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2005

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Articles 1 - 30 of 211

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Expression Of G-Protein Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channels (Girks) In Lung Cancer Cell Lines, Howard Plummer, Madhu Dhar, Maria Cekanova, Hildegard Schuller Aug 2011

Expression Of G-Protein Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channels (Girks) In Lung Cancer Cell Lines, Howard Plummer, Madhu Dhar, Maria Cekanova, Hildegard Schuller

Howard K. Plummer III

BACKGROUND: Previous data from our laboratory has indicated that there is a functional link between the beta-adrenergic receptor signaling pathway and the G-protein inwardly rectifying potassium channel (GIRK1) in human breast cancer cell lines. We wanted to determine if GIRK channels were expressed in lung cancers and if a similar link exists in lung cancer. METHODS: GIRK1-4 expression and levels were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR. GIRK protein levels were determined by western blots and cell proliferation was determined by a 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assay. RESULTS: GIRK1 mRNA was expressed in three of six ...


Evidence For Direct Roles Of Two Additional Factors, Secp43 And Soluble Liver Antigen, In The Selenoprotein Synthesis Machinery, Xue-Ming Xu, Heiko Mix, Bradley A. Carlson, Paula J. Grabowski, Vadim N. Gladyshev, Marla J. Berry, Dolph L. Hatfield Dec 2005

Evidence For Direct Roles Of Two Additional Factors, Secp43 And Soluble Liver Antigen, In The Selenoprotein Synthesis Machinery, Xue-Ming Xu, Heiko Mix, Bradley A. Carlson, Paula J. Grabowski, Vadim N. Gladyshev, Marla J. Berry, Dolph L. Hatfield

Vadim Gladyshev Publications

Selenocysteine (Sec) is inserted into selenoproteins co-translationally with the help of various cis- and trans-acting factors. The specific mechanisms of Sec biosynthesis and insertion into protein in eukaryotic cells, however, are not known. Two proteins, SECp43 and the soluble liver antigen (SLA), were previously reported to interact with tRNA [Ser]Sec, but their functions remained elusive. Herein, we report that knockdown of SECp43 in NIH3T3 or TCMK-1 cells using RNA interference technology resulted in a reduction in the level of methylation at the 2’-hydroxylribosyl moiety in the wobble position (Um34) of Sec tRNA [Ser]Sec, and consequently reduced glutathione ...


Preligand Assembly Domain-Mediated Ligand-Independent Association Between Trail Receptor 4 (Tr4) And Tr2 Regulates Trail-Induced Apoptosis, Lauren Clancy, Karen Mruk, Kristina A. Archer, Melissa A. Woelfel, Juthathip Mongkolsapaya, Gavin R. Screaton, Michael J. Lenardo, Francis Ka-Ming Chan Dec 2005

Preligand Assembly Domain-Mediated Ligand-Independent Association Between Trail Receptor 4 (Tr4) And Tr2 Regulates Trail-Induced Apoptosis, Lauren Clancy, Karen Mruk, Kristina A. Archer, Melissa A. Woelfel, Juthathip Mongkolsapaya, Gavin R. Screaton, Michael J. Lenardo, Francis Ka-Ming Chan

Open Access Articles

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a cytokine with potential therapeutic value against cancers because of its selective cytotoxicity to many transformed, but not normal, cells. The "decoy receptors" TRAIL-R3 (TR3) and TRAIL-R4 (TR4) were believed to negatively regulate TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity by competing for ligand binding with TRAIL-R1 (TR1) and TRAIL-R2 (TR2). Here, we show that inhibition of TRAIL-induced apoptosis by TR4 critically depends on its association with TR2 via the NH(2)-terminal preligand assembly domain overlapping the first partial cysteine-rich domain of both receptors. By contrast, ligand binding by TR4 is dispensable for its apoptosis ...


