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2008

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Articles 1 - 30 of 375

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

A Simple Spectrophotometric Streptavidin-Biotin Binding Assay Utilizing Biotin-4-Fluorescein., Mark Waner, David Mascotti May 2013

A Simple Spectrophotometric Streptavidin-Biotin Binding Assay Utilizing Biotin-4-Fluorescein., Mark Waner, David Mascotti

Mark J. Waner

A new assay for biotin binding capacity of Streptavidin (SA) is presented in this work. The assay is based on the large decrease in the extinction coefficient at 493 nm that accompanies binding of biotin-4-fluorescein (B4F) to SA. This decrease is attributed to formation of a charge transfer complex between the B4F-donor and one or more SA residues. We show that one may observe the stoichiometric binding via monitoring the absorbance at 493 nm using either SA or B4F as the titrant. The sensitivity of the assay is at the lower end of similar fluorimetric and photometric assays. Though the ...


Molecular Characterisation Of Canine Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug-Activated Gene (Nag-1), K Yamaguchi, Nichelle Whitlock, Jason Liggett, Alfred Legendre, Michael Fry, Seung Baek Dec 2010

Molecular Characterisation Of Canine Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug-Activated Gene (Nag-1), K Yamaguchi, Nichelle Whitlock, Jason Liggett, Alfred Legendre, Michael Fry, Seung Baek

Alfred M Legendre DVM, MS, DACVIM

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-activated gene (NAG-1), a divergent member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, was previously identified as a gene induced by several anti-tumorigenic compounds, including NSAIDs and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) ligands in humans. In this study, canine NAG-1 was characterised from a canine genomic database. Gene induction by some NSAIDs and PPARgamma ligands was demonstrated in canine osteosarcoma cell lines. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that canine NAG-1 is more homologous with the corresponding mouse and rat genes than with human NAG-1. Expression of canine NAG-1 was increased by treatment with piroxicam and SC-560 (NSAIDs) and ...


Multiple Mechanisms Are Involved In 6-Gingerol-Induced Cell Growth Arrest And Apoptosis In Human Colorectal Cancer Cells, Seong Lee, Maria Cekanova, Seung Baek Oct 2010

Multiple Mechanisms Are Involved In 6-Gingerol-Induced Cell Growth Arrest And Apoptosis In Human Colorectal Cancer Cells, Seong Lee, Maria Cekanova, Seung Baek

Maria Cekanova MS, RNDr, PhD

6-Gingerol, a natural product of ginger, has been known to possess anti-tumorigenic and pro-apoptotic activities. However, the mechanisms by which it prevents cancer are not well understood in human colorectal cancer. Cyclin D1 is a proto-oncogene that is overexpressed in many cancers and plays a role in cell proliferation through activation by beta-catenin signaling. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-activated gene-1 (NAG-1) is a cytokine associated with pro-apoptotic and anti-tumorigenic properties. In the present study, we examined whether 6-gingerol influences cyclin D1 and NAG-1 expression and determined the mechanisms by which 6-gingerol affects the growth of human colorectal cancer cells in ...


Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Ligand Mcc-555 Suppresses Intestinal Polyps In Apcmin/+ Mice Via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase And Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Dependent Pathways, K Yamaguchi, Maria Cekanova, Michael Mcentee, J Yoon, S Fischer, I Renes, I Van Seungnigen, Seung Baek Oct 2010

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Ligand Mcc-555 Suppresses Intestinal Polyps In Apcmin/+ Mice Via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase And Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Dependent Pathways, K Yamaguchi, Maria Cekanova, Michael Mcentee, J Yoon, S Fischer, I Renes, I Van Seungnigen, Seung Baek

Maria Cekanova MS, RNDr, PhD

A large body of studies has suggested that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) ligands, such as thiazolidinedione, are potent candidates for chemopreventive agents. MCC-555 is a PPARgamma/alpha dual agonist and has been shown previously to induce apoptosis in vitro; however, the molecular mechanisms by which MCC-555 affects antitumorigenesis in vivo are poorly understood. In this study, we explored the antitumorigenic effects of MCC-555 both in cell culture and in Apc-deficient mice, an animal model for human familial adenomatous polyposis. MCC-555 increased MUC2 expression in colorectal and lung cancer cells, and treatment with the PPARgamma antagonist GW9662 revealed that MUC2 ...


Laser-Induced Photon-Branched Chain Reaction In A Chemically-Active Gas-Dispersed Medium, Thomas F. George, Renat R. Letfullin, Galen C. Duree Dec 2008

Laser-Induced Photon-Branched Chain Reaction In A Chemically-Active Gas-Dispersed Medium, Thomas F. George, Renat R. Letfullin, Galen C. Duree

Thomas George

A promising avenue in the development of high-energy pulsed chemical HF/DF lasers and amplifiers is the utilization of a photon-branched chain reaction initiated in a two-phase active medium, that is, a medium containing a laser working gas and ultradispersed passivated metal particles. These particles are evaporated under the action of IR laser radiation which results in the appearance of free atoms, their diffusion into the gas, and the development of a photon-branching chain process, which involves photons as both reactants and products. The key obstacle here is the formation of a relatively large volume (in excess of 10^3 ...


Structure And Dynamics Of Metalloproteins In Live Cells, Jeremy D. Cook, James E. Penner-Hahn, Timothy L. Stemmler Dec 2008

Structure And Dynamics Of Metalloproteins In Live Cells, Jeremy D. Cook, James E. Penner-Hahn, Timothy L. Stemmler

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has emerged as one of the premier tools for investigating the structure and dynamic properties of metals in cells and in metal containing biomolecules. Utilizing the high flux and broad energy range of X-rays supplied by synchrotron light sources, one can selectively excite core electronic transitions in each metal. Spectroscopic signals from these electronic transitions can be used to dissect the chemical architecture of metals in cells, in cellular components and in biomolecules at varying degrees of structural resolution. With the development of ever-brighter X-ray sources, X-ray methods have grown into applications that can be utilized ...


The Effect Of Oxidant And The Non-Oxidant Alteration Of Cellular Thiol Concentration On The Formation Of Protein Mixed-Disulfides In Hek 293 Cells, Jasen Lee Gilge, Michael Fisher, Yuh-Cherng Chai Dec 2008

The Effect Of Oxidant And The Non-Oxidant Alteration Of Cellular Thiol Concentration On The Formation Of Protein Mixed-Disulfides In Hek 293 Cells, Jasen Lee Gilge, Michael Fisher, Yuh-Cherng Chai

Chemistry

Cellular molecules possess various mechanisms in responding to oxidant stress. In terms of protein responses, protein S-glutathionylation is a unique post-translational modification of protein reactive cysteines forming disulfides with glutathione molecules. This modification has been proposed to play roles in antioxidant, regulatory and signaling in cells under oxidant stress. Recently, the increased level of protein S-glutathionylation has been linked with the development of diseases. In this report, specific S-glutathionylated proteins were demonstrated in human embryonic kidney 293 cells treated with two different oxidative reagents: diamide and hydrogen peroxide. Diamide is a chemical oxidizing agent whereas hydrogen peroxide is a physiological ...


Towards The Total Synthesis Of Thioviridamide: Thiyl Radical Approach To The Beta-Thioenamide Linkage Formation, Jung-Hoon Kang Dec 2008

Towards The Total Synthesis Of Thioviridamide: Thiyl Radical Approach To The Beta-Thioenamide Linkage Formation, Jung-Hoon Kang

Theses and Dissertations

We developed an approach to the β-thioenamide linkage contained in the S-(2-aminovinyl)cysteine (avCys) residue of thioviridamide.1,2 Kinetic and thermodynamic control of radical additions of thiols to ynamides were studied for the formation of β-thioenamide linkage. Thiyl radicals are electrophilic and ynamides are electron-rich alkynes. This complementary polarity of the radical and acceptor increases the likelihood of a successful radical addition reaction. Because little is known about these types of compounds (β-thioenamides), we were unsure what kinds of yields and stereoselectivities (cis vs. trans) to expect. The adduct stability is another issue to consider. Fortunately, under typical ...


A Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Sensor Of Erk Activity, Christopher D. Harvey, Anka G. Ehrhardt, Cristina Arrigo Cellurale, Haining Zhong, Ryohei Yasuda, Roger J. Davis, Karel Svoboda Dec 2008

A Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Sensor Of Erk Activity, Christopher D. Harvey, Anka G. Ehrhardt, Cristina Arrigo Cellurale, Haining Zhong, Ryohei Yasuda, Roger J. Davis, Karel Svoboda

Davis Lab Publications

The activity of the ERK has complex spatial and temporal dynamics that are important for the specificity of downstream effects. However, current biochemical techniques do not allow for the measurement of ERK signaling with fine spatiotemporal resolution. We developed a genetically encoded, FRET-based sensor of ERK activity (the extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity reporter, EKAR), optimized for signal-to-noise ratio and fluorescence lifetime imaging. EKAR selectively and reversibly reported ERK activation in HEK293 cells after epidermal growth factor stimulation. EKAR signals were correlated with ERK phosphorylation, required ERK activity, and did not report the activities of JNK or p38. EKAR reported ERK ...


Molecular Mechanisms Involved In Oligodendrocyte Development, Rochelle Coelho Dec 2008

Molecular Mechanisms Involved In Oligodendrocyte Development, Rochelle Coelho

Theses and Dissertations

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by demyelination and loss of oligodendrocytes (OLGs), the CNS myelin-producing cells. Thus, understanding the mechanisms that control OLG development can provide valuable knowledge regarding remyelination therapies for MS. This disease is thought to result from an autoimmune attack towards myelin. FTY720, an immunomodulator under evaluation for MS treatment is a sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) analog. We found before that S1P plays a crucial role in the NT-3-mediated survival of OLGs, an observation that led us to investigate whether FTY720 could have any effect on these cells. Our studies ...


Regulation Of Mdm2 Mediated Nfκb2 Pathway In Human Lung Cancer, Lathika Mohanraj Dec 2008

Regulation Of Mdm2 Mediated Nfκb2 Pathway In Human Lung Cancer, Lathika Mohanraj

Theses and Dissertations

Overexpression of oncoprotein MDM2 and mutations of tumor suppressor p53 are frequently observed in human cancers. The NFκB pathway is one of the deregulated pathways in oncogenesis. The overall goal of the project was to study the regulation of NFκB pathway by MDM2 in lung cancer. Our first effort was to determine the frequency of MDM2 overexpression in human lung tumor samples and to identify co-occurring abnormal gene expression by studying the levels of MDM2 and members of NFκB pathway with respect to p53 status. Higher than normal levels of MDM2 were found in approximately 30% of the cancer samples ...


Crosstalk Between Mdm2 And Akt Signaling Pathway In Oncogenesis., Mahesh Ramamoorthy Dec 2008

Crosstalk Between Mdm2 And Akt Signaling Pathway In Oncogenesis., Mahesh Ramamoorthy

Theses and Dissertations

MDM2, the human homologue of the Mouse Double Minute 2 gene product, has been shown to be over-expressed in many cancers and to induce tumorigenesis. The role of MDM2 in oncogenesis was thought to be p53 dependent. However recent years have shown MDM2 to be a key player in a complex network of interactions that affect cell cycle, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis in a p53 independent manner. Here we report a novel p53 independent role for the multidimensional protein MDM2; its ability to induce phosphorylation of Akt at serine 473 residue. Transient and stable over-expression of MDM2 in cultured cell lines ...


Identification And Characterization Of A Cadmium-Transporting P-Type Atpase In Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, David J. Adle Dec 2008

Identification And Characterization Of A Cadmium-Transporting P-Type Atpase In Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, David J. Adle

Theses and Dissertations in Biochemistry

Detoxification and homeostatic acquisition of metal ions are vital for all living organisms. Non-physiological heavy metals are toxic at low concentrations and represent major environmental hazards to human health. In particular, cadmium is a toxic environmental pollutant linked to a number of ailments including cancer, kidney and bone disease and reproductive disorders. The biological effects of cadmium toxicity which lead to human disease and the cellular mechanisms for cadmium defense are ill defined. Thus, the study of heavy metal detoxification systems represents an important research avenue to help combat cadmium related disorders.

The goal of this research project was to ...


