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2000

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Articles 1 - 30 of 97

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Skeletor, A Novel Chromosomal Protein That Redistributes During Mitosis Provides Evidence For The Formation Of A Spindle Matrix, Diana L. Walker, Dong Wang, Ye Jin, Uttama Rath, Yanming Wang, Jorgen Johansen, Kristen M. Johansen Dec 2000

Skeletor, A Novel Chromosomal Protein That Redistributes During Mitosis Provides Evidence For The Formation Of A Spindle Matrix, Diana L. Walker, Dong Wang, Ye Jin, Uttama Rath, Yanming Wang, Jorgen Johansen, Kristen M. Johansen

Zoology and Genetics Publications

A spindle matrix has been proposed to help organize and stabilize the microtubule spindle during mitosis, though molecular evidence corroborating its existence has been elusive. In Drosophila, we have cloned and characterized a novel nuclear protein, skeletor, that we propose is part of a macromolecular complex forming such a spindle matrix. Skeletor antibody staining shows that skeletor is associated with the chromosomes at interphase, but redistributes into a true fusiform spindle structure at prophase, which precedes microtubule spindle formation. During metaphase, the spindle, defined by skeletor antibody labeling, and the microtubule spindles are coaligned. We find that the skeletor-defined spindle ...


Ryanodine Receptor Adaptation, Michael Fill, A. Zahradníková, Carlos A. Villalba-Galea, I. Zahradník, A. L. Escobar, S. Györke Dec 2000

Ryanodine Receptor Adaptation, Michael Fill, A. Zahradníková, Carlos A. Villalba-Galea, I. Zahradník, A. L. Escobar, S. Györke

School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences Faculty Articles

In the heart, depolarization during the action potential activates voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels that mediate a small, localized Ca2+ influx (ICa). This small Ca2+ signal activates specialized Ca2+ release channels, the ryanodine receptors (RyRs), in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). This process is called Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR). Intuitively, the CICR process should be self-regenerating because the Ca2+ released from the SR should feedback and activate further SR Ca2+ release. However, the CICR process is precisely controlled in the heart and, consequently, some sort of negative control mechanism(s) must exist to ...


Behavioral, Neurophysiological And Evolutionary Perspectives On Unihemispheric Sleep, Niels Rattenborg, Charles Amlaner, Steven Lima Nov 2000

Behavioral, Neurophysiological And Evolutionary Perspectives On Unihemispheric Sleep, Niels Rattenborg, Charles Amlaner, Steven Lima

Charles J. Amlaner

Several animals mitigate the fundamental conflict between sleep and wakefulness by engaging in unihemispheric sleep, a unique state during which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other remains awake. Among mammals, unihemispheric sleep is restricted to aquatic species (Cetaceans, cared seals and manatees). in contrast to mammals, unihemispheric sleep is widespread in birds, and may even occur in reptiles. Unihemispheric sleep allows surfacing to breathe in aquatic mammals and predator detection in birds. Despite the apparent utility in being able to sleep unihemispherically, very few mammals sleep in this manner. This is particularly interesting since the reptilian ancestors to mammals ...


Height Referencing Biochemical Cassette, Marc D. Porter, Vivian W. Jones, Curtis L. Mosher, Eric Henderson Nov 2000

Height Referencing Biochemical Cassette, Marc D. Porter, Vivian W. Jones, Curtis L. Mosher, Eric Henderson

Iowa State University Patents

A height referencing biochemical cassette comprising of a surface suitable to act as a coupling agent, a height referencing indicator, and molecules bonded to the surface. This cassette is a capable of use to test for bonding to these molecules through measuring the height difference between the indicator and the surface. This invention provides an efficient means to quickly and easily test for bonding of molecules to other molecules.


