Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Series

Proteins

Discipline
Institution
Publication Year
Publication
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 42

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Ste5 Membrane Localization Allows Mapk Pathway Signaling In Trans Between Kinases On Separate Scaffold Molecules, Rachel E. Lamson, Matthew J. Winters, Peter M. Pryciak Jun 2019

Ste5 Membrane Localization Allows Mapk Pathway Signaling In Trans Between Kinases On Separate Scaffold Molecules, Rachel E. Lamson, Matthew J. Winters, Peter M. Pryciak

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The MAP kinase cascade is a ubiquitous eukaryotic signaling module that can be controlled by a diverse group of scaffold proteins. In budding yeast, activation of the mating MAP kinase cascade involves regulated membrane recruitment of the archetypal scaffold protein Ste5. This event promotes activation of the first kinase, but it also enhances subsequent signal propagation through the remainder of the cascade. By studying this latter effect, we find that membrane recruitment promotes signaling in trans between kinases on separate Ste5 molecules. First, trans signaling requires all Ste5 domains that mediate membrane recruitment, including both protein-binding and membrane-binding domains. Second ...


Developing Tale Proteins As A Biosensor For Detecting Pathogen Specific Double-Stranded Dna, Kathrine Gaiko Apr 2019

Developing Tale Proteins As A Biosensor For Detecting Pathogen Specific Double-Stranded Dna, Kathrine Gaiko

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins are important for DNA binding. They bind to specific nucleotide sequences by the use of two residues in each repeat allowing them to target specific DNA sequences. Their modular structure makes TALEs advantageous over other DNA binding proteins such as zinc finger proteins. Zinc finger proteins (ZFP) use a finger like projection to bind 3-4 subsequence base pairs while TALE proteins use two amino acid residues in each repeat to bind one nucleotide. ZFP can use SEER-Lac system for colorimetric detection, while TALE proteins can use fluorescence labeling with Alexa for detection of binding to ...


Role Of Protein Charge Density On Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Formation, Xinyu Sun, Dong Li, Zhaoshuai Wang, Panchao Yin, Rundong Hu, Rundong Hu, Hui Li, Qiao Liu, Yunyi Gao, Baiping Ren, Jie Zheng, Yinan Wei, Tianbo Liu Apr 2018

Role Of Protein Charge Density On Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Formation, Xinyu Sun, Dong Li, Zhaoshuai Wang, Panchao Yin, Rundong Hu, Rundong Hu, Hui Li, Qiao Liu, Yunyi Gao, Baiping Ren, Jie Zheng, Yinan Wei, Tianbo Liu

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The role of electrostatic interactions in the viral capsid assembly process was studied by comparing the assembly process of a truncated hepatitis B virus capsid protein Cp149 with its mutant protein D2N/D4N, which has the same conformational structure but four fewer charges per dimer. The capsid protein self-assembly was investigated under a wide range of protein surface charge densities by changing the protein concentration, buffer pH, and solution ionic strength. Lowering the protein charge density favored the capsid formation. However, lowering charge beyond a certain point resulted in capsid aggregation and precipitation. Interestingly, both the wild-type and D2N/D4N ...


The Trim-Nhl Protein Nhl-2 Is A Novel Co-Factor Of The Csr-1 And Hrde-1 22g-Rna Pathways, Peter R. Boag, Gregory M. Davis, Shikui Tu, Rhys N. Colson, Joshua W. T. Anderson, Menachem J. Gunzburg, Michelle A. Francisco, Debashish Ray, Tuhin Maity, Monica Z. Wu, Quaid D. Morris, Timothy R. Hughes, Jacqueline A. Wilce, University Of Toronto, Zhiping Weng Feb 2018

The Trim-Nhl Protein Nhl-2 Is A Novel Co-Factor Of The Csr-1 And Hrde-1 22g-Rna Pathways, Peter R. Boag, Gregory M. Davis, Shikui Tu, Rhys N. Colson, Joshua W. T. Anderson, Menachem J. Gunzburg, Michelle A. Francisco, Debashish Ray, Tuhin Maity, Monica Z. Wu, Quaid D. Morris, Timothy R. Hughes, Jacqueline A. Wilce, University Of Toronto, Zhiping Weng

