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2007

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Articles 1 - 30 of 275

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation Is Inhibited By Bad: Regulation Of Cyclin D1, R Fernando, Js Foster, A Bible, A Ström, Rg Pestell, M Rao, Arnold Saxton, Seung Baek, K Yamaguchi, Robert Donnell, Maria Cekanova, J Wimalasena Jul 2012

Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation Is Inhibited By Bad: Regulation Of Cyclin D1, R Fernando, Js Foster, A Bible, A Ström, Rg Pestell, M Rao, Arnold Saxton, Seung Baek, K Yamaguchi, Robert Donnell, Maria Cekanova, J Wimalasena

Seung J Baek

Recent investigations suggest that functions of the proapoptotic BCL2 family members, including BAD, are not limited to regulation of apoptosis. Here we demonstrate that BAD inhibits G(1) to S phase transition in MCF7 breast cancer cells independent of apoptosis. BAD overexpression inhibited G(1) transit and cell growth as well as cyclin D1 expression. Inhibition of cyclin D1 expression was mediated through inhibition of transcription activated by AP1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that BAD is localized at the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-response element (TRE) and cAMP-response element (CRE) in the cyclin D1 promoter. This was shown to reflect direct binding interactions of ...


Solution Structure Of Selenoprotein W And Nmr Analysis Of Its Interaction With 14-3-3 Proteins, Finn L. Aachmann, Dmitri E. Fomenko, Alice Soragni, Vadim N. Gladyshev, Alexander Dikiy Dec 2007

Solution Structure Of Selenoprotein W And Nmr Analysis Of Its Interaction With 14-3-3 Proteins, Finn L. Aachmann, Dmitri E. Fomenko, Alice Soragni, Vadim N. Gladyshev, Alexander Dikiy

Vadim Gladyshev Publications

Selenium is a trace element with significant biomedical potential. It is essential in mammals due to its occurrence in several proteins in the form of selenocysteine (Sec). One of the most abundant mamma¬lian Sec-containing proteins is selenoprotein W (SelW). This protein of unknown function has a broad expression pattern and contains a candidate CXXU (where U represents Sec) redox motif. Here, we re¬port the solution structure of the Sec13 →Cys variant of mouse SelW determined through high resolution NMR spectroscopy. The protein has a thioredoxin-like fold with the CXXU motif located in an exposed loop similarly to ...


Preparation Of Divalent And Trivalent Antigens For Immunogical Studies On Degranulation Of Mast Cells And Preparation Of Ceragenins For Antiviral Studies Against Vaccinia Virus., Dianliang Geng Dec 2007

Preparation Of Divalent And Trivalent Antigens For Immunogical Studies On Degranulation Of Mast Cells And Preparation Of Ceragenins For Antiviral Studies Against Vaccinia Virus., Dianliang Geng

All Theses and Dissertations

CHAPTER 1

Aggregation of receptors for IgE (Fc RI) causes mast cells and basophils to release preformed contents of granules, including histamine and a variety of enzymes. This process, called degranulation plays a central role in allergic reactions. Methods to study this process are to create multivalent ligands which can interact with the receptors and, in turn, lead to aggregation of the receptors. We prepared a series of fluorophore-labeled divalent and trivalent antigens to study the degranulation of mast cells. Trivalent antigens proved to be much better stimulators for degranulation of mast cells than divalent antigens. These results indicate that ...


Pyridinium Bisretinoids: Synthesis And Photoactivated Cytotoxicity, Junping Gao Dec 2007

Pyridinium Bisretinoids: Synthesis And Photoactivated Cytotoxicity, Junping Gao

All Theses and Dissertations

This thesis discusses pyridinium bisretinoid compounds (PBRs), which were prepared for two purposes: 1) to use them as standards for detection of novel fluorophores in human RPE cells, which may be involved in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and 2) to use them in the development of a targeted and triggered drug delivery system for cancer therapy. We prepared a selection of PBRs using a one-pot biomimetic method; synthesis, mechanisms for formation, and characterization of these compounds is described. We also explored the photoreactivity of three novel PBR compounds and found that these PBRs form oxidation products under blue-light irradiation. The ...