Improved Peak Detection And Quantification Of Mass Spectrometry Data Acquired From Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption And Ionization By Denoising Spectra With The Undecimated Discrete Wavelet Transform, Kevin R. Coombes, Spiros Tsavachidis, Jeffrey S. Morris, Keith A. Baggerly, Henry M. Kuerer Dec 2005

Improved Peak Detection And Quantification Of Mass Spectrometry Data Acquired From Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption And Ionization By Denoising Spectra With The Undecimated Discrete Wavelet Transform, Kevin R. Coombes, Spiros Tsavachidis, Jeffrey S. Morris, Keith A. Baggerly, Henry M. Kuerer

Jeffrey S. Morris

Background: Mass spectrometry, especially surface enhanced laser desorption and ionization (SELDI) is increasingly being used to find disease-related proteomic patterns in complex mixtures of proteins derived from tissue samples or from easily obtained biological fluids such as serum, urine, or nipple aspirate fluid. Questions have been raised about the reproducibility and reliability of peak quantifications using this technology. For example, Yasui and colleagues opted to replace continuous measures of the size of a peak by a simple binary indicator of its presence or absence in their analysis of a set of spectra from prostate cancer patients.

Methods: We collected nipple ...


Pooling Information Across Different Studies And Oligonucleotide Microarray Chip Types To Identify Prognostic Genes For Lung Cancer., Jeffrey S. Morris, Guosheng Yin, Keith A. Baggerly, Chunlei Wu, Li Zhang Dec 2005

Pooling Information Across Different Studies And Oligonucleotide Microarray Chip Types To Identify Prognostic Genes For Lung Cancer., Jeffrey S. Morris, Guosheng Yin, Keith A. Baggerly, Chunlei Wu, Li Zhang

Jeffrey S. Morris

Our goal in this work is to pool information across microarray studies conducted at different institutions using two different versions of Affymetrix chips to identify genes whose expression levels offer information on lung cancer patients’ survival above and beyond the information provided by readily available clinical covariates. We combine information across chip types by identifying “matching probes” present on both chips, and then assembling them into new probesets based on Unigene clusters. This method yields comparable expression level quantifications across chips without sacrificing much precision or significantly altering the relative ordering of the samples. We fit a series of multivariable ...


Ligand Binding Studies In R67 Dihydrofolate Reductase And The Evaluation Of The Anion-Quadrupole Interaction At A Quantum Mechanical Level, Michael Robert Jackson Dec 2005

Ligand Binding Studies In R67 Dihydrofolate Reductase And The Evaluation Of The Anion-Quadrupole Interaction At A Quantum Mechanical Level, Michael Robert Jackson

Doctoral Dissertations

Dihydrofolate reductases (DHFR) are important, ubiquitous enzymes catalyzing the hydride transfer from NADPH to dihydrofolate and producing the tetrahydrofolate intermediate that is essential for many metabolic processes, particularly for its role in DNA synthesis. R67 DHFR is a plasmid encoded enzyme that confers resistance to the antibiotic drug trimethoprim. This enzyme is active as a homotetramer. The active site pore possesses 222 symmetry as a result. This symmetry gives rise to a different mechanism by which it binds its ligands. There are potentially four symmetry related binding sites, but various studies have indicated only three possible combinations that include: two ...


High Resolution X-Ray And Neutron Crystallographic Studies Of Escherichia Coli Dihydrofolate Reductase, Brad C. Bennett Dec 2005

High Resolution X-Ray And Neutron Crystallographic Studies Of Escherichia Coli Dihydrofolate Reductase, Brad C. Bennett

Doctoral Dissertations

Dihydrofolate Reductases (DHFRs) have been identified in nearly every proteome and are essential for most biosynthetic pathways involving one-carbon transfer reactions due to their recycling of tetrahydrofolate (THF). They catalyze the NADPH-dependent reduction of dihydrofolate (DHF), producing THF. Inhibition of DHFR ultimately depletes cellular pools of THF; causing a reduced supply of thymine nucleotides for DNA synthesis, resulting in genomic instability and cell death. Therefore, DHFRs remain important drug targets in antimicrobial and chemotherapeutic treatments. Despite exhaustive investigation of E. coli chromosomal DHFR, controversy persists over the dynamics of regulatory loops (the Met20, the βF-βG, and the βG-βH) and the ...