Three-Dimensional Microfluidic Devices Fabricated In Layered Paper And Tape, Andres W. Martinez, Scott T. Phillips, George M. Whitesides Dec 2008

Three-Dimensional Microfluidic Devices Fabricated In Layered Paper And Tape, Andres W. Martinez, Scott T. Phillips, George M. Whitesides

Chemistry and Biochemistry

This article describes a method for fabricating 3D microfluidic devices by stacking layers of patterned paper and double-sided adhesive tape. Paper-based 3D microfluidic devices have capabilities in microfluidics that are difficult to achieve using conventional open-channel microsystems made from glass or polymers. In particular, 3D paper-based devices wick fluids and distribute microliter volumes of samples from single inlet points into arrays of detection zones (with numbers up to thousands). This capability makes it possible to carry out a range of new analytical protocols simply and inexpensively (all on a piece of paper) without external pumps. We demonstrate a prototype 3D ...


Characterization Of The Ompl1 Gene Of Pathogenic Leptospira Species In China And Cross-Immunogenicity Of The Ompl1 Protein, Haiyan Dong, Ye Hu, Feng Xue, Dexter Sun, David M. Ojcius, Yafei Mao, Jie Yan Dec 2008

Characterization Of The Ompl1 Gene Of Pathogenic Leptospira Species In China And Cross-Immunogenicity Of The Ompl1 Protein, Haiyan Dong, Ye Hu, Feng Xue, Dexter Sun, David M. Ojcius, Yafei Mao, Jie Yan

Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles

Background: The usefulness of available vaccine and serological tests for leptospirosis is limited by the low cross-reactivity of antigens from numerous serovars of pathogenic Leptospira spp. Identification of genus-specific protein antigens (GP-Ag) of Leptospira would be important for development of universal vaccines and serodiagnostic methods. OmpL1, a transmembrane porin of pathogenic leptospires, was identified as a possible GP-Ag, but its sequence diversity and immune cross-reactivity among different serovars of pathogenic leptospires remains largely unknown.

Results: PCR analysis demonstrated that the ompL1 gene existed in all 15 official Chinese standard strains as well as 163 clinical strains of pathogenic leptospires isolated ...


Sinorhizobium Meliloti, A Bacterium Lacking The Autoinducer-2 (Ai-2) Synthase, Responds To Ai-2 Supplied By Other Bacteria, C. S. Pereira, J. R. Mcauley, M. E. Taga, K. B. Xavier, Stephen T. Miller Dec 2008

Sinorhizobium Meliloti, A Bacterium Lacking The Autoinducer-2 (Ai-2) Synthase, Responds To Ai-2 Supplied By Other Bacteria, C. S. Pereira, J. R. Mcauley, M. E. Taga, K. B. Xavier, Stephen T. Miller

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Works

Many bacterial species respond to the quorum-sensing signal autoinducer-2 (AI-2) by regulating different niche-specific genes. Here, we show that Sinorhizobium meliloti, a plant symbiont lacking the gene for the AI-2 synthase, while not capable of producing AI-2 can nonetheless respond to AI-2 produced by other species. We demonstrate that S. meliloti has a periplasmic binding protein that binds AI-2. The crystal structure of this protein (here named SmlsrB) with its ligand reveals that it binds (2R,4S)-2-methyl-2,3,3,4-tetrahydroxytetrahydrofuran (R-THMF), the identical AI-2 isomer recognized by LsrB of Salmonella typhimurium. The gene encoding SmlsrB is in an operon ...


Biochemical Characterization Of Two Yeast Paralogous Proteins Mth1 And Std1, Satish Pasula Dec 2008

Biochemical Characterization Of Two Yeast Paralogous Proteins Mth1 And Std1, Satish Pasula

Dissertations

Glucose is the most abundant monosaccharide and preferred carbon and energy source for most cells. Many organisms have evolved sophisticated means to sense glucose and respond to it appropriately. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae senses glucose through two transmembrane proteins, Snf3 and Rgt2. In the presence of extracellular glucose Snf3 and Rgt2 generate an intracellular signal that leads to the degradation of Mthl and Stdl, thereby inducing the expression of hexose transporter genes (EXT) by inhibiting the function of Rgtl, a transcriptional repressor of HXT genes. Mthl and Stdl are degraded via the Yckl/2 Kinase-SCFGrrl-26S proteasome pathway triggered by ...