Transcript-Specific Cytoplasmic Degradation Of Yra1 Pre-Mrna Mediated By The Yeast Edc3 Protein: A Dissertation, Shuyun Dong Dec 2007

Transcript-Specific Cytoplasmic Degradation Of Yra1 Pre-Mrna Mediated By The Yeast Edc3 Protein: A Dissertation, Shuyun Dong

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

mRNA degradation is a fundamental process that controls both the level and the fidelity of gene expression. Using a combination of bioinformatic, genomic, genetic, and molecular biology approaches, we have shown that Edc3p, a yeast mRNA decay factor, controls the stability of the intron-containing YRA1 pre-mRNA. We found that Edc3p-mediated degradation of YRA1 pre-mRNA: 1) is a component of a negative feedback loop involved in the autoregulation of YRA1, 2) takes place in the cytoplasm, 3) is independent of translation, 4) occurs through a deadenylation-independent decapping and 5΄ to 3΄ exonucleotic decay mechanism, and 5) is controlled by specific cis ...


Study Of The Reproducibility Of Proteomics Methods And Variability Of Fruit Fly Proteomes., Thomas Franklin Culwell Dec 2007

Study Of The Reproducibility Of Proteomics Methods And Variability Of Fruit Fly Proteomes., Thomas Franklin Culwell

All Theses and Dissertations

The reliability of biomarker discovery by means of proteomics has been called into question. It was speculated that "background noise" variation resulting from differences in preparation and handling of samples and proteome dynamics may mask subtle, yet important, differences due to the biological condition. Little is understood about complex proteomes and their variability. A critical aspect of proteomic biomarker research that is largely unexplored is the comparative reproducibility of certain methods such as two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. In particular, with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, it is not known whether variability in peptide quantitation is dependent on ...


Pyridinium Bis-Retinoids A2-Dopamine And A2-Cadaverine: Implications In Age-Related Macular Degeneration And Cancer, Mckenzie Ruth Pew Dec 2007

Pyridinium Bis-Retinoids A2-Dopamine And A2-Cadaverine: Implications In Age-Related Macular Degeneration And Cancer, Mckenzie Ruth Pew

All Theses and Dissertations

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the United States of America. The pyridinium bis-retinoid A2-ethanolamine (A2E) has been implicated to play a role in AMD. We have observed novel pyridinium bis-retinoids through melanolipofuscin and human RPE extractions that may also play a role in the pathology of AMD. We have begun the construction of an amino-retinoid library in order to identify these ocular compounds. The compounds from the amino-retinoid library are also used in a targeted and triggered drug delivery system for treating cancer. Folic acid is coupled with the amino-retinoids to specifically target cancer ...


Development Of Novel Prolactin And Growth Hormone Receptor Agonists And Antagonists, John Langenheim Dec 2007

Development Of Novel Prolactin And Growth Hormone Receptor Agonists And Antagonists, John Langenheim

All Dissertations

Potential indications for human prolactin (hPRL) and human growth hormone (hGH) are the support and sustainment of lactation and the enhancement or reconstitution of the immune system when under dysregulation. A prolactin receptor (PRLR) antagonist, hPRL-G129R (G129R), and a PRLR and growth hormone receptor (GHR) antagonist, hGH-G120R (G120R), have been developed which may be useful for the treatment of breast cancer since PRLR is elevated in a majority of human breast tumors and makes cancer cells highly sensitive to the mitogenic and anti-apoptotic activity of hPRL and hGH.

As a single agent, G129R is more cytostatic than cytotoxic to human ...