Structure-Expression Relationships Of The 15-Kda Selenoprotein Gene, Easwari Kumaraswamy, Andrey Malyhk, Konstantin V. Korotkov, Sergei Kozyavkin, Yajun Hu, Byeong J. Lee, Dolph L. Hatfield, Alan M. Diamond, Vadim N. Gladyshev Nov 2000

Structure-Expression Relationships Of The 15-Kda Selenoprotein Gene, Easwari Kumaraswamy, Andrey Malyhk, Konstantin V. Korotkov, Sergei Kozyavkin, Yajun Hu, Byeong J. Lee, Dolph L. Hatfield, Alan M. Diamond, Vadim N. Gladyshev

Vadim Gladyshev Publications

Selenium has been implicated in cancer prevention, but the mechanism and possible involvement of selenoproteins in this process are not understood. To elucidate whether the 15-kDa selenoprotein may play a role in cancer etiology, the complete sequence of the human 15-kDa protein gene was determined, and various characteristics associated with expression of the protein were examined in normal and malignant cells and tissues. The 51-kilobase pair gene for the 15-kDa selenoprotein consisted of five exons and four introns and was localized on chromosome 1p31, a genetic locus commonly mutated or deleted in human cancers. Two stemloop structures resembling selenocysteine insertion ...


Amino Acid Osmolytes In Regulatory Volume Decrease And Isovolumetric Regulation In Brain Cells: Contribution And Mechanisms, Herminia Pasantes-Morales, Rodrigo Franco, M. Eugenia Torres-Marquez, Karla Hernandez-Fonseca, Arturo Ortega Oct 2000

Amino Acid Osmolytes In Regulatory Volume Decrease And Isovolumetric Regulation In Brain Cells: Contribution And Mechanisms, Herminia Pasantes-Morales, Rodrigo Franco, M. Eugenia Torres-Marquez, Karla Hernandez-Fonseca, Arturo Ortega

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Brain adaptation to hyposmolarity is accomplished by loss of both electrolytes and organic osmolytes, including amino acids, polyalcohols and methylamines. In brain in vivo, the organic osmolytes account for about 35% of the total solute loss. This review focus on the role of amino acids in cell volume regulation, in conditions of sudden hyposmosis, when cells respond by active regulatory volume decrease (RVD) or after gradual exposure to hyposmotic solutions, a condition where cell volume remains unchanged, named isovolumetric regulation (IVR). The amino acid efflux pathway during RVD is passive and is similar in many respects to the volume-activated anion ...


Method And Apparatus For Adaptive Filtering By Counting Acoustic Sample Zeroes In Ultrasound Imaging, Gregory R. Bashford, Edward D. Nonnweiler, David D. Becker, David John Muzilla Oct 2000

Method And Apparatus For Adaptive Filtering By Counting Acoustic Sample Zeroes In Ultrasound Imaging, Gregory R. Bashford, Edward D. Nonnweiler, David D. Becker, David John Muzilla

Biomedical Imaging and Biosignal Analysis Laboratory

An ultrasound imaging system having an adaptive spatial filter the filter coefficients of which, for particular image parameter sample, are determined by counting the number of neighboring image parameter samples having zero or near-zero values. If the number of zero or near-zero values in a data window is greater than a predetermined threshold, the data in the window is passed, not filtered. This filter has two advantages over other spatial filters. First, image parameter data samples having only zero or near-zero neighboring values (i.e., isolated "point noise") are not smeared. Second, boundaries such as the edge of color in ...


Structural And Functional Conservation At The Boundaries Of The Chicken Β-Globin Domain, Noriko Saitoh, Adam C. Bell, Felix Recillas-Targa, Adam G. West, Melanie A. Simpson, Michael Pikaart, Gary Felsenfeld Oct 2000

Structural And Functional Conservation At The Boundaries Of The Chicken Β-Globin Domain, Noriko Saitoh, Adam C. Bell, Felix Recillas-Targa, Adam G. West, Melanie A. Simpson, Michael Pikaart, Gary Felsenfeld

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

We show that the 3' boundary of the chicken β -globin locus bears striking structural similarities to the 5' boundary. In erythroid cells a clear transition in DNase I sensitivity of chromatin at the 3' end of the locus is observed, the location of this transition is marked by a constitutive DNase I hypersensitive site (HS), and DNA spanning this site has the enhancer-blocking capacity of an insulator. This HS contains a binding site for the transcription factor CTCF. As in the case of the 5' insulator, the CTCF site is both necessary and sufficient for the enhancer-blocking activity of ...


Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, Acetaminophen, Cyclooxygenase 2, And Fever, Daniel L. Simmons, David Wagner, Kenneth Westover Oct 2000

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, Acetaminophen, Cyclooxygenase 2, And Fever, Daniel L. Simmons, David Wagner, Kenneth Westover

Faculty Publications

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently used antipyretic agents that most probably exert their antifever effect by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX)–2. Thus, COX-2–selective drugs or null mutation of the COX-2 gene reduce or prevent fever. Acetaminophen is antipyretic and analgesic, as are NSAIDs, but it lacks the anti-inflammatory and anticoagulatory properties of these drugs. This has led to the speculation that a COX variant exists that is inhibitable by acetaminophen. An acetaminophen-inhibitable enzyme is inducible in the mouse J774.2 monocyte cell line. Induction of acetaminophen-inhibitable prostaglandin E2 synthesis parallels induction of COX-2. Thus, inhibition of pharmacologically distinct COX-2 ...


Protection Of Telomeres By The Ku Protein In Fission Yeast, Peter Baumann, Thomas R. Cech Oct 2000

Protection Of Telomeres By The Ku Protein In Fission Yeast, Peter Baumann, Thomas R. Cech

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Contributions (1986-2018)

Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells survive loss of telomeres by a unique pathway of chromosome circularization. Factors potentially involved in this survival mechanism include the heterodimeric Ku protein and ligase IV, both of which are involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks in mammalian cells. Furthermore, Ku plays a role in telomere maintenance as well as in DNA double-strand break repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have identified Ku and ligase IV homologues in S. pombe and analyzed their functions during normal growth and in cells undergoing senescence. In the absence of either a Ku subunit (pku70 +) or ligase IV (lig4 +), nonhomologous ...


Relationship Of Molecular Structure To The Mechanism Of Lysophospholipid-Induced Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation, Yuh-Cherng Chai, David Binion, Guy Chisholm Sep 2000

Relationship Of Molecular Structure To The Mechanism Of Lysophospholipid-Induced Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation, Yuh-Cherng Chai, David Binion, Guy Chisholm

Yuh-Cherng Chai

No abstract provided.


Measurements Of Excess O3, Co2, Co, Ch4, C2h4, C2h2, Hcn, No, Nh3, Hcooh, Ch3cooh, Hcho, And Ch3oh In 1997 Alaskan Biomass Burning Plumes By Airborne Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (Aftir), Jon G. Goode, Robert J. Yokelson, Darold E. Ward, Ronald A. Susott, Ronald E. Babbitt, Mary Ann Davies, Wei Min Hao Sep 2000

Measurements Of Excess O3, Co2, Co, Ch4, C2h4, C2h2, Hcn, No, Nh3, Hcooh, Ch3cooh, Hcho, And Ch3oh In 1997 Alaskan Biomass Burning Plumes By Airborne Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (Aftir), Jon G. Goode, Robert J. Yokelson, Darold E. Ward, Ronald A. Susott, Ronald E. Babbitt, Mary Ann Davies, Wei Min Hao

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

We used an airborne Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (AFTIR), coupled to a flow-through, air-sampling cell, on a King Air B-90 to make in situ trace gas measurements in isolated smoke plumes from four, large, boreal zone wildfires in interior Alaska during June 1997. AFTIR spectra acquired near the source of the smoke plumes yielded excess mixing ratios for 13 of the most common trace gases: water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitric oxide, formaldehyde, acetic acid, formic acid, methanol, ethylene, acetylene, ammonia and hydrogen cyanide. Emission ratios to carbon monoxide for formaldehyde, acetic acid, and methanol were 2.2±0 ...


Crystal Structure Of A Nonsymbiotic Plant Hemoglobin, Mark S. Hargrove, Eric Allen Brucker, Boguslaw Stec, Gautam Sarath, Raúl Arredondo-Peter, Robert V. Klucas, John S. Olson, George N. Phillips Jr. Sep 2000

Crystal Structure Of A Nonsymbiotic Plant Hemoglobin, Mark S. Hargrove, Eric Allen Brucker, Boguslaw Stec, Gautam Sarath, Raúl Arredondo-Peter, Robert V. Klucas, John S. Olson, George N. Phillips Jr.

Gautam Sarath Publications

Background: Nonsymbiotic hemoglobins (nsHbs) form a new class of plant proteins that is distinct genetically and structurally from leghemoglobins. They are found ubiquitously in plants and are expressed in low concentrations in a variety of tissues including roots and leaves. Their function involves a biochemical response to growth under limited O2 conditions.
Results: The first X-ray crystal structure of a member of this class of proteins, riceHb1, has been determined to 2.4 Å resolution using a combination of phasing techniques. The active site of ferric riceHb1 differs significantly from those of traditional hemoglobins and myoglobins. The proximal and ...


Tryptophan Fluorescence Reveals The Conformational State Of A Dynamic Loop In Recombinant Porcine Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatase, Scott W. Nelson, Cristina Valeria Iancu, Jun-Yong Choe, Richard B. Honzatko, Herbert J. Fromm Sep 2000

Tryptophan Fluorescence Reveals The Conformational State Of A Dynamic Loop In Recombinant Porcine Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatase, Scott W. Nelson, Cristina Valeria Iancu, Jun-Yong Choe, Richard B. Honzatko, Herbert J. Fromm

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Wild-type porcine fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) has no tryptophan residues. Hence, the mutation of Try57 to tryptophan places a unique fluorescent probe in the structural element (loop 52−72) putatively responsible for allosteric regulation of catalysis. On the basis of steady-state kinetics, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography, the mutation has little effect on the functional and structural properties of the enzyme. Fluorescence intensity from the Trp57 mutant is maximal in the presence of divalent cations, fructose 6-phosphate and orthophosphate, which together stabilize an R-state conformation in which loop 52−72 is engaged with the active site. The level of fluorescence ...


Mutations In The Hinge Of A Dynamic Loop Broadly Influence Functional Properties Of Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatase, Scott W. Nelson, Jun-Yong Choe, Richard B. Honzatko, Herbert J. Fromm Sep 2000

Mutations In The Hinge Of A Dynamic Loop Broadly Influence Functional Properties Of Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatase, Scott W. Nelson, Jun-Yong Choe, Richard B. Honzatko, Herbert J. Fromm

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Loop 52–72 of porcine fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase may play a central role in the mechanism of catalysis and allosteric inhibition by AMP. The loop pivots between different conformational states about a hinge located at residues 50 and 51. The insertion of proline separately at positions 50 and 51 reduces k cat by up to 3-fold, with no effect on the K m for fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. TheK a for Mg2+ in the Lys50→ Pro mutant increases ∼15-fold, whereas that for the Ala51 → Pro mutant is unchanged. Although these mutants retain wild-type binding affinity for AMP and ...


The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha (Ppar ) Regulates Bile Acid Biosynthesis., Mary Hunt, Yi-Zeng Yang, Gosta Eggertsen, Claes Carneheim, Mats Gafvels, Curt Einarsson, Stefan Alexson Sep 2000

The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha (Ppar ) Regulates Bile Acid Biosynthesis., Mary Hunt, Yi-Zeng Yang, Gosta Eggertsen, Claes Carneheim, Mats Gafvels, Curt Einarsson, Stefan Alexson

Articles

Fibrates are a group of hypolipidemic agents which efficiently lower serum triglyceride levels by affecting the expression of many genes involved in lipid metabolism. These effects are exerted via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa). In addition, fibrates also lower serum cholesterol levels, suggesting a possible link between the PPARa and cholesterol metabolism. Bile acid formation represents an important pathway for elimination of cholesterol, and the sterol 12a-hydroxylase is a branch-point enzyme in the bile acid biosynthetic pathway, which determines the ratio of cholic acid to chenodeoxycholic acid. Treatment of mice for one week with the peroxisome proliferator WY-14,643 ...


Eye States And Postures Of The Western Fence Lizard (Sceloporus Occidentalis), With Special Reference To Asynchronous Eye Closure And Behavioral Sleep, Christian Mathews, Charles Amlaner Aug 2000

Eye States And Postures Of The Western Fence Lizard (Sceloporus Occidentalis), With Special Reference To Asynchronous Eye Closure And Behavioral Sleep, Christian Mathews, Charles Amlaner

Charles J. Amlaner

No abstract provided.