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Proper regulation of germline gene expression is essential for fertility and maintaining species integrity. In the C. elegans germline, a diverse repertoire of regulatory pathways promote the expression of endogenous germline genes and limit the expression of deleterious transcripts to maintain genome homeostasis. Here we show that the conserved TRIM-NHL protein, NHL-2, plays an essential role in the C. elegans germline, modulating germline chromatin and meiotic chromosome organization. We uncover a role for NHL-2 as a co-factor in both positively (CSR-1) and negatively (HRDE-1) acting germline 22G-small RNA pathways and the somatic nuclear RNAi pathway. Furthermore, we demonstrate that NHL-2 ...


Pervasive Contingency And Entrenchment In A Billion Years Of Hsp90 Evolution, Tyler N. Starr, Julia Flynn, Parul Mishra, Daniel N. Bolon, Joseph W. Thornton Jan 2018

Pervasive Contingency And Entrenchment In A Billion Years Of Hsp90 Evolution, Tyler N. Starr, Julia Flynn, Parul Mishra, Daniel N. Bolon, Joseph W. Thornton

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Interactions among mutations within a protein have the potential to make molecular evolution contingent and irreversible, but the extent to which epistasis actually shaped historical evolutionary trajectories is unclear. We addressed this question by identifying all amino acid substitutions that occurred during the billion-year evolutionary history of the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) ATPase domain beginning from a deep eukaryotic ancestor to modern Saccharomyces cerevisiae and then precisely measuring their fitness effects when introduced into both extant and reconstructed ancestral Hsp90 proteins. We find a pervasive influence of epistasis: of 98 derived states that evolved during history, most were deleterious ...


Detecting And Accounting For Multiple Sources Of Positional Variance In Peak List Registration Analysis And Spin System Grouping, Andrey Smelter, Eric C. Rouchka, Hunter N. B. Moseley Aug 2017

Detecting And Accounting For Multiple Sources Of Positional Variance In Peak List Registration Analysis And Spin System Grouping, Andrey Smelter, Eric C. Rouchka, Hunter N. B. Moseley

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Peak lists derived from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra are commonly used as input data for a variety of computer assisted and automated analyses. These include automated protein resonance assignment and protein structure calculation software tools. Prior to these analyses, peak lists must be aligned to each other and sets of related peaks must be grouped based on common chemical shift dimensions. Even when programs can perform peak grouping, they require the user to provide uniform match tolerances or use default values. However, peak grouping is further complicated by multiple sources of variance in peak position limiting the effectiveness of ...


Real-Time Sensing Of Single-Ligand Delivery With Nanoaperture-Integrated Microfluidic Devices, W. Elliott Martin, Ning Ge, Bernadeta R. Srijanto, Emily Furnish, C. Patrick Collier, Christine A. Trinkle, Christopher I. Richards Jul 2017

Real-Time Sensing Of Single-Ligand Delivery With Nanoaperture-Integrated Microfluidic Devices, W. Elliott Martin, Ning Ge, Bernadeta R. Srijanto, Emily Furnish, C. Patrick Collier, Christine A. Trinkle, Christopher I. Richards

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The measurement of biological events on the surface of live cells at the single-molecule level is complicated by several factors including high protein densities that are incompatible with single-molecule imaging, cellular autofluorescence, and protein mobility on the cell surface. Here, we fabricated a device composed of an array of nanoscale apertures coupled with a microfluidic delivery system to quantify single-ligand interactions with proteins on the cell surface. We cultured live cells directly on the device and isolated individual epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) in the apertures while delivering fluorescently labeled epidermal growth factor. We observed single ligands binding to EGFRs ...