Studies In The Biochemistry And Cell Biology Of Trypanosoma Brucei Hexokinases, Jeremy Chambers Dec 2007

Studies In The Biochemistry And Cell Biology Of Trypanosoma Brucei Hexokinases, Jeremy Chambers

All Dissertations

Trypanosoma brucei expresses two hexokinases (TbHK1 and TbHK2) that are 98% identical at the amino acid level. We previously found that recombinant TbHK1 (rTbHK1) has hexokinase activity, while rTbHK2 did not, a finding attributed to differences in the C-termini of the proteins. We found that the C-terminal tails of TbHK contained a novel motif specific for eukaryotic hexokinases found within the final helix of an ATP-binding domain. By altering the residues in the C-terminal tail of TbHK1 to resemble the residues found in TbHK2, we found that D454, F462, M466, and N469 were essential to TbHK1 catalysis. Additionally, we found ...


Light-Evoked Calcium Responses Of Isolated Melanopsin- Expressing Retinal Ganglion Cells, Andrew T. E. Hartwick, Jayne R. Bramley, Jianing Yu, Kelly T. Stevens, Charles N. Allen, William H. Baldridge, Patricia J. Sollars, Gary E. Pickard Dec 2007

Light-Evoked Calcium Responses Of Isolated Melanopsin- Expressing Retinal Ganglion Cells, Andrew T. E. Hartwick, Jayne R. Bramley, Jianing Yu, Kelly T. Stevens, Charles N. Allen, William H. Baldridge, Patricia J. Sollars, Gary E. Pickard

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

A small number (<2%) of mammalian retinal ganglion cells express the photopigment melanopsin and are intrinsically photosensitive (ipRGCs). Light depolarizes ipRGCs and increases intracellular calcium levels ( [Ca2+]i ) but the signaling cascades underlying these responses have yet to be elucidated. To facilitate physiological studies on these rare photoreceptors, highly enriched ipRGC cultures from neonatal rats were generated using anti-melanopsin-mediated plate adhesion (immunopanning). This novel approach enabled experiments on isolated ipRGCs, eliminating the potential confounding influence of rod/cone-driven input. Light induced a rise in [Ca2+]i (monitored using fura-2 imaging) in the immunopanned ipRGCs and the source of this Ca2+ signal was investigated. The Ca2+ responses were inhibited by 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, SKF-96365 (1–2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propoxy]ethyl- ...


The Role Of Secreted Phosphoprotein-24 In Osteoblast Differentiation And Matrix Mineralization, Samuel Ramage Dec 2007

The Role Of Secreted Phosphoprotein-24 In Osteoblast Differentiation And Matrix Mineralization, Samuel Ramage

Theses and Dissertations

Secreted Phosphoprotein-24 (Spp24) was initially isolated and characterized as a component of bovine cortical bone matrix. Subsequent characterization has shown it is multiply phosphorylated and homologous to cystatin and TGF-β receptor type II. Spp24 is a minor component of the serum fetuin mineral complex that binds calcium-phosphate minerals and prevents their deposition. The TGF-β receptor homology domain binds BMP-2 weakly in vitro and enhances BMP-2’s osteogenic effects in vivo. The ability of Spp24 to affect BMP activity suggests an important role for Spp24 as a native, bioactive componentof bone that regulates bone development.

Spp24 was highly up-regulated in rat ...


Effects Of Water Vapor On The Kinetics Of The Methylperoxy Radical Self-Reaction And Reaction With Hydroperoxy, Alecia Mower Dec 2007

Effects Of Water Vapor On The Kinetics Of The Methylperoxy Radical Self-Reaction And Reaction With Hydroperoxy, Alecia Mower

All Theses and Dissertations

The gas phase reactions of CH3O2 + CH3O2, HO2 + HO2, and CH3O2 + HO2 in the presence of water vapor have been studied at temperatures between 263 and 303 K using laser flash photolysis coupled with UV time-resolved absorption detection at 220 nm and 260 nm. Water vapor concentration was quantified using tunable diode laser spectroscopy operating in the mid-IR. The HO2 self-reaction rate constant is significantly enhanced by water vapor, consistent with what others have reported, whereas CH3O2 self-reaction and the cross-reaction (CH3O2 + HO2) rate constants are nearly unaffected. The enhancement in the HO2 self-reaction rate coefficient occurs because of the ...