Analysis Of Vehicle Use Patterns During Military Field Exercises To Identify Potential Roads, Chunxia Wu Dec 2005

Analysis Of Vehicle Use Patterns During Military Field Exercises To Identify Potential Roads, Chunxia Wu

Doctoral Dissertations

Military training is an intensive land use and can cause negative environmental effects. Many studies conducted under Integrated Training Area Management (ITAM) for quantifying the impact resulted from the military training exercise found that off-road vehicular activities during training exercises cause the major impact to the training land. Vehicle land use patterns at a certain location affect the impact severity: concentrated and repeated traffic create more serious damage to the land compared to the dispersed offroad vehicle movements. Those areas heavily disturbed by off-road traffic may require a longer period of time or special treatments for the land to return ...


An Evolving View Of The Eukaryotic Oligosaccharyltransferase, Daniel J. Kelleher, Reid Gilmore Dec 2005

An Evolving View Of The Eukaryotic Oligosaccharyltransferase, Daniel J. Kelleher, Reid Gilmore

Open Access Articles

Asparagine-linked glycosylation (ALG) is one of the most common protein modification reactions in eukaryotic cells, as many proteins that are translocated across or integrated into the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) carry N-linked oligosaccharides. Although the primary focus of this review will be the structure and function of the eukaryotic oligosaccharyltransferase (OST), key findings provided by the analysis of the archaebacterial and eubacterial OST homologues will be reviewed, particularly those that provide insight into the recognition of donor and acceptor substrates. Selection of the fully assembled donor substrate will be considered in the context of the family of human diseases known ...


Different Catalytic Mechanisms In Mammalian Selenocysteine- And Cysteine-Containing Methionine-R-Sulfoxide Reductases, Hwa-Young Kim, Vadim Gladyshev Dec 2005

Different Catalytic Mechanisms In Mammalian Selenocysteine- And Cysteine-Containing Methionine-R-Sulfoxide Reductases, Hwa-Young Kim, Vadim Gladyshev

Vadim Gladyshev Publications

Selenocysteine (Sec) is found in active sites of several oxidoreductases in which this residue is essential for catalytic activity. However, many selenoproteins have fully functional orthologs, wherein cysteine (Cys) occupies the position of Sec. The reason why some enzymes evolve into selenoproteins if the Cys versions may be sufficient is not understood. Among three mammalian methionine-R-sulfoxide reductases (MsrBs), MsrB1 is a Sec-containing protein, whereas MsrB2 and MsrB3 contain Cys in the active site, making these enzymes an excellent system for addressing the question of why Sec is used in biological systems. In this study, we found that residues, which are ...


Jil‐1 Kinase, A Member Of The Male‐Specific Lethal (Msl) Complex, Is Necessary For Proper Dosage Compensation Of Eye Pigmentation In Drosophila, Stephanie Lerach, Weiguo Zhang, Huai Deng, Xiaomin Bao, Jack Girton, Jorgen Johansen, Kristen M. Johansen Dec 2005

Jil‐1 Kinase, A Member Of The Male‐Specific Lethal (Msl) Complex, Is Necessary For Proper Dosage Compensation Of Eye Pigmentation In Drosophila, Stephanie Lerach, Weiguo Zhang, Huai Deng, Xiaomin Bao, Jack Girton, Jorgen Johansen, Kristen M. Johansen

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

The upregulation of the JIL-1 kinase on the male X chromosome and its association with the MSL complex suggest that JIL-1 may play a role in regulating dosage compensation. To directly test this hypothesis we measured eye pigment levels of mutants in the X-linked white gene in an allelic series of JIL-1 hypomorphic mutants. We show that dosage compensation of wa alleles that normally do exhibit dosage compensation was severely impaired in the JIL-1 mutant backgrounds. As a control we also examined a hypomorphic white allele we that fails to dosage compensate in males due to a pogo element insertion ...


Process For The Preparation Of Citalopram Intermediate, Aslam A. Malik, Hasan Palandoken, Joy A. Stringer, Dershing Huang, Antonio Romero, Olivier Dapremont Nov 2005

Process For The Preparation Of Citalopram Intermediate, Aslam A. Malik, Hasan Palandoken, Joy A. Stringer, Dershing Huang, Antonio Romero, Olivier Dapremont

Chemistry and Biochemistry

The present invention provides, inter alia, a novel process for the preparation of Citalopram, a known antidepressant.