Augmenting The Anisotropic Network Model With Torsional Potentials Improves Path Performance, Enabling Detailed Comparison With Experimental Rate Data, Srinivas Niranj Chandrasekaran, Charles W. Carter Jr Feb 2017

Augmenting The Anisotropic Network Model With Torsional Potentials Improves Path Performance, Enabling Detailed Comparison With Experimental Rate Data, Srinivas Niranj Chandrasekaran, Charles W. Carter Jr

Open Access Articles

PATH algorithms for identifying conformational transition states provide computational parameters-time to the transition state, conformational free energy differences, and transition state activation energies-for comparison to experimental data and can be carried out sufficiently rapidly to use in the "high throughput" mode. These advantages are especially useful for interpreting results from combinatorial mutagenesis experiments. This report updates the previously published algorithm with enhancements that improve correlations between PATH convergence parameters derived from virtual variant structures generated by RosettaBackrub and previously published kinetic data for a complete, four-way combinatorial mutagenesis of a conformational switch in Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase.


Engineered Protein Polymer-Gold Nanoparticle Hybrid Materials For Small Molecule Delivery, Min Dai, Ja Frezzo, E Sharma, R Chen, N Singh, C Yuvienco, E Caglar, S Xiao, A Saxena, Jk Montclare Feb 2016

Engineered Protein Polymer-Gold Nanoparticle Hybrid Materials For Small Molecule Delivery, Min Dai, Ja Frezzo, E Sharma, R Chen, N Singh, C Yuvienco, E Caglar, S Xiao, A Saxena, Jk Montclare

Publications and Research

We have fabricated protein polymer-gold nanoparticle (P-GNP) nanocomposites that exhibit enhanced binding and delivery properties of the small hydrophobic molecule drug, curcumin, to the model breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. These hybrid biomaterials are constructed via in situ GNP templated-synthesis with genetically engineered histidine tags. The P-GNP nanocomposites exhibit enhanced small molecule loading, sustained release and increased uptake by MCF-7 cells. When compared to the proteins polymers alone, the P-GNPs demonstrate a greater than 7-fold increase in curcumin binding, a nearly 50% slower release profile and more than 2-fold increase in cellular uptake of curcumin. These results suggest that P-GNP ...


Cell Type–Dependent Mechanisms For Formin-Mediated Assembly Of Filopodia, Lorna E. Young, Ernest G. Heimsath, Henry N. Higgs Oct 2015

Cell Type–Dependent Mechanisms For Formin-Mediated Assembly Of Filopodia, Lorna E. Young, Ernest G. Heimsath, Henry N. Higgs

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Filopodia are finger-like protrusions from the plasma membrane and are of fundamental importance to cellular physiology, but the mechanisms governing their assembly are still in question. One model, called convergent elongation, proposes that filopodia arise from Arp2/3 complex-nucleated dendritic actin networks, with factors such as formins elongating these filaments into filopodia. We test this model using constitutively active constructs of two formins, FMNL3 and mDia2. Surprisingly, filopodial assembly requirements differ between suspension and adherent cells. In suspension cells, Arp2/3 complex is required for filopodial assembly through either formin. In contrast, a subset of filopodia remains after Arp2/3 ...


Morphological Transformations In The Magnetite Biomineralizing Protein Mms6 In Iron Solutions: A Small-Angle X‑Ray Scattering Study, Honghu Zhang, Xunpei Liu, Shuren Feng, Wenjie Wang, Klaus Schmidt-Rohr, Mufit Akinc, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton, David Vaknin, Surya K. Mallapragada Feb 2015

Morphological Transformations In The Magnetite Biomineralizing Protein Mms6 In Iron Solutions: A Small-Angle X‑Ray Scattering Study, Honghu Zhang, Xunpei Liu, Shuren Feng, Wenjie Wang, Klaus Schmidt-Rohr, Mufit Akinc, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton, David Vaknin, Surya K. Mallapragada

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Magnetotactic bacteria that produce magnetic nanocrystals of uniform size and well-defined morphologies have inspired the use of biomineralization protein Mms6 to promote formation of uniform magnetic nanocrystals in vitro. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies in physiological solutions reveal that Mms6 forms compact globular threedimensional (3D) micelles (approximately 10 nm in diameter) that are, to a large extent, independent of concentration. In the presence of iron ions in the solutions, the general micellar morphology is preserved, however, with associations among micelles that are induced by iron ions. Compared with Mms6, the m2Mms6 mutant (with the sequence of hydroxyl/carboxyl containing ...