Statistical Issues In Proteomic Research, Jeffrey S. Morris Dec 2007

Statistical Issues In Proteomic Research, Jeffrey S. Morris

Jeffrey S. Morris

No abstract provided.


Protein Threading For Genome-Scale Structural Analysis, Kyle P. Ellrott Dec 2007

Protein Threading For Genome-Scale Structural Analysis, Kyle P. Ellrott

Doctoral Dissertations

Protein structure prediction is a necessary tool in the field of bioinformatic analysis. It is a non-trivial process that can add a great deal of information to a genome annotation. This dissertation deals with protein structure prediction through the technique of protein fold recognition and outlines several strategies for the improvement of protein threading techniques. In order to improve protein threading performance, this dissertation begins with an outline of sequence/structure alignment energy functions. A technique called Violated Inequality Minimization is used to quickly adapt to the changing energy landscape as new energy functions are added. To continue the improvement ...


Exploring The Mechanism Of Meiosis In Drosophila Melanogaster: Meiotic Functions Of A Novel Cohesion Protein Solo And A Translation Initiation Factor Vasa, Rihui Yan Dec 2007

Exploring The Mechanism Of Meiosis In Drosophila Melanogaster: Meiotic Functions Of A Novel Cohesion Protein Solo And A Translation Initiation Factor Vasa, Rihui Yan

Doctoral Dissertations

Sister chromatid cohesion is essential for proper chromosome segregation during meiosis. However, the mechanism of meiotic cohesion in Drosophila is unclear.

We describe a novel protein, SOLO (Sisters On the LOose) that is essential for meiotic cohesion in Drosophila melanogaster. solo mutations cause high nondisjunction of sister and homologous chromatids of sex chromosomes and autosomes in both sexes. In solo males, sister chromatids separate prematurely and segregate randomly during meiosis II. Although bivalents appear intact throughout meiosis I, sister centromeres lose cohesion prior to prometaphase I and orient nearly randomly on the meiosis I spindle. Centromeric foci of SMC1 are ...


The Tropical Forest And Fire Emissions Experiment: Method Evaluation Of Volatile Organic Compound Emissions Measured By Ptr-Ms, Ftir, And Gc From Tropical Biomass Burning, T. G. Karl, Ted J. Christian, Robert J. Yokelson, Paulo Artaxo, Wei Min Hao, Alex Guenther Nov 2007

The Tropical Forest And Fire Emissions Experiment: Method Evaluation Of Volatile Organic Compound Emissions Measured By Ptr-Ms, Ftir, And Gc From Tropical Biomass Burning, T. G. Karl, Ted J. Christian, Robert J. Yokelson, Paulo Artaxo, Wei Min Hao, Alex Guenther

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from fires in tropical forest fuels were quantified using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTRMS), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas chromatography (GC) coupled to PTRMS (GC-PTR-MS). We investigated VOC emissions from 19 controlled laboratory fires at the USFS (United States Forest Service) Fire Sciences Laboratory and 16 fires during an intensive airborne field campaign during the peak of the burning season in Brazil in 2004. The VOC emissions were dominated by oxygenated VOCs (OVOC) (OVOC/NMHC similar to 4:1, NMHC: non-methane hydrocarbons) The specificity of the PTR-MS instrument, which measures the mass to charge ...


