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Articles 1 - 30 of 5097

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

The Effect Of Calcium Alginate Entrapment On The Stability Of Novel Lipases From P. Reinekei And P. Brenneri, Priyanka Priyanka, Gemma K. Kinsella, Gary T. Henehan, Barry J. Ryan Oct 2019

The Effect Of Calcium Alginate Entrapment On The Stability Of Novel Lipases From P. Reinekei And P. Brenneri, Priyanka Priyanka, Gemma K. Kinsella, Gary T. Henehan, Barry J. Ryan

Articles

The high cost of soluble enzymes can limit their use for commercial and industrial purposes. Immobilization can enhance enzyme reusability, thereby reducing product isolation costs and overcoming this economic barrier. In the current study, two novel, purified lipases from Pseudomonas sp. (Pseudomonas reinekei and Pseudomonas brenneri) were entrapped in a calcium alginate matrix, with the aim of simultaneously enhancing enzyme reusability and stability. Following entrapment, the retained activity of the enzyme-alginate composite was verified by an enzymatic hydrolysis reaction of a p-nitrophenol palmitate substrate. The effect of the enzyme-alginate entrapment against various physiochemical parameters such as pH, temperature, metal ions ...


Leptin Promotes Expression Of Emt-Related Transcription Factors And Invasion In A Src And Fak-Dependent Pathway In Mcf10a Mammary Epithelial Cells, Monserrat Olea-Flores, Miriam Zuniga-Eulogio, Arvey Tacuba-Saavedra, Magdalena Bueno-Salgado, Andrea Sanchez-Carvajal, Yovani Vargas-Santiago, Miguel A. Mendoza-Catalan, Eduardo Perez Salazar, Alejandra Garcia-Hernandez, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Napoleon Navarro-Tito Sep 2019

Leptin Promotes Expression Of Emt-Related Transcription Factors And Invasion In A Src And Fak-Dependent Pathway In Mcf10a Mammary Epithelial Cells, Monserrat Olea-Flores, Miriam Zuniga-Eulogio, Arvey Tacuba-Saavedra, Magdalena Bueno-Salgado, Andrea Sanchez-Carvajal, Yovani Vargas-Santiago, Miguel A. Mendoza-Catalan, Eduardo Perez Salazar, Alejandra Garcia-Hernandez, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Napoleon Navarro-Tito

Open Access Articles

Leptin is one of the main adipokines secreted in breast tissue. Leptin promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cell migration and invasion in epithelial breast cells, leading to tumor progression. Although, the molecular mechanisms that underlie these events are not fully understood, the activation of different signaling pathways appears to be essential. In this sense, the effects of leptin on the activation of kinases like Src and FAK, which regulate signaling pathways that activate the EMT program, are not completely described. Therefore, we investigated the involvement of these kinases using an in vitro model for leptin-induced EMT process in the non-tumorigenic MCF10A ...


Developmental And Molecular Changes Underlying The Vernalization-Induced Transition To Flowering In Aquilegia Coerulea (James), Bharti Sharma, Timothy A. Batz, Rakesh Kaundal, Elena M. Kramer, Uriah R. Sanders, Valerie J. Mellano, Naveen Duhan, Rousselene B. Larson Sep 2019

Developmental And Molecular Changes Underlying The Vernalization-Induced Transition To Flowering In Aquilegia Coerulea (James), Bharti Sharma, Timothy A. Batz, Rakesh Kaundal, Elena M. Kramer, Uriah R. Sanders, Valerie J. Mellano, Naveen Duhan, Rousselene B. Larson

Center for Integrated Biosystems Publications

Reproductive success in plants is dependent on many factors but the precise timing of flowering is certainly among the most crucial. Perennial plants often have a vernalization or over-wintering requirement in order to successfully flower in the spring. The shoot apical meristem undergoes drastic developmental and molecular changes as it transitions into inflorescence meristem (IM) identity, which then gives rise to floral meristems (FMs). In this study, we have examined the developmental and gene expression changes underlying the transition from the vegetative to reproductive phases in the basal eudicot Aquilegia coerulea, which has evolved a vernalization response independently relative to ...


Creating A Molecular Map Of The Pediatric Lung, Quinlen F. Marshall Sep 2019

Creating A Molecular Map Of The Pediatric Lung, Quinlen F. Marshall

Forum Lectures

The newborn lung undergoes vast biochemical and physiological changes during adaptation from the intrauterine to the extrauterine environment. Lung morphogenesis continues from birth into early childhood, mediated by dynamic gene expression and a diversity of pulmonary cell types that exhibit remarkable heterogeneity. (Whitsett, JA. et al. Physiol. Rev, 2019). Surprisingly, few studies have solely focused on human lung development during this critical period, and many current studies of lung maturation rely on adult, murine, or diseased samples, limiting their insights and applicability to longitudinal pediatric lung development. Understanding the molecular and physiological nuances of pulmonary development has important clinical relevance ...


The Alfalfa Insecticide Management (Aim) Toolkit: Linking Insecticide Fate Modelling With Alfalfa Pest And Beneficial Insect Toxicity Endpoints, Kimberly J. Hageman Sep 2019

The Alfalfa Insecticide Management (Aim) Toolkit: Linking Insecticide Fate Modelling With Alfalfa Pest And Beneficial Insect Toxicity Endpoints, Kimberly J. Hageman

Funded Research Records

No abstract provided.


Gene Pyramids And The Balancing Act Of Keeping Pests At Bay, Gustavo C. Macintosh Sep 2019

Gene Pyramids And The Balancing Act Of Keeping Pests At Bay, