is uniquely multifunctional, containing enzymatic genes involved in the production of two distinct sets of phytoalexins, the antifungal phytocassanes and antibacterial oryzalides/oryzadiones, with the corresponding genes being subject to distinct transcriptional regulation. The lack of uniform coregulation ...


Venn, A Tool For Titrating Sequence Conservation Onto Protein Structures, Jay Vyas, Michael R. Gryk, Martin R. Schiller Oct 2009

Venn, A Tool For Titrating Sequence Conservation Onto Protein Structures, Jay Vyas, Michael R. Gryk, Martin R. Schiller

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

Residue conservation is an important, established method for inferring protein function, modularity and specificity. It is important to recognize that it is the 3D spatial orientation of residues that drives sequence conservation. Considering this, we have built a new computational tool, VENN that allows researchers to interactively and graphically titrate sequence homology onto surface representations of protein structures. Our proposed titration strategies reveal critical details that are not readily identified using other existing tools. Analyses of a bZIP transcription factor and receptor recognition of Fibroblast Growth Factor using VENN revealed key specificity determinants. Weblink: http://sbtools.uchc.edu/venn/.


Inflammasome-Dependent Caspase-1 Activation In Cervical Epithelial Cells Stimulates Growth Of The Intracellular Pathogen Chlamydia Trachomatis, Ali A. Abdul-Sater, Evonne Koo, Georg Hacker, David M. Ojcius Sep 2009

Inflammasome-Dependent Caspase-1 Activation In Cervical Epithelial Cells Stimulates Growth Of The Intracellular Pathogen Chlamydia Trachomatis, Ali A. Abdul-Sater, Evonne Koo, Georg Hacker, David M. Ojcius

Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles

Inflammasomes have been extensively characterized in monocytes and macrophages, but not in epithelial cells, which are the preferred host cells for many pathogens. Here we show that cervical epithelial cells express a functional inflammasome. Infection of the cells by Chlamydia trachomatis leads to activation of caspase-1, through a process requiring the NOD-like receptor family member NLRP3 and the inflammasome adaptor protein ASC. Secretion of newly synthesized virulence proteins from the chlamydial vacuole through a type III secretion apparatus results in efflux of K+ through glibenclamide-sensitive K+ channels, which in turn stimulates production of reactive oxygen species. Elevated levels of reactive ...


Self-Assembly And Disassembly Of The Snare Complex: Examined Using Circular Dichroism And Atomic Force Microscopy, Jeremy D. Cook, Won Jin Cho, Timothy L. Stemmler, Bhanu P. Jena Sep 2009

Self-Assembly And Disassembly Of The Snare Complex: Examined Using Circular Dichroism And Atomic Force Microscopy, Jeremy D. Cook, Won Jin Cho, Timothy L. Stemmler, Bhanu P. Jena

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

In this study, we report for the first time that both t-SNAREs and v-SNARE and their complexes in buffered suspension, exhibit defined peaks at CD signals of 208 and 222 nm wavelengths, consistent with a higher degree of helical secondary structure. Surprisingly, when incorporated in lipid membrane, both SNAREs and their complexes exhibit reduced folding. In presence of NSF-ATP, the SNARE complex disassembles, as reflected from the CD signals demonstrating elimination of α-helices within the structure.