Liver Perilipin 5 Expression Worsens Hepatosteatosis But Not Insulin Resistance In High Fat-Fed Mice, Michelle B. Trevino, David Mazur-Hart, Yui Machida, Timothy King, Joseph Nadler, Elena V. Galkina, Arjun Poddar, Sucharita Dutta, Yumi Imai Jan 2015

Liver Perilipin 5 Expression Worsens Hepatosteatosis But Not Insulin Resistance In High Fat-Fed Mice, Michelle B. Trevino, David Mazur-Hart, Yui Machida, Timothy King, Joseph Nadler, Elena V. Galkina, Arjun Poddar, Sucharita Dutta, Yumi Imai

Mathematics & Statistics Faculty Publications

Perilipin 5 (PLIN5) is a lipid droplet (LD) protein highly expressed in oxidative tissues, including the fasted liver. However, its expression also increases in nonalcoholic fatty liver. To determine whether PLIN5 regulates metabolic phenotypes of hepatosteatosis under nutritional excess, liver targeted overexpression of PLIN5 was achieved using adenoviral vector (Ad-PLIN5) in male C57BL/6J mice fed high-fat diet. Mice treated with adenovirus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) (Ad-GFP) served as control. Ad-PLIN5 livers increased LD in the liver section, and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry revealed increases in lipid classes associated with LD, including triacylglycerol, cholesterol ester, and phospholipid ...


The Formin Fmnl3 Assembles Plasma Membrane Protrusions That Participate In Cell–Cell Adhesion, Timothy J. Gauvin, Lorna E. Young, Henry N. Higgs Nov 2014

The Formin Fmnl3 Assembles Plasma Membrane Protrusions That Participate In Cell–Cell Adhesion, Timothy J. Gauvin, Lorna E. Young, Henry N. Higgs

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

FMNL3 is a vertebrate-specific formin protein previously shown to play a role in angiogenesis and cell migration. Here we define the cellular localization of endogenous FMNL3, the dynamics of GFP-tagged FMNL3 during cell migration, and the effects of FMNL3 suppression in mammalian culture cells. The majority of FMNL3 localizes in a punctate pattern, with >95% of these puncta being indistinguishable from the plasma membrane by fluorescence microscopy. A small number of dynamic cytoplasmic FMNL3 patches also exist, which enrich near cell–cell contact sites and fuse with the plasma membrane at these sites. These cytoplasmic puncta appear to be part ...


Automatic Animation Of Molecular Motion Using Python And Cinema 4d, Diana Zajac, Nathaniel Smith, Dan Gurnon Nov 2014

Automatic Animation Of Molecular Motion Using Python And Cinema 4d, Diana Zajac, Nathaniel Smith, Dan Gurnon

Science Research Fellows Posters

No abstract provided.


Stoichiometries And Affinities Of Interacting Proteins From Concentration Series Of Solution Scattering Data: Decomposition By Least Squares And Quadratic Optimization, Himanshu Chandola, Tim E. Williamson, Bruce A. Craig, Alan M. Friedman, Chris Bailey-Kellogg Mar 2014

Stoichiometries And Affinities Of Interacting Proteins From Concentration Series Of Solution Scattering Data: Decomposition By Least Squares And Quadratic Optimization, Himanshu Chandola, Tim E. Williamson, Bruce A. Craig, Alan M. Friedman, Chris Bailey-Kellogg

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

In studying interacting proteins, complementary insights are provided by analyzing both the association model (the stoichiometry and affinity constants of the intermediate and final complexes) and the quaternary structure of the resulting complexes. Many current methods for analyzing protein interactions either give a binary answer to the question of association and no information about quaternary structure or at best provide only part of the complete picture. Presented here is a method to extract both types of information from X-ray or neutron scattering data for a series of equilibrium mixtures containing the initial components at different concentrations. The method determines the ...