The Role Of Phosducin-Like Protein And The Cytosolic Chaperonin Cct In G Beta Gamma Dimer Assembly, Ting Hu Nov 2005

The Role Of Phosducin-Like Protein And The Cytosolic Chaperonin Cct In G Beta Gamma Dimer Assembly, Ting Hu

Theses and Dissertations

Phosducin-like protein (PhLP), a G protein beta gamma subunit dimer binder and G protein signaling regulator, was suggested to regulate the activity of cytosolic chaperonin CCT by their high affinity interaction. In the present study, the three-dimensional structure of PhLP:CCT complex has been solved by cryoelectron microscopy. PhLP was found to bind only one of the chaperonin rings with both N- and C-terminal domains. It spans the central folding cavity of CCT and interacts with two opposite sides of the top apical region, inducing the constraining of the entry of the folding cavity. These findings support a putative role ...


How Do Side Chains Orient Globally In Protein Structures?, Aimin Yan, Robert L. Jernigan Nov 2005

How Do Side Chains Orient Globally In Protein Structures?, Aimin Yan, Robert L. Jernigan

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

An angle Ω is defined to serve as a metric for global side-chain orientations, which reflects the orientation of the side chain relative to the radial vector from the center of the protein to an amino acid. The side-chain orientations of buried residues exhibit characteristically different orientations than do exposed residues, in both monomeric and dimeric structures. Overall, buried side chains point mostly inward, whereas surface side chains tend to point outward from the surface. This difference in behavior also correlates well with the residue hydrophobicity; so a global side-chain orientation can be viewed as a direct structural manifestation of ...


A Novel Cysteine-Rich Domain Of Sep15 Mediates The Interaction With Udp-Glucose:Glycoprotein Glucosyltransferase, Vyacheslav M. Labunskyy, Andrew D. Ferguson, Dmitri E. Fomenko, Yogarany Chelliah, Dolph L. Hatfield, Vadim N. Gladyshev Nov 2005

A Novel Cysteine-Rich Domain Of Sep15 Mediates The Interaction With Udp-Glucose:Glycoprotein Glucosyltransferase, Vyacheslav M. Labunskyy, Andrew D. Ferguson, Dmitri E. Fomenko, Yogarany Chelliah, Dolph L. Hatfield, Vadim N. Gladyshev

Vadim Gladyshev Publications

Selenium is an essential trace element with potent cancer prevention activity in mammals. The 15-kDa selenoprotein (Sep15) has been implicated in the chemopreventive effect of dietary selenium. Although the precise function of Sep15 remains elusive, Sep15 copurifies with UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase (GT), an essential regulator of quality control mechanisms within the endoplasmic reticulum. Recent studies identified two GT and two Sep15 homologues in mammals. We characterize interactions between these protein families in this report. Sep15 and GT form a tight 1:1 complex, and these interactions are conserved between mammals and fruit flies. In mammalian cells, Sep15 co-immunoprecipitates with both ...


Palladium-Imidazolium Carbene Catalyzed Heck Coupling Reactions And Synthesis Of A Novel Class Of Fluoroanthracenylmethyl Ptc Catalysts, Jiuqing Zhang Nov 2005

Palladium-Imidazolium Carbene Catalyzed Heck Coupling Reactions And Synthesis Of A Novel Class Of Fluoroanthracenylmethyl Ptc Catalysts, Jiuqing Zhang

Theses and Dissertations

Palladium catalyzed Heck coupling with aryl and alkenyl halides has become a powerful means of carbon-carbon bond formation. This standard synthetic method has been developed to a high level of utility using various catalysts, conditions and substrates. Yet significant drawbacks remain, including poor reactivity, the need for high temperatures and base, limited substrate generality, and selectivity. Mixed products often suffer from olefin migration following insertion. N-Heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) have proven to be electron-rich donors which provide higher stability and reactivity than phosphines. In a previous paper reported by our research group the imidazolium-palladium carbene has proven to be highly efficient ...