La Notion De Danger, Jean M. Kanellopoulos, David M. Ojcius Aug 2000

La Notion De Danger, Jean M. Kanellopoulos, David M. Ojcius

Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles

Pendant de nombreuses années, les recherches en immunologie ont été centrées sur la réponse immunitaire adaptative, et la plupart des immunologistes considéraient que sa fonction principale était de faire la distinction entre soi et non soi. Plus récemment, plusieurs équipes ont proposé que la fonction principale du système immunitaire est en réalité d’éliminer les agents pathogènes. Or, c’est le système immunitaire inné, longtemps négligé, qui joue un rôle essentiel dans l’induction d’une réponse contre les microorganismes. Ce système réagit précocement aux infections, voire instantanément, puis il induit et oriente la réponse du système adaptatif. Plusieursthéories ont ...


Crystallization And Structure Determination Of The Catalytic Trimer Of Methanococcus Jannaschii Aspartate Transcarbamoylase, Jacqueline Vitali, Tatyana Vorobyova, Gordon Websterb, Evan R. Kantrowitza Aug 2000

Crystallization And Structure Determination Of The Catalytic Trimer Of Methanococcus Jannaschii Aspartate Transcarbamoylase, Jacqueline Vitali, Tatyana Vorobyova, Gordon Websterb, Evan R. Kantrowitza

Physics Faculty Publications

Aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) catalyzes the first step in the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway, the reaction between carbamoyl phosphate and L-aspartate to form N-carbamoyl-L-aspartate and phosphate. The structural analysis of the ATCase catalytic trimer from Methanococcus jannaschii, a unicellular thermophilic archaeabacterium, has been undertaken in order to gain insight into the structural features that are responsible for the thermostability of the enzyme. As a first step, the catalytic trimer was crystallized in space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 265.3, c = 195.5 Å and two trimers in the asymmetric unit. Its structure was determined using molecular replacement ...


Characterization Of 50s Ribosomal Subunit Assembly Inhibition In Erythromycin Treated Escherichia Coli Cells., Jerry Edward Usary Aug 2000

Characterization Of 50s Ribosomal Subunit Assembly Inhibition In Erythromycin Treated Escherichia Coli Cells., Jerry Edward Usary

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Erythromycin has long been recognized for its ability to inhibit protein synthesis by interfering with mRNA translation on the bacterial ribosome. We have recently shown that erythromycin also inhibits the assembly of the 50S ribosomal subunit in growing bacterial cells. The nature of this assembly inhibition has been investigated using 3H-uridine pulse-chase labeling of control and erythromycin treated E. coli cells.

Subunit assembly was examined by sucrose gradient centrifugation of labeled cell lysates. Normal assembly kinetics of subunit assembly were observed in control cells at 37°C. Formation of the 30S subunit was completed by 7.5 minutes and ...


Investigations On The Use Of Ion Mobility Spectrometry For Clinical Chemistry Applications, Henri Parson Patten Jul 2000

Investigations On The Use Of Ion Mobility Spectrometry For Clinical Chemistry Applications, Henri Parson Patten

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

The major objective of this research is to examine ion mobility spectrometry as a rapid screening tool for specific application to clinical chemistry research and laboratory use. Methodology was developed for target analytes representing several classes of physiologically active substances, including anesthetics, illicit drugs, and their metabolites. The IMS characteristics of animal tissues and other compounds such as amino acids and proteins were determined. Quality assurance and control procedures were developed for specific quality data objectives. Criteria were established relating to use of IMS for assessing the precision and accuracy of data, qualitative screening, and semi-quantitative analyses.

It was found ...


Mechanistic Characterization Of The Mitochondrial Type I Dna Topoisomerase And A Study Of Genes Containing Type I Dna Topoisomerase-Related Domains, Jaydee Dones Cabral Jul 2000

Mechanistic Characterization Of The Mitochondrial Type I Dna Topoisomerase And A Study Of Genes Containing Type I Dna Topoisomerase-Related Domains, Jaydee Dones Cabral

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

The mitochondrial type I DNA topoisomerase (mt-topo I) serves an important function in the mitochondrion by relaxing mtDNA supercoils to allow for replication of the mitochondrial genome as well as for gene expression. The mt-topo I's role in essential processes, such as replication and transcription, makes it an ideal candidate as a target for antitumor or antifungal drugs. To gain further insight into mt-topo I mechanism, a cleavage assay and drug inhibition studies were performed. As well, a search for the mt-topo I gene or genes containing type I topoisomerase-related domains was conducted. To characterize the mt-topo I mechanism ...


Increased Levels Of Multiple Forms Of Dihydrofolate Reductase In Peripheral Blood Leucocytes Of Cancer Patients Receiving Haematopoietic Colony-Stimulating Factors: Interim Analysis, M P. Iqbal, I A. Burney, F Sultana, N Mehboobali, T Siddiqui Jun 2000

Increased Levels Of Multiple Forms Of Dihydrofolate Reductase In Peripheral Blood Leucocytes Of Cancer Patients Receiving Haematopoietic Colony-Stimulating Factors: Interim Analysis, M P. Iqbal, I A. Burney, F Sultana, N Mehboobali, T Siddiqui

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

The precise mechanism whereby granulocytes proliferate when haematopoietic colony stimulating factors (CSFs) are used in neutropenic cancer patients is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether these cytokines bring about leucocyte proliferation by increasing the levels of multiple forms of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). Blood samples were collected from 36 cancer patients (25 males and 11 females) with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. One sample of blood from each patient was obtained before therapy either with CSF, such as granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or with placebo, and another one at the time of ...


Regulation Of Cell Growth By Oxidized Ldl., Guy Chisolm, Yuh-Cherng Chai Jun 2000

Regulation Of Cell Growth By Oxidized Ldl., Guy Chisolm, Yuh-Cherng Chai

Yuh-Cherng Chai

The first reports of the influences of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) on cell function pertained to negative effects on cell growth—growth arrest, injury, and toxicity. Since these studies, it has become apparent that sublethal levels of oxLDL cause some, but not all, cells to proliferate. This review highlights the growth-promoting effects of oxLDL rather than its inhibitory or injurious effects. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and monocyte-macrophages proliferate after exposure to oxLDL; endothelial cells do not. Scavenger receptors are involved in the proliferative effects on monocyte-macrophages, whereas the effects of oxLDL on SMCs appear to be receptor independent. Lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC), and ...


Method And Apparatus For Controlling Acoustic Signal Bandwidth In An Ultrasonic Diagnostic Imaging System, Jeffrey R. Resnick, Gregory R. Bashford Jun 2000

Method And Apparatus For Controlling Acoustic Signal Bandwidth In An Ultrasonic Diagnostic Imaging System, Jeffrey R. Resnick, Gregory R. Bashford

Biomedical Imaging and Biosignal Analysis Laboratory

An ultrasonic imaging system includes a receive beamformer that generates analog receive signals and a scan converter. A receive signal processing path interconnects the receive beamformer and the scan converter, and this processing path included both an A/D converter characterized by a selectable sampling rate and at least one filter characterized by at least one filter parameter. The filter parameter is selected as a function of the sampling rate to provide enhanced image quality.


The Role Of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase And Acetyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase In Fatty Acid Synthesis In Developing Arabidopsis Seeds, Jinshan Ke, Robert H. Behal, Stephanie L. Back, Basil J. Nikolau, Eve S. Wurtele, David J. Oliver Jun 2000

The Role Of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase And Acetyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase In Fatty Acid Synthesis In Developing Arabidopsis Seeds, Jinshan Ke, Robert H. Behal, Stephanie L. Back, Basil J. Nikolau, Eve S. Wurtele, David J. Oliver

Botany Publication and Papers

Acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) formed within the plastid is the precursor for the biosynthesis of fatty acids and, through them, a range of important biomolecules. The source of acetyl-CoA in the plastid is not known, but two enzymes are thought to be involved: acetyl-CoA synthetase and plastidic pyruvate dehydrogenase. To determine the importance of these two enzymes in synthesizing acetyl-CoA during lipid accumulation in developing Arabidopsis seeds, we isolated cDNA clones for acetyl-CoA synthetase and for the ptE1α- and ptE1β-subunits of plastidic pyruvate dehydrogenase. To our knowledge, this is the first reported acetyl-CoA synthetase sequence from a plant source. The Arabidopsis ...