Clustering And Classification Of Multi-Domain Proteins, Neethu Shah Dec 2013

Clustering And Classification Of Multi-Domain Proteins, Neethu Shah

Computer Science and Engineering: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

Rapid development of next-generation sequencing technology has led to an unprecedented growth in protein sequence data repositories over the last decade. Majority of these proteins lack structural and functional characterization. This necessitates design and development of fast, efficient, and sensitive computational tools and algorithms that can classify these proteins into functionally coherent groups.

Domains are fundamental units of protein structure and function. Multi-domain proteins are extremely complex as opposed to proteins that have single or no domains. They exhibit network-like complex evolutionary events such as domain shuffling, domain loss, and domain gain. These events therefore, cannot be represented in the ...


Gene Expression Studies For The Analysis Of Domoic Acid Production In The Marine Diatom Pseudo-Nitzschia Multiseries, Katie Boissonneault, Brooks M. Henningsen, Stephen S. Bates, Deborah L. Robertson, Sean Milton, Jerry Pelletier, Deborah A. Hogan, David E. Housman Nov 2013

Gene Expression Studies For The Analysis Of Domoic Acid Production In The Marine Diatom Pseudo-Nitzschia Multiseries, Katie Boissonneault, Brooks M. Henningsen, Stephen S. Bates, Deborah L. Robertson, Sean Milton, Jerry Pelletier, Deborah A. Hogan, David E. Housman

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries Hasle (Hasle) (Ps-n) is distinctive among the ecologically important marine diatoms because it produces the neurotoxin domoic acid. Although the biology of Ps-n has been investigated intensely, the characterization of the genes and biochemical pathways leading to domoic acid biosynthesis has been limited. To identify transcripts whose levels correlate with domoic acid production, we analyzed Ps-n under conditions of high and low domoic acid production by cDNA microarray technology and reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) methods. Our goals included identifying and validating robust reference genes for Ps-n RNA expression analysis under these conditions.


Computational De Novo Design And Characterization Of A Protein That Selectively Binds A Highly Hyperpolarizable Abiological Chromophore, H Christopher Fry, Andreas Lehmann, Louise E. Sinks, Inge Asselberghs, Andrey Tronin, Venkata Krishnan, J Kent Blasie, Koen Clays, William F. Degrado, Jeffery G. Saven, Michael J. Therien Sep 2013

Computational De Novo Design And Characterization Of A Protein That Selectively Binds A Highly Hyperpolarizable Abiological Chromophore, H Christopher Fry, Andreas Lehmann, Louise E. Sinks, Inge Asselberghs, Andrey Tronin, Venkata Krishnan, J Kent Blasie, Koen Clays, William F. Degrado, Jeffery G. Saven, Michael J. Therien

Departmental Papers (Chemistry)

This work reports the first example of a single-chain protein computationally designed to contain four α-helical segments and fold to form a four-helix bundle encapsulating a supramolecular abiological chromophore that possesses exceptional nonlinear optical properties. The 109-residue protein, designated SCRPZ-1, binds and disperses an insoluble hyperpolarizable chromophore, ruthenium(II) [5-(4'-ethynyl-(2,2';6',2″-terpyridinyl))-10,20-bis(phenyl)porphinato]zinc(II)-(2,2';6',2″-terpyridine)(2+) (RuPZn) in aqueous buffer solution at a 1:1 stoichiometry. A 1:1 binding stoichiometry of the holoprotein is supported by electronic absorption and circular dichroism spectra, as well as equilibrium ...


Utilizing Nmr Spectroscopy And Molecular Docking As Tools For The Structural Determination And Functional Annotation Of Proteins, Jaime Stark Feb 2013

Utilizing Nmr Spectroscopy And Molecular Docking As Tools For The Structural Determination And Functional Annotation Of Proteins, Jaime Stark

Student Research Projects, Dissertations, and Theses - Chemistry Department

With the completion of the Human Genome Project in 2001 and the subsequent explosion of organisms with sequenced genomes, we are now aware of nearly 28 million proteins. Determining the role of each of these proteins is essential to our understanding of biology and the development of medical advances. Unfortunately, the experimental approaches to determine protein function are too slow to investigate every protein. Bioinformatics approaches, such as sequence and structure homology, have helped to annotate the functions of many similar proteins. However, despite these computational approaches, approximately 40% of proteins still have no known function. Alleviating this deficit will ...