Comparison Of Electrically Mediated And Liposome-Complexed Plasmid Dna Delivery To The Skin, Loree C. Heller, Mark J. Jaroszeski, Domenico Coppola, Richard Heller Dec 2008

Comparison Of Electrically Mediated And Liposome-Complexed Plasmid Dna Delivery To The Skin, Loree C. Heller, Mark J. Jaroszeski, Domenico Coppola, Richard Heller

Bioelectrics Publications

BACKGROUND: Electroporation is an established technique for enhancing plasmid delivery to many tissues in vivo, including the skin. We have previously demonstrated efficient delivery of plasmid DNA to the skin utilizing a custom-built four-plate electrode. The experiments described here further evaluate cutaneous plasmid delivery using in vivo electroporation. Plasmid expression levels are compared to those after liposome mediated delivery.

METHODS: Enhanced electrically-mediated delivery, and less extensively, liposome complexed delivery, of a plasmid encoding the reporter luciferase was tested in rodent skin. Expression kinetics and tissue damage were explored as well as testing in a second rodent model.

RESULTS: Experiments confirm ...


Book Review: Insect Physiology And Biochemistry. Second Edition. Crc Press, Boca Raton., Russell A. Jurenka Dec 2008

Book Review: Insect Physiology And Biochemistry. Second Edition. Crc Press, Boca Raton., Russell A. Jurenka

Entomology Publications

Insect physiology is a specialized discipline within the larger framework of animal physiology. Almost every graduate program in Entomology has a requirement for an insect physiology course and an up to date textbook is required. Students using insects as model organisms should also be interested in this textbook. The textbook primarily describes physiology but there is quite a bit of biochemistry, which adds to the text as a resource. Physiology and biochemistry should be taught together; in order to understand physiology the biochemistry behind the physiology must also be understood. This 2nd edition textbook does a nice job of ...


Novel Xanthine And Oxanine Dna Glycosylase Activities In Yeast And Mammalian Systems, Liang Dong Dec 2008

Novel Xanthine And Oxanine Dna Glycosylase Activities In Yeast And Mammalian Systems, Liang Dong

All Dissertations

DNA that stores genetic information is frequently damaged in cells. The DNA bases carrying an exocyclic amino group [adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C)] encounter deamination even under physiological conditions. Xanthine (X) and the newly discovered oxanine (O) are derived from deamination of guanine; they are potentially cytotoxic and mutagenic lesions. However, in yeast and eukaryotes, studies on the enzymatic repair of these lesions are limited.
In the yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe thymine-DNA glycosylase (Spo TDG) is homologous to human thymine-DNA glycosylase (hTDG), an enzyme that removes thymine from T/G pair. It was reported that Spo TDG contains uracil DNA ...


Dna Deamination Repair Enzymes In Bacterial And Human Systems, Rongjuan Mi Dec 2008

Dna Deamination Repair Enzymes In Bacterial And Human Systems, Rongjuan Mi

All Dissertations

DNA repair enzymes and pathways are diverse and critical for living cells to maintain correct genetic information. Single-strand-selective monofunctional uracil DNA glycosylase (SMUG1) belongs to Family 3 of the uracil DNA glycosylase superfamily. We report that a bacterial SMUG1 ortholog in Geobacter metallireducens (Gme) and the human SMUG1 enzyme are not only uracil DNA glycosylases (UDG), but also xanthine DNA glycosylases (XDG). Mutations at M57 (M57L) and H210 (H210G, H210M, H210N) can cause substantial reductions in XDG and UDG activities. Increased selectivity is achieved in the A214R mutant of Gme SMUG1 and G60Y completely abolishes XDG and UDG activity. Most ...


Towards An Action Spectrum For Photoentrainment Of The Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii Circadian Clock, Christa Gaskill Dec 2008

Towards An Action Spectrum For Photoentrainment Of The Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii Circadian Clock, Christa Gaskill

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

No abstract provided.