Performance Of Binary-Encounter-Bethe (Beb) Theory For Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Sections Of Molecules Containing Heavy Elements (Z > 10), Gregory E. Scott, Karl K. Irikura Nov 2005

Performance Of Binary-Encounter-Bethe (Beb) Theory For Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Sections Of Molecules Containing Heavy Elements (Z > 10), Gregory E. Scott, Karl K. Irikura

Chemistry and Biochemistry

The binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) theory developed by Kim and coworkers has been successful for computing electron-impact ionization cross sections of many molecules. However, some recent publications have stated that BEB theory performs poorly for molecules that contain heavier elements such as chlorine and sulfur. We have found that the BEB calculations in those publications were performed incorrectly. When performed correctly, BEB predictions are as good for heavy-element molecules as for light-element molecules. We recommended recently that an alternative, less-confusing procedure be used for molecules that contain heavier elements. The alternative procedure, based upon effective core potentials (ECPs), does not require explicit ...


Observation Of Large Photoacoustic Signal Phase Changes During A Diffusion Process, Stanley J. Bajic, Roger W. Jones, John F. Mcclelland Nov 2005

Observation Of Large Photoacoustic Signal Phase Changes During A Diffusion Process, Stanley J. Bajic, Roger W. Jones, John F. Mcclelland

Ames Laboratory Publications

The phase of the photoacoustic signal is known to be a sensitive and accurate means to investigate, both qualitatively and quantitatively, static multilayer heterogeneous systems. According to theory, the maximum phase delay for a very weakly absorbing homogeneous sample should be within 45° of a very strongly absorbing sample, while for heterogeneous samples the phase delay can be greater than 45°. Here we report the observation of photoacoustic phase delays greater than 350° by extending the use of step-scan phase modulation photoacoustic spectroscopy to study a non-repetitive dynamic system in situ, in real time. These large phase delays correspond to ...


Total Syntheses Of (+)-Geldanamycin, (-)-Ragaglitazar, And (+)-Kurasoin A And Phase-Transfer-Catalyzed Asymmetric Alkylation, Erik J. Hicken Nov 2005

Total Syntheses Of (+)-Geldanamycin, (-)-Ragaglitazar, And (+)-Kurasoin A And Phase-Transfer-Catalyzed Asymmetric Alkylation, Erik J. Hicken

Theses and Dissertations

Geldanamycin possesses various biological activities as seen in the NCI 60 cell line panel (13 nM avg., 70 nM SKBr-3 cells). The predominant mode of action providing these unique results arises from the ability of geldanamycin (GA) to bind to the chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90). Despite its complicated functionality, the first total synthesis of GA was accomplished, which included two new reactions developed specifically to address the stereochemical features. The final step in the synthesis of GA was a demethylation-oxidation sequence to generate the desired para-quinone. This step could only be accomplished with HNO3/AcOH, producing GA ...


Crystal Structures Of Oxidized And Reduced Mitochondrial Thioredoxin Reductase Provide Molecular Details Of The Reaction Mechanism, Ekaterina I. Biterova, Anton A. Turanov, Vadim N. Gladyshev, Joseph J. Barycki Oct 2005

Crystal Structures Of Oxidized And Reduced Mitochondrial Thioredoxin Reductase Provide Molecular Details Of The Reaction Mechanism, Ekaterina I. Biterova, Anton A. Turanov, Vadim N. Gladyshev, Joseph J. Barycki

Vadim Gladyshev Publications

Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is an essential enzyme required for the efficient maintenance of the cellular redox homeostasis, particularly in cancer cells that are sensitive to reactive oxygen species. In mammals, distinct isozymes function in the cytosol and mitochondria. Through an intricate mechanism, these enzymes transfer reducing equivalents from NADPH to bound FAD and subsequently to an active-site disulfide. In mammalian TrxRs, the dithiol then reduces a mobile C-terminal selenocysteine- containing tetrapeptide of the opposing subunit of the dimer. Once activated, the C-terminal redox center reduces a disulfide bond within thioredoxin. In this report, we present the structural data on a ...


Specific Heat And Thermodynamic Properties Of Metallic Systems: Instrumentation And Analysis, Brian E. Lang Oct 2005

Specific Heat And Thermodynamic Properties Of Metallic Systems: Instrumentation And Analysis, Brian E. Lang

Theses and Dissertations

A small-scale adiabatic calorimeter has been constructed as part of a larger project to study nano-particles and to facilitate specific heat measurements on samples where it is difficult to obtain enough material to run on the current large-scale adiabatic apparatus. This calorimeter is designed to measure sample sizes of less than 0.8 cc over a temperature range from 13 K to 350 K. Specific heat results on copper, sapphire, and benzoic acid show the accuracy of the measurements to be better than ±0.4% for temperatures higher than 50 K. The reproducibility of these measurements is generally better than ...


Microcapsule Biosensors Based On Competitive Binding And Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Assays, Swetha Chinnayelka Oct 2005

Microcapsule Biosensors Based On Competitive Binding And Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Assays, Swetha Chinnayelka

Doctoral Dissertations

Fluorescent sensing systems offer the potential for minimally invasive monitoring with implantable devices, but they require carrier technologies that provide suitable immobilization, accessibility, and biocompatibility while maintaining adequate response characteristics. Towards the development of this goal, a general design of a biosensor with the capability of detecting different metabolites was investigated. The approach is based on the encapsulation of a competitive binding assay in microcapsules and monitoring the changes in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in the presence of analyte. To experimentally demonstrate this type of sensing system, glucose was chosen as the model target analyte. The design, fabrication, and ...


Nitrosamine 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-Pyridyl)-1-Butanone-Induced Pulmonary Adenocarcinomas In Syrian Golden Hamsters Contain Beta 2-Adrenergic Receptor Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms, T Masi, Maria Cekanova, K Walker, H Bernart, M Majidi, Jm Becker, Hildegard Schuller Sep 2005

Nitrosamine 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-Pyridyl)-1-Butanone-Induced Pulmonary Adenocarcinomas In Syrian Golden Hamsters Contain Beta 2-Adrenergic Receptor Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms, T Masi, Maria Cekanova, K Walker, H Bernart, M Majidi, Jm Becker, Hildegard Schuller

Maria Cekanova MS, RNDr, PhD

Cigarette smoking contributes to the development of lung cancer throughout the world, with cases of pulmonary adenocarcinoma (PAC) the most numerous. Nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), which is formed from nicotine, has been demonstrated to cause mutations in genes that affect cell regulation and proliferation. Moreover, NNK has been shown to interact directly with and stimulate beta adrenergic receptor (ADRB) signal transduction pathways. Our goal was to determine whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Adrb2 from PAC tumors were induced in golden hamsters by the injection of NNK. Here we report the cloning and sequencing of Adrb2 clones ...


Sleeping Under Risk Of Predation, Steven Lima, John Lesku, Neil Rattenborg, Charles Amlaner Sep 2005

Sleeping Under Risk Of Predation, Steven Lima, John Lesku, Neil Rattenborg, Charles Amlaner

Charles J. Amlaner

Every studied animal engages in sleep, and many animals spend much of their lives in this vulnerable behavioural state. We believe that an explicit description of this vulnerability will provide many insights into both the function and architecture (or organization) of sleep. Early studies of sleep recognized this idea, but it has been largely overlooked during the last 20 years. We critically evaluate early models that suggested that the function of sleep is antipredator in nature, and outline a new model in which we argue that whole-brain or 'blackout' sleep may be the safest way to sleep given a functionally ...


A Facile Synthesis Of (Tert-Alkoxy)Amines, Hasan Palandoken, Chris M. Bocian, Michelle R. Mccombs, Michael H. Nantz Sep 2005

A Facile Synthesis Of (Tert-Alkoxy)Amines, Hasan Palandoken, Chris M. Bocian, Michelle R. Mccombs, Michael H. Nantz

Chemistry and Biochemistry

Tertiary alcohols react with stoichiometric BF3·Et2O and N-hydroxyphthalimide to yield N-alkoxyphthalimides. Subsequent hydrazinolyses afford the title compounds.


