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Articles 1 - 4 of 4

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Reaction Mechanism, Evolutionary Analysis, And Role Of Zinc In Drosophila Methionine-R-Sulfoxide Reductase, R. Abhilash Kumar, Ahmet Koc, Ronald Cerny, Vadim N. Gladyshev Oct 2002

Reaction Mechanism, Evolutionary Analysis, And Role Of Zinc In Drosophila Methionine-R-Sulfoxide Reductase, R. Abhilash Kumar, Ahmet Koc, Ronald Cerny, Vadim N. Gladyshev

Vadim Gladyshev Publications

Methionine residues in proteins are susceptible to oxidation, and the resulting methionine sulfoxides can be reduced back to methionines by methionine- S-sulfoxide reductase (MsrA) and methionine-R-sulfoxide reductase (MsrB). Herein, we have identified two MsrB families that differ by the presence of zinc. Evolutionary analyses suggested that the zinc-containing MsrB proteins are prototype enzymes and that the metal was lost in certain MsrB proteins later in evolution. Zinc-containing Drosophila MsrB was further characterized. The enzyme was found to employ a catalytic Cys124 thiolate, which directly interacted with methionine sulfoxide, resulting in methionine and a Cys124 sulfenic ...


Selenoproteins And Selenocysteine Insertion System In The Model Plant Cell System, Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, Sergey V. Novoselov, Mahadev Rao, Natalia V. Onoshko, Huijun Zhi, Gregory V. Kryukov, Youbin Xiang, Donald P. Weeks, Dolph A. Hatfield, Vadim Gladyshev Jul 2002

Selenoproteins And Selenocysteine Insertion System In The Model Plant Cell System, Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, Sergey V. Novoselov, Mahadev Rao, Natalia V. Onoshko, Huijun Zhi, Gregory V. Kryukov, Youbin Xiang, Donald P. Weeks, Dolph A. Hatfield, Vadim Gladyshev

Vadim Gladyshev Publications

Known eukaryotic selenocysteine (Sec)-containing proteins are animal proteins, whereas selenoproteins have not been found in yeast and plants. Surprisingly, we detected selenoproteins in a member of the plant kingdom, Chlumydomonas reinhardtii, and directly identified two of them as phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase and selenoprotein W homologs. Moreover, a selenocysteyl-tRNA was isolated that recognized specifically the Sec codon UGA. Subsequent gene cloning and bioinformatics analyses identified eight additional selenoproteins, including methionine-Ssulfoxide reductase, a selenoprotein specific to Chlumydomonas. Chlumydomonas selenoprotein genes contained selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) elements that were similar, but not identical, to those of animals. These SECIS elements could ...


Minireview: How Selenium Has Altered Our Understanding Of The Genetic Code, Dolph L. Hatfield, Vadim Gladyshev Jun 2002

Minireview: How Selenium Has Altered Our Understanding Of The Genetic Code, Dolph L. Hatfield, Vadim Gladyshev

Vadim Gladyshev Publications

Selenium is an essential micronutrient in the diet of many life forms, including humans and other mammals. Significant health benefits have been attributed to this element. It is rapidly becoming recognized as one of the more promising cancer chemopreventive agents (19), and there are strong indications that it has a role in reducing viral expression (4), in preventing heart disease and other cardiovascular and muscle disorders (23), and in delaying the progression of AIDS in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients (3). Additional evidence suggests that selenium may have a role in mammalian development (51), in immune function (70), in male reproduction ...


Mammalian Selenoprotein In Which Selenocysteine (Sec) Incorporation Is Supported By A New Form Of Sec Insertion Sequence Element, Konstantin V. Korotkov, Sergey V. Novoselov, Dolph L. Hatfield, Vadim Gladyshev Mar 2002

Mammalian Selenoprotein In Which Selenocysteine (Sec) Incorporation Is Supported By A New Form Of Sec Insertion Sequence Element, Konstantin V. Korotkov, Sergey V. Novoselov, Dolph L. Hatfield, Vadim Gladyshev

Vadim Gladyshev Publications

Selenocysteine (Sec), the 21st amino acid in protein, is encoded by UGA. The Sec insertion sequence (SECIS) element, which is the stem-loop structure present in 3’ untranslated regions (UTRs) of eukaryotic selenoprotein- encoding genes, is essential for recognition of UGA as a codon for Sec rather than as a stop signal. We now report the identification of a new eukaryotic selenoprotein, designated selenoprotein M (SelM). The 3-kb human SelM-encoding gene has five exons and is located on chromosome 22 but has not been correctly identified by either Celera or the public Human Genome Project. We characterized human and mouse SelM ...