Secondary Structure, A Missing Component Of Sequence- Based Minimotif Definitions, David P. Sargeant, Michael R. Gryk, Mark W. Maciejewsk, Vishal Thapar, Vamsi Kundeti, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Pedro Romero, Keith Dunker, Shun-Cheng Li, Tomonori Kaneko, Martin Schiller Dec 2012

Secondary Structure, A Missing Component Of Sequence- Based Minimotif Definitions, David P. Sargeant, Michael R. Gryk, Mark W. Maciejewsk, Vishal Thapar, Vamsi Kundeti, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Pedro Romero, Keith Dunker, Shun-Cheng Li, Tomonori Kaneko, Martin Schiller

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

Minimotifs are short contiguous segments of proteins that have a known biological function. The hundreds of thousands of minimotifs discovered thus far are an important part of the theoretical understanding of the specificity of protein-protein interactions, posttranslational modifications, and signal transduction that occur in cells. However, a longstanding problem is that the different abstractions of the sequence definitions do not accurately capture the specificity, despite decades of effort by many labs. We present evidence that structure is an essential component of minimotif specificity, yet is not used in minimotif definitions. Our analysis of several known minimotifs as case studies, analysis ...


Achieving High Accuracy Prediction Of Minimotifs, Tian Mi, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Jerlin Camilus Merlin, Michael R. Gryk, Martin Schiller Sep 2012

Achieving High Accuracy Prediction Of Minimotifs, Tian Mi, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Jerlin Camilus Merlin, Michael R. Gryk, Martin Schiller

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

The low complexity of minimotif patterns results in a high false-positive prediction rate, hampering protein function prediction. A multi-filter algorithm, trained and tested on a linear regression model, support vector machine model, and neural network model, using a large dataset of verified minimotifs, vastly improves minimotif prediction accuracy while generating few false positives. An optimal threshold for the best accuracy reaches an overall accuracy above 90%, while a stringent threshold for the best specificity generates less than 1% false positives or even no false positives and still produces more than 90% true positives for the linear regression and neural network ...


Inhibition Of Voltage-Gated Na+ Current By Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field (Nspef) Is Not Mediated By Na+ Influx Or Ca²+ Signaling, Vasyl Nesin, Andrei G. Pakhomov Jan 2012

Inhibition Of Voltage-Gated Na+ Current By Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field (Nspef) Is Not Mediated By Na+ Influx Or Ca²+ Signaling, Vasyl Nesin, Andrei G. Pakhomov

Bioelectrics Publications

In earlier studies, we found that permeabilization of mammalian cells with nsPEF was accompanied by prolonged inhibition of voltage-gated (VG) currents through the plasma membrane. This study explored if the inhibition of VG Na+ current (INa) resulted from (i) reduction of the transmembrane Na+ gradient due to its influx via nsPEF-opened pores, and/or (ii) downregulation of the VG channels by a Ca2+ -dependent mechanism. We found that a single 300?ns electric pulse at 1.65.3?kV/cm triggered sustained Na+ influx in exposed NG108 cells and in primary chromaffin cells, as detected by increased fluorescence ...


Cell Permeabilization And Inhibition Of Voltage-Gated Ca²+ And Na+ Channel Currents By Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields, Vasyl Nesin, Angela M. Bowman, Shu Xiao, Andrei G. Pakhomov Jan 2012

Cell Permeabilization And Inhibition Of Voltage-Gated Ca²+ And Na+ Channel Currents By Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields, Vasyl Nesin, Angela M. Bowman, Shu Xiao, Andrei G. Pakhomov

Bioelectrics Publications

Previous studies have found that nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) exposure causes long-term permeabilization of the cell plasma membrane. In this study, we utilized the whole-cell patch-clamp method to study the nsPEF effect on currents of voltage-gated (VG) Ca2+ and Na+ channels (ICa and INa) in cultured GH3 and NG108 cells. We found that a single 300 or 600 ns pulse at or above 1.5-2 kV/cm caused prolonged inhibition of ICa and INa. Concurrently, nsPEF increased a non-inactivating leak current (Ileak), presumably due to the formation of nanoelectropores or larger pores in ...