A Focused Antibody Library For Selecting Scfvs Expressed At High Levels In The Cytoplasm, Pascal Philbert, Audrey Stoessel, Wei Wang, Annie-Paule Sibler, Nicole Bec, Christian Larroque, Jeffery G. Saven, Jérôme Courtête, Etienne Weiss, Pierre Martineau Nov 2007

A Focused Antibody Library For Selecting Scfvs Expressed At High Levels In The Cytoplasm, Pascal Philbert, Audrey Stoessel, Wei Wang, Annie-Paule Sibler, Nicole Bec, Christian Larroque, Jeffery G. Saven, Jérôme Courtête, Etienne Weiss, Pierre Martineau

Departmental Papers (Chemistry)

Background

Intrabodies are defined as antibody molecules which are ectopically expressed inside the cell. Such intrabodies can be used to visualize or inhibit the targeted antigen in living cells. However, most antibody fragments cannot be used as intrabodies because they do not fold under the reducing conditions of the cell cytosol and nucleus.

Results

We describe the construction and validation of a large synthetic human single chain antibody fragment library based on a unique framework and optimized for cytoplasmic expression. Focusing the library by mimicking the natural diversity of CDR3 loops ensured that the scFvs were fully human and functional ...


Microchip Liquid Chromatography And Capillary Electrophoresis Separations In Multilayer Microdevices, Hernan Vicente Fuentes Nov 2007

Microchip Liquid Chromatography And Capillary Electrophoresis Separations In Multilayer Microdevices, Hernan Vicente Fuentes

All Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, several microfabricated devices are introduced to develop new applications in the area of chemical analysis. Electrochemical micropumps, chip-based liquid chromatography systems and multilayer capillary electrophoresis microdevices with crossover channels were fabricated using various substrates such as poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), glass, and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). I have demonstrated pressure-driven pumping of liquids in microfabricated channels using electrochemical actuation. PDMS-based micropumps were integrated easily with channel-containing PMMA substrates. Flow rates on the order of ~10 µL/min were achieved using low voltages (10 V). The potential of electrolysis-based pumping in microchannels was further evaluated for pressure driven microchip ...


Microfluidic Electro-Osmotic Flow Pumps, John Mason Edwards Nov 2007

Microfluidic Electro-Osmotic Flow Pumps, John Mason Edwards

All Theses and Dissertations

The need for miniaturized, portable devices to separate and detect unknown compounds has greatly multiplied, leading to an increased interest in microfluidics. Total integration of the detector and pump are necessary to decrease the overall size of the microfluidic device. Using previously developed thin film technologies, an electroosmotic flow (EOF) pump was incorporated in a microfluidic liquid chromatography device. An EOF pump was chosen because of its simple design and small size. EOF pumps fabricated on silicon and glass substrates were evaluated. The experimental flow rates were 0.19-2.30 microliters/minute for 40-400 V. The theoretical pump efficiency was ...


Pre-Mrna Secondary Structures Influence Exon Recognition, Michael Hiller, Zhaiyi Zhang, Rolf Backofen, Stefan Stamm Nov 2007

Pre-Mrna Secondary Structures Influence Exon Recognition, Michael Hiller, Zhaiyi Zhang, Rolf Backofen, Stefan Stamm

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The secondary structure of a pre-mRNA influences a number of processing steps including alternative splicing. Since most splicing regulatory proteins bind to single-stranded RNA, the sequestration of RNA into double strands could prevent their binding. Here, we analyzed the secondary structure context of experimentally determined splicing enhancer and silencer motifs in their natural pre-mRNA context. We found that these splicing motifs are significantly more single-stranded than controls. These findings were validated by transfection experiments, where the effect of enhancer or silencer motifs on exon skipping was much more pronounced in single-stranded conformation. We also found that the structural context of ...