Polymer Microchips For Capillary Electrophoresis And Electric Field Gradient Focusing Of Biomolecules, Ryan Thomas Kelly Sep 2005

Polymer Microchips For Capillary Electrophoresis And Electric Field Gradient Focusing Of Biomolecules, Ryan Thomas Kelly

Theses and Dissertations

Polymeric materials have seen increasing use as microfluidic device substrates due to their low cost and the simplicity of templated fabrication procedures. I showed that poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microdevices could be enclosed in a boiling water bath, which allowed the seal to form more quickly than in conventional approaches, and enabled microchannels to remain hydrated throughout the bonding process. Microchip capillary electrophoresis (µ-CE) devices were fabricated using water-based enclosure, and a mixture of fluorescently labeled amino acids was separated in 30 s in these microchips. To create more robust capillary electrophoresis (CE) microdevices with improved separation performance, phase-changing sacrificial ...


Fractals Analysis Of Cardiac Arrhythmias, Mohammed Saeed Sep 2005

Fractals Analysis Of Cardiac Arrhythmias, Mohammed Saeed

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Heart rhythms are generated by complex self-regulating systems governed by the laws of chaos. Consequently, heart rhythms have fractal organization, characterized by self-similar dynamics with long-range order operating over multiple time scales. This allows for the self-organization and adaptability of heart rhythms under stress. Breakdown of this fractal organization into excessive order or uncorrelated randomness leads to a less-adaptable system, characteristic of aging and disease. With the tools of nonlinear dynamics, this fractal breakdown can be quantified with potential applications to diagnostic and prognostic clinical assessment. In this paper, I review the methodologies for fractal analysis of cardiac rhythms and ...


An Acyl Radical Cascade Model For The Total Synthesis Of Lyconadin A, Seth W. Grant Sep 2005

An Acyl Radical Cascade Model For The Total Synthesis Of Lyconadin A, Seth W. Grant

Theses and Dissertations

Lyconadin A (1) is a structurally unique Lycopodium alkaloid with antitumor properties, isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum. We are developing a synthetic route to 1 based on a novel 7-exo-trig/6-exo-trig acyl radical cascade cyclization. The synthesis of model acyl radical cascade precursor 23 will be presented. Key features of this synthesis include the suppression of competing elimination during the alkylation of a hindered phenethyl bromide and the use of a lactone as a precursor to a compound bearing two differentially protected primary alcohols. An account of our studies on the model acyl radical cascade cyclization (23 to ...


Structure Elucidation Of Bioactive Compounds Isolated From Endophytes Of Alstonia Scholaris And Acmena Graveolens, Nicholas James Hundley Sep 2005

Structure Elucidation Of Bioactive Compounds Isolated From Endophytes Of Alstonia Scholaris And Acmena Graveolens, Nicholas James Hundley

Theses and Dissertations

Alstonia scholaris is an evergreen tree native to Southeast Asia and Australia. It is commonly used as a medicinal plant throughout these regions. In the present study, an endophyte of the genus Xylaria was isolated from a stem of Alstonia scholaris, its mycelia and exudate extracted, and the extract assayed for growth inhibition of HeLa cancer cells in vitro. Several known compounds were isolated and identified based on NMR, infrared, and mass spectral data. The compounds identified are 19,20-epoxycytochalasin C; 19,20epoxycytochalasin D; and xylobovide. Two other compounds, fusaric acid and dehydrofusaric acid, were discovered in an endophyte of ...


Rab11 Gtpase-Regulated Membrane Trafficking Is Crucial For Tip-Focused Pollen Tube Growth In Tobacco, B. H. De Graaf, Alice Cheung, T. Andreyeva, K. Levasseur, M. Kieliszewski, H. M. Wu Aug 2005

Rab11 Gtpase-Regulated Membrane Trafficking Is Crucial For Tip-Focused Pollen Tube Growth In Tobacco, B. H. De Graaf, Alice Cheung, T. Andreyeva, K. Levasseur, M. Kieliszewski, H. M. Wu

Alice Cheung

Pollen tube growth is a polarized growth process whereby the tip-growing tubes elongate within the female reproductive tissues to deliver sperm cells to the ovules for fertilization. Efficient and regulated membrane trafficking activity incorporates membrane and deposits cell wall molecules at the tube apex and is believed to underlie rapid and focused growth at the pollen tube tip. Rab GTPases, key regulators of membrane trafficking, are candidates for important roles in regulating pollen tube growth. We show that a green fluorescent protein-tagged Nicotiana tabacum pollen-expressed Rab11b is localized predominantly to an inverted cone-shaped region in the pollen tube tip that ...