Ese-1/Egr-1 Pathway Plays A Role In Tolfenamic Acid-Induced Apoptosis In Colorectal Cancer Cells, Seong Lee, J Bahn, C Choi, Nichelle Whitlock, A English, S Safe, Seung Baek Nov 2008

Ese-1/Egr-1 Pathway Plays A Role In Tolfenamic Acid-Induced Apoptosis In Colorectal Cancer Cells, Seong Lee, J Bahn, C Choi, Nichelle Whitlock, A English, S Safe, Seung Baek

Seung J Baek

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are known to prevent colorectal tumorigenesis. Although antitumor effects of NSAIDs are mainly due to inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity, there is increasing evidence that cyclooxygenase-independent mechanisms may also play an important role. The early growth response-1 (EGR-1) gene is a member of the immediate-early gene family and has been identified as a tumor suppressor gene. Tolfenamic acid is a NSAID that exhibits anticancer activity in a pancreatic cancer model. In the present study, we investigated the anticancer activity of tolfenamic acid in human colorectal cancer cells. Tolfenamic acid treatment inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis as ...


Inhibition Of Yeast Telomerase Action By The Telomeric Ssdna-Binding Protein, Cdc13p, David C. Zappulla, Jennifer N. Roberts, Karen J. Goodrich, Thomas R. Cech, Deborah S. Wuttke Nov 2008

Inhibition Of Yeast Telomerase Action By The Telomeric Ssdna-Binding Protein, Cdc13p, David C. Zappulla, Jennifer N. Roberts, Karen J. Goodrich, Thomas R. Cech, Deborah S. Wuttke

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Contributions (1986-2018)

Appropriate control of the chromosome end-replicating enzyme telomerase is crucial for maintaining telomere length and genomic stability. The essential telomeric DNA-binding protein Cdc13p both positively and negatively regulates telomere length in budding yeast. Here we test the effect of purified Cdc13p on telomerase action in vitro. We show that the full-length protein and its DNA-binding domain (DBD) inhibit primer extension by telomerase. This inhibition occurs by competitive blocking of telomerase access to DNA. To further understand the requirements for productive telomerase 3′-end access when Cdc13p or the DBD is bound to a telomerase substrate, we constrained protein binding at ...


The Proton-Translocating A Subunit Of F0f1-Atp Synthase Is Allocated Asymmetrically To The Peripheral Stalk., Monika G Düser, Yumin Bi, Nawid Zarrabi, Stanley D Dunn, Michael Börsch Nov 2008

The Proton-Translocating A Subunit Of F0f1-Atp Synthase Is Allocated Asymmetrically To The Peripheral Stalk., Monika G Düser, Yumin Bi, Nawid Zarrabi, Stanley D Dunn, Michael Börsch

Biochemistry Publications

The position of the a subunit of the membrane-integral F0 sector of Escherichia coli ATP synthase was investigated by single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies utilizing a fusion of enhanced green fluorescent protein to the C terminus of the a subunit and fluorescent labels attached to specific positions of the epsilon or gamma subunits. Three fluorescence resonance energy transfer levels were observed during rotation driven by ATP hydrolysis corresponding to the three resting positions of the rotor subunits, gamma or epsilon, relative to the a subunit of the stator. Comparison of these positions of the rotor sites with those ...


The Ribosome Structure Controls And Directs Mrna Entry, Translocation And Exit Dynamics, Ozge Kurkcuoglu, Pemra Doruker, Taner Z. Sen, Andrzej Kloczkowski, Robert L. Jernigan Nov 2008

The Ribosome Structure Controls And Directs Mrna Entry, Translocation And Exit Dynamics, Ozge Kurkcuoglu, Pemra Doruker, Taner Z. Sen, Andrzej Kloczkowski, Robert L. Jernigan

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

The protein-synthesizing ribosome undergoes large motions to effect the translocation of tRNAs and mRNA; here the domain motions of this system are explored with a coarse-grained elastic network model using normal mode analysis. Crystal structures are used to construct various model systems of the 70S complex with/without tRNA, elongation factor Tu and the ribosomal proteins. Computed motions reveal the well-known ratchet-like rotational motion of the large subunits, as well as the head rotation of the small subunit and the high flexibility of the L1 and L7/L12 stalks, even in the absence of ribosomal proteins. This result indicates that ...


The Cooh-Terminal Domain Of The Jil-1 Histone H3s10 Kinase Interacts With Histone H3 And Is Required For Correct Targeting To Chromatin, Xiaomin Bao, Weili Cai, Huai Deng, Weiguo Zhang, Robert Krencik, Jack Girton, Jorgen Johansen, Kristen M. Johansen Nov 2008

The Cooh-Terminal Domain Of The Jil-1 Histone H3s10 Kinase Interacts With Histone H3 And Is Required For Correct Targeting To Chromatin, Xiaomin Bao, Weili Cai, Huai Deng, Weiguo Zhang, Robert Krencik, Jack Girton, Jorgen Johansen, Kristen M. Johansen

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

The JIL-1 histone H3S10 kinase in Drosophila localizes specifically to euchromatic interband regions of polytene chromosomes and is enriched 2-fold on the male X chromosome. JIL-1 can be divided into four main domains including an NH2-terminal domain, two separate kinase domains, and a COOH-terminal domain. Our results demonstrate that the COOH-terminal domain of JIL-1 is necessary and sufficient for correct chromosome targeting to autosomes but that both COOH- and NH2-terminal sequences are necessary for enrichment on the male X chromosome. We furthermore show that a small 53-amino acid region within the COOH-terminal domain can interact with ...


Ceramide Kinase And Ceramide-1-Phosphate, Dayanjan Wijesinghe Nov 2008

Ceramide Kinase And Ceramide-1-Phosphate, Dayanjan Wijesinghe

Theses and Dissertations

Ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P) is a bioactive lipid that has been implicated in many biological processes. Our laboratory has conclusively demonstrated its role in inflammation via activation of cPLA2α. The only known enzyme to date responsible for direct synthesis of C1P is ceramide kinase. Very little was known about this enzyme in terms of its enzyme kinetics and substrate specificity. As CERK is an enzyme that acts on membrane lipids, its kinetics cannot be studied using standard bulk dilutions methods. Thus we developed a surface dilution approach using Triton X 100 mixed micelles for studying the kinetics of CERK. We discovered that ...


Domain Compliance And Elastic Power Transmission In Rotary F(O)F(1)-Atpase., Hendrik Sielaff, Henning Rennekamp, André Wächter, Hao Xie, Florian Hilbers, Katrin Feldbauer, Stanley D Dunn, Siegfried Engelbrecht, Wolfgang Junge Nov 2008

Domain Compliance And Elastic Power Transmission In Rotary F(O)F(1)-Atpase., Hendrik Sielaff, Henning Rennekamp, André Wächter, Hao Xie, Florian Hilbers, Katrin Feldbauer, Stanley D Dunn, Siegfried Engelbrecht, Wolfgang Junge

Biochemistry Publications

The 2 nanomotors of rotary ATP synthase, ionmotive F(O) and chemically active F(1), are mechanically coupled by a central rotor and an eccentric bearing. Both motors rotate, with 3 steps in F(1) and 10-15 in F(O). Simulation by statistical mechanics has revealed that an elastic power transmission is required for a high rate of coupled turnover. Here, we investigate the distribution in the F(O)F(1) structure of compliant and stiff domains. The compliance of certain domains was restricted by engineered disulfide bridges between rotor and stator, and the torsional stiffness (kappa) of unrestricted domains ...


Cariporide Prodrugs: Targeting Brain Cancer Cells Through Sodium-Proton Exchange Inhibition, Jacob Vervynckt, Johnathan Brantley, Jessica Moore, Mark Graves Ii, William Harley, Fredric A. Gorin, Hasan Palandoken Nov 2008

Cariporide Prodrugs: Targeting Brain Cancer Cells Through Sodium-Proton Exchange Inhibition, Jacob Vervynckt, Johnathan Brantley, Jessica Moore, Mark Graves Ii, William Harley, Fredric A. Gorin, Hasan Palandoken

Chemistry and Biochemistry

More than 200,000 people in the United States are diagnosed with a primary or metastatic brain tumor annually. The life expectancy for these individuals is approximately 9-12 months from the time of diagnosis. This poor prognosis is due to the ineffectiveness of existing therapies (i.e., chemotherapy and radiotherapy) against brain cancer, where the primary problem is the inability to differentiate cancer cells from healthy brain cells.

Relative to healthy brain tissue, the heightened metabolism of cancer cells increases their reliance on the ion transport proteins NHE (sodium-proton exchanger) and NCX (sodium-calcium exchanger). Inhibition of these proteins disrupts the ...