Discovery Of Platelet-Type 12-Human Lipoxygenase Selective Inhibitors By High-Throughput Screening Of Structurally Diverse Libraries., Joshua D. Deschamps, Jeffrey T. Gautschi, Stephanie Whitman, Tyler A. Johnson, Nadine C. Gassner, Phillip Crews, Theodore R. Holman Nov 2007

Discovery Of Platelet-Type 12-Human Lipoxygenase Selective Inhibitors By High-Throughput Screening Of Structurally Diverse Libraries., Joshua D. Deschamps, Jeffrey T. Gautschi, Stephanie Whitman, Tyler A. Johnson, Nadine C. Gassner, Phillip Crews, Theodore R. Holman

Natural Sciences and Mathematics | Faculty Scholarship

Human lipoxygenases (hLO) have been implicated in a variety of diseases and cancers and each hLO isozyme appears to have distinct roles in cellular biology. This fact emphasizes the need for discovering selective hLO inhibitors for both understanding the role of specific lipoxygenases in the cell and developing pharmaceutical therapeutics. To this end, we have modified a known lipoxygenase assay for high-throughput (HTP) screening of both the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the UC Santa Cruz marine extract library (UCSC-MEL) in search of platelet-type 12-hLO (12-hLO) selective inhibitors. The HTP screen led to the characterization of five novel 12-hLO inhibitors ...


Counter-Flow Ion Mobility Analysis: Design, Instrumentation, And Characterization, Nosa Agbonkonkon Nov 2007

Counter-Flow Ion Mobility Analysis: Design, Instrumentation, And Characterization, Nosa Agbonkonkon

All Theses and Dissertations

The quest to achieve high resolution in ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has continued to challenge scientist and engineers in the field of separation science. The low resolution presently attainable in IMS has continued to negatively impact its utility and acceptance. Until now, efforts to improve the resolution have mainly focused on better instrumentation and detection methods. However, since the resolution of IMS is diffusion limited, it makes sense to address this limitation in order to attain high resolution. This dissertation presents a new IMS technique, which utilizes a high electric field and opposing high gas flow velocity with the aim ...


Mechanism And Functional Significance Of Itk Autophosphorylation, Raji E. Joseph, D. Bruce Fulton, Amy H. Andreotti Nov 2007

Mechanism And Functional Significance Of Itk Autophosphorylation, Raji E. Joseph, D. Bruce Fulton, Amy H. Andreotti

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Tec family non-receptor tyrosine kinases (Itk, Btk, Tec, Rlk and Bmx) are characterized by the presence of an autophosphorylation site within the non-catalytic Src homology 3 (SH3) domain. The full length Itk mutant containing a phenylalanine in place of the autophosphorylated tyrosine has been previously studied in Itk deficient primary T cells. These studies revealed that the nonphosphorylated enzyme only partially restores Itk mediated signaling. In spite of these insights, the precise role of the Tec kinase autophosphorylation site remains unclear and the mechanism of the autophosphorylation reaction within the Tec kinases is not known. Here we show both in ...


A Conserved Cam- And Radial Spoke–Associated Complex Mediates Regulation Of Flagellar Dynein Activity, Erin E. Dymek, Elizabeth F. Smith Nov 2007

A Conserved Cam- And Radial Spoke–Associated Complex Mediates Regulation Of Flagellar Dynein Activity, Erin E. Dymek, Elizabeth F. Smith

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

For virtually all cilia and eukaryotic flagella, the second messengers calcium and cyclic adenosine monophosphate are implicated in modulating dynein- driven microtubule sliding to regulate beating. Calmodulin (CaM) localizes to the axoneme and is a key calcium sensor involved in regulating motility. Using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we identify members of a CaM-containing complex that are involved in regulating dynein activity. This complex includes flagellar-associated protein 91 (FAP91), which shares considerable sequence similarity to AAT-1, a protein originally identified in testis as an A-kinase anchor protein (AKAP)- binding protein. FAP91 directly interacts with radial spoke protein 3 (an AKAP), which ...


Clinical Light Exposure, Photoreceptor Degeneration, And Ap-1 Activation: A Cell Death Or Cell Survival Signal In The Rhodopsin Mutant Retina?, Danian Gu, William Beltran, Zexiao Li, Gregory M. Acland, Gustavo D. Aguirre Nov 2007

Clinical Light Exposure, Photoreceptor Degeneration, And Ap-1 Activation: A Cell Death Or Cell Survival Signal In The Rhodopsin Mutant Retina?, Danian Gu, William Beltran, Zexiao Li, Gregory M. Acland, Gustavo D. Aguirre

Departmental Papers (Vet)

PURPOSE. The T4R RHO mutant dog retina shows retinal degeneration with exposures to light comparable to those used in clinical eye examinations of patients. To define the molecular mechanisms of the degeneration, AP-1 DNA-binding activity, composition, posttranslational modification of the protein complex, and modulation of ERK/MAPK signaling pathways were examined in light-exposed mutant retinas.

METHODS. Dark-adapted retinas were exposed to short-duration light flashes from a retinal camera used clinically for retinal photography and were collected at different time points after exposure. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), supershift EMSA, Western blot analysis, and immunocytochemistry were used to examine AP-1 signaling ...


Anopheles Gambiae Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase: Catalysis, Structure And Inhibition, Erika Taylor, Agnes Rinaldo-Matthis, Lei Li, Mahmoud Ghanem, Keith Hazleton, M. Belen Cassera, Steven Almo, Vern Schramm Oct 2007

Anopheles Gambiae Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase: Catalysis, Structure And Inhibition, Erika Taylor, Agnes Rinaldo-Matthis, Lei Li, Mahmoud Ghanem, Keith Hazleton, M. Belen Cassera, Steven Almo, Vern Schramm

Erika A. Taylor, Ph.D.

The purine salvage pathway of Anopheles gambiae, a mosquito that transmits malaria, has been identified in genome searches on the basis of sequence homology with characterized enzymes. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) is a target for the development of therapeutic agents in humans and purine auxotrophs, including malarial parasites. The PNP from Anopheles gambiae (AgPNP) was expressed in Escherichia coli and compared to the PNPs from Homo sapiens (HsPNP) and Plasmodium falciparum (PfPNP). AgPNP has kcat values of 54 and 41 s-1 for 2'-deoxyinosine and inosine, its preferred substrates, and 1.0 s-1 for guanosine. However, the chemical step is ...


Induction Of Insulin Secretion In Engineered Liver Cells By Nitric Oxide, Latha Muniappan, Sabire Özcan Oct 2007

Induction Of Insulin Secretion In Engineered Liver Cells By Nitric Oxide, Latha Muniappan, Sabire Özcan

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus results from an autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic beta cells, which produce insulin. The lack of insulin leads to chronic hyperglycemia and secondary complications, such as cardiovascular disease. The currently approved clinical treatments for diabetes mellitus often fail to achieve sustained and optimal glycemic control. Therefore, there is a great interest in the development of surrogate beta cells as a treatment for type 1 diabetes. Normally, pancreatic beta cells produce and secrete insulin only in response to increased blood glucose levels. However in many cases, insulin secretion from non-beta cells engineered to produce insulin occurs ...


Evolutionary Dynamics Of Eukaryotic Selenoproteomes: Large Selenoproteomes May Associate With Aquatic Life And Small With Terrestrial Life, Alexey V. Lobanov, Dmitri E. Fomenko, Yan Zhang, Aniruddha Sengupta, Dolph L. Hatfield, Vadim N. Gladyshev Oct 2007

Evolutionary Dynamics Of Eukaryotic Selenoproteomes: Large Selenoproteomes May Associate With Aquatic Life And Small With Terrestrial Life, Alexey V. Lobanov, Dmitri E. Fomenko, Yan Zhang, Aniruddha Sengupta, Dolph L. Hatfield, Vadim N. Gladyshev

Vadim Gladyshev Publications

Background: Selenocysteine (Sec) is a selenium-containing amino acid that is co-translationally inserted into nascent polypeptides by recoding UGA codons. Selenoproteins occur in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, but the selenoprotein content of organisms (selenoproteome) is highly variable and some organisms do not utilize Sec at all.