Juvenile Hormone Regulates Vitellogenin Gene Expression Through Insulin-Like Peptide Signaling Pathway In The Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium Castaneum, Zhentao Sheng, Jingjing Xu, Hua Bai, Fang Zhu, Subba R. Palli Dec 2011

Juvenile Hormone Regulates Vitellogenin Gene Expression Through Insulin-Like Peptide Signaling Pathway In The Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium Castaneum, Zhentao Sheng, Jingjing Xu, Hua Bai, Fang Zhu, Subba R. Palli

Entomology Faculty Publications

Our recent studies identified juvenile hormone (JH) and nutrition as the two key signals that regulate vitellogenin (Vg) gene expression in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Juvenile hormone regulation of Vg synthesis has been known for a long time in several insects, but the mechanism of JH action is not known. Experiments were conducted to determine the mechanism of action of these two signals in regulation of Vg gene expression. Injection of bovine insulin or FOXO double-stranded RNA into the previtellogenic, starved, or JH-deficient female adults increased Vg mRNA and protein levels, thereby implicating the pivotal role for insulin-like ...


Planning Combinatorial Disulfide Cross-Links For Protein Fold Determination, Fei Xiong, Alan M Friedman, Chris Bailey-Kellogg Nov 2011

Planning Combinatorial Disulfide Cross-Links For Protein Fold Determination, Fei Xiong, Alan M Friedman, Chris Bailey-Kellogg

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Fold recognition techniques take advantage of the limited number of overall structural organizations, and have become increasingly effective at identifying the fold of a given target sequence. However, in the absence of sufficient sequence identity, it remains difficult for fold recognition methods to always select the correct model. While a native-like model is often among a pool of highly ranked models, it is not necessarily the highest-ranked one, and the model rankings depend sensitively on the scoring function used. Structure elucidation methods can then be employed to decide among the models based on relatively rapid biochemical/biophysical experiments.


Computational Protein Design: Engineering Molecular Diversity, Nonnatural Enzymes, Nonbiological Cofactor Complexes, And Membrane Proteins, Jeffery G. Saven Jun 2011

Computational Protein Design: Engineering Molecular Diversity, Nonnatural Enzymes, Nonbiological Cofactor Complexes, And Membrane Proteins, Jeffery G. Saven

Departmental Papers (Chemistry)

Computational and theoretical methods are advancing protein design as a means to create and investigate proteins. Such efforts further our capacity to control, design and understand biomolecular structure, sequence and function. Herein, the focus is on some recent applications that involve using theoretical and computational methods to guide the design of protein sequence ensembles, new enzymes, proteins with novel cofactors, and membrane proteins.


Tension Directly Stabilizes Reconstituted Kinetochore-Microtubule Attachments, Bungo Akiyoshi, Krishna K. Sarangapani, Andrew F. Powers, Christian R. Nelson, Steve Reichow, Hugo Arellano-Santoyo, Tamir Gonen, Jeffrey A. Ranish, Charles L. Asbury, Sue Biggins Jun 2011

Tension Directly Stabilizes Reconstituted Kinetochore-Microtubule Attachments, Bungo Akiyoshi, Krishna K. Sarangapani, Andrew F. Powers, Christian R. Nelson, Steve Reichow, Hugo Arellano-Santoyo, Tamir Gonen, Jeffrey A. Ranish, Charles L. Asbury, Sue Biggins

Chemistry Faculty Publications and Presentations

Kinetochores are macromolecular machines that couple chromosomes to dynamic microtubule tips during cell division, thereby generating force to segregate the chromosomes. Accurate segregation depends on selective stabilization of correct ‘bi-oriented’ kinetochore-microtubule attachments, which come under tension due to opposing forces exerted by microtubules. Tension is thought to stabilize these bi-oriented attachments indirectly, by suppressing the destabilizing activity of a kinase, Aurora B. However, a complete mechanistic understanding of the role of tension requires reconstitution of kinetochore-microtubule attachments for biochemical and biophysical analyses in vitro. Here we show that native kinetochore particles retaining the majority of kinetochore proteins can be purified ...