Insect Cellular Reactions To The Lipopolysaccharide Component Of The Bacterium Serratia Marcescens Are Mediated By Eicosanoids, Jon C. Bedick, R L. Pardy, R. W. Howard, David W. Stanley Jun 2000

Insect Cellular Reactions To The Lipopolysaccharide Component Of The Bacterium Serratia Marcescens Are Mediated By Eicosanoids, Jon C. Bedick, R L. Pardy, R. W. Howard, David W. Stanley

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Nodulation, which begins with the formation of cellular microaggregates, is the predominant cellular defense reaction to bacterial infections in insects. We suggested that these reactions to bacterial infections are mediated by eicosanoids. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) component of some bacterial cells stimulates defense reactions in mammals and insects. Here, we report on experiments designed to test the hypothesis that eicosanoids mediate microaggregation reactions to LPS. Injections of LPS (purified from the bacterium, Serratia marcescens) into larvae of the tenebrionid beetle, Zophobas atratus, stimulated microaggregation reactions in a dose-dependent manner. Treatments with eicosanoid-biosynthesis inhibitors immediately prior to LPS challenge sharply reduced the ...


Intracellular Transport, Assembly, And Degradation Of Wild-Type And Disease-Linked Mutant Gap Junction Proteins, Judy K. Vanslyke, Suzanne M. Deschênes, Linda S. Musil Jun 2000

Intracellular Transport, Assembly, And Degradation Of Wild-Type And Disease-Linked Mutant Gap Junction Proteins, Judy K. Vanslyke, Suzanne M. Deschênes, Linda S. Musil

Biology Faculty Publications

More than 130 different mutations in the gap junction integral plasma membrane protein connexin32 (Cx32) have been linked to the human peripheral neuropathy X-linked Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMTX). How these various mutants are processed by the cell and the mechanism(s) by which they cause CMTX are unknown. To address these issues, we have studied the intracellular transport, assembly, and degradation of three CMTX-linked Cx32 mutants stably expressed in PC12 cells. Each mutant had a distinct fate: E208K Cx32 appeared to be retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), whereas both the E186K and R142W mutants were transported to perinuclear ...


Efflux Of Osmolyte Amino Acids During Isovolumic Regulation In Hippocampal Slices, Rodrigo Franco, Octavio Quesada, Herminia Pasantes-Morales May 2000

Efflux Of Osmolyte Amino Acids During Isovolumic Regulation In Hippocampal Slices, Rodrigo Franco, Octavio Quesada, Herminia Pasantes-Morales

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

The efflux of potassium (K+) and amino acids from hippocampal slices was measured after sudden exposure to 10% (270 mOsm), 25% (225 mOsm) or 50% (150 mOsm) hyposmotic solutions or after gradual decrease (22.5 mOsm/min) in external osmolarity. In slices suddenly exposed to 50% hyposmotic solutions, swelling was followed by partial (74%) cell volume recovery, suggesting regulatory volume decrease (RVD). With gradual hyposmotic changes, no increase in cell water content was observed even when the solution at the end of the experiment was 50% hyposmotic, showing the occurrence of isovolumic regulation (IVR). The gradual decrease in osmolarity elicited ...


Electrically Mediated Plasmid Dna Delivery To Hepatocellular Carcinomas In Vivo, L. Heller, M. J. Jaroszeski, D. Coppola, C. Pottinger, R. Gilbert, Richard Heller May 2000

Electrically Mediated Plasmid Dna Delivery To Hepatocellular Carcinomas In Vivo, L. Heller, M. J. Jaroszeski, D. Coppola, C. Pottinger, R. Gilbert, Richard Heller

Bioelectrics Publications

Gene therapy by direct delivery of plasmid DNA has several advantages over viral gene transfer, but plasmid delivery is less efficient. In vivo electroporation has been used to enhance delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to tumors in both animal and human studies. Recently, this delivery technique has been extended to large molecules such as plasmid DNA. Here, the successful delivery of plasmids encoding reporter genes to rat hepatocellular carcinomas by in vivo electroporation is demonstrated.