Results: We analyzed the selenoproteomes of several model eukaryotes and detected 26 and 29 selenoprotein genes in the green algae Ostreococcus tauri and Ostreococcus lucimarinus, respectively, five in the social amoebae Dictyostelium discoideum, three in the fly Drosophila pseudoobscura, and 16 in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana, including several new selenoproteins. Distinct selenoprotein patterns were verified ...


The Chlamydomonas Genome Reveals The Evolution Of Key Animal And Plant Functions, Sabeeha S. Merchant, Simon E. Prochnik, Olivier Vallon, Elizabeth H. Harris, Steven J. Karpowicz, George B. Witman, Astrid Terry, Asaf Salamov, Lillian K. Fritz-Laylin, Laurence Maréchal-Drouard, Wallace F. Marshall, Liang-Hu Qu, David R. Nelson, Anton A. Sanderfoot, Martin H. Spalding, Vladimir V. Kapitonov, Qinghu Ren, Patrick Ferris, Erika Lindquist, Harris Shapiro, Susan M. Lucas, Jane Grimwood, Jeremy Schmutz, Chlamydomonas Annotation Team, Vadim N. Gladyshev, Jgi Annotation Team, Igor V. Grigoriev, Daniel S. Rokhsar, Arthur R. Grossman Oct 2007

The Chlamydomonas Genome Reveals The Evolution Of Key Animal And Plant Functions, Sabeeha S. Merchant, Simon E. Prochnik, Olivier Vallon, Elizabeth H. Harris, Steven J. Karpowicz, George B. Witman, Astrid Terry, Asaf Salamov, Lillian K. Fritz-Laylin, Laurence Maréchal-Drouard, Wallace F. Marshall, Liang-Hu Qu, David R. Nelson, Anton A. Sanderfoot, Martin H. Spalding, Vladimir V. Kapitonov, Qinghu Ren, Patrick Ferris, Erika Lindquist, Harris Shapiro, Susan M. Lucas, Jane Grimwood, Jeremy Schmutz, Chlamydomonas Annotation Team, Vadim N. Gladyshev, Jgi Annotation Team, Igor V. Grigoriev, Daniel S. Rokhsar, Arthur R. Grossman

Vadim Gladyshev Publications

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular green alga whose lineage diverged from land plants over 1 billion years ago. It is a model system for studying chloroplast-based photosynthesis, as well as the structure, assembly, and function of eukaryotic flagella (cilia), which were inherited from the common ancestor of plants and animals, but lost in land plants. We sequenced the ~120-megabase nuclear genome of Chlamydomonas and performed comparative phylogenomic analyses, identifying genes encoding uncharacterized proteins that are likely associated with the function and biogenesis of chloroplasts or eukaryotic flagella. Analyses of the Chlamydomonas genome advance our understanding of the ancestral eukaryotic cell ...


Optimization Of Non-Natural Nucleotides For Selective Incorporation Opposite Damaged Dna, Diana Vineyard, Xuemei Zhang, Alison Donnelley, Irene Lee, Anthony J. Berdis Oct 2007

Optimization Of Non-Natural Nucleotides For Selective Incorporation Opposite Damaged Dna, Diana Vineyard, Xuemei Zhang, Alison Donnelley, Irene Lee, Anthony J. Berdis

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The promutagenic process known as translesion DNA synthesis reflects the ability of a DNA polymerase to misinsert a nucleotide opposite a damaged DNA template. To study the underlying mechanism of nucleotide selection during this process, we quantified the incorporation of various non-natural nucleotide analogs opposite an abasic site, a non-templating DNA lesion. Our kinetic studies using the bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase reveal that the π-electron surface area of the incoming nucleotide substantially contributes to the efficiency of incorporation opposite an abasic site. A remaining question is whether the selective insertion of these non-hydrogen-bonding analogs can be achieved through optimization of ...