Targeted Identification Of Metastasis-Associated Cell-Surface Sialoglycoproteins In Prostate Cancer, Lifang Yang, Julius O. Nyalwidhe, Sigi Guo, Richard R. Drake, O. John Semmes Jan 2011

Targeted Identification Of Metastasis-Associated Cell-Surface Sialoglycoproteins In Prostate Cancer, Lifang Yang, Julius O. Nyalwidhe, Sigi Guo, Richard R. Drake, O. John Semmes

Bioelectrics Publications

Covalent attachment of carbohydrates to proteins is one of the most common post-translational modifications. At the cell surface, sugar moieties of glycoproteins contribute to molecular recognition events involved in cancer metastasis. We have combined glycan metabolic labeling with mass spectrometry analysis to identify and characterize metastasis-associated cell surface sialoglycoproteins. Our model system used syngeneic prostate cancer cell lines derived from PC3 (N2, nonmetastatic, and ML2, highly metastatic). The metabolic incorporation of AC4ManNAz and subsequent specific labeling of cell surface sialylation was confirmed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Affinity isolation of the modified sialic-acid containing cell surface proteins ...


Computational Design And Elaboration Of A De Novo Heterotetrameric Α-Helical Protein That Selectively Binds An Emissive Abiological (Porphinato)Zinc Chromophore, H Christopher Fry, Andreas Lehmann, Jeffery G. Saven, William F. Degrado, Michael J. Therien Mar 2010

Computational Design And Elaboration Of A De Novo Heterotetrameric Α-Helical Protein That Selectively Binds An Emissive Abiological (Porphinato)Zinc Chromophore, H Christopher Fry, Andreas Lehmann, Jeffery G. Saven, William F. Degrado, Michael J. Therien

Departmental Papers (Chemistry)

The first example of a computationally de novo designed protein that binds an emissive abiological chromophore is presented, in which a sophisticated level of cofactor discrimination is pre-engineered. This heterotetrameric, C(2)-symmetric bundle, A(His):B(Thr), uniquely binds (5,15-di[(4-carboxymethyleneoxy)phenyl]porphinato)zinc [(DPP)Zn] via histidine coordination and complementary noncovalent interactions. The A(2)B(2) heterotetrameric protein reflects ligand-directed elements of both positive and negative design, including hydrogen bonds to second-shell ligands. Experimental support for the appropriate formulation of [(DPP)Zn:A(His):B(Thr)](2) is provided by UV/visible and circular dichroism spectroscopies ...


Nip/Duoxa Is Essential For Drosophila Embryonic Development And Regulates Oxidative Stress Response., Xiaojun Xie, Jack Hu, Xiping Liu, Hanjuan Qin, Anthony Percival-Smith, Yong Rao, Shawn S C Li Jan 2010

Nip/Duoxa Is Essential For Drosophila Embryonic Development And Regulates Oxidative Stress Response., Xiaojun Xie, Jack Hu, Xiping Liu, Hanjuan Qin, Anthony Percival-Smith, Yong Rao, Shawn S C Li

Biochemistry Publications

NIP/DuoxA, originally cloned as a protein capable of binding to the cell fate determinant Numb in Drosophila, was recently identified as a modulator of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mammalian systems. Despite biochemical and cellular studies that link NIP/DuoxA to the generation of ROS through the dual oxidase (Duox) enzyme, the in vivo function of NIP/DuoxA has not been characterized to date. Here we report a genetic and functional characterization of nip in Drosophila melanogaster. We show that nip is essential for Drosophila development as nip null mutants die at the 1(st) larval instar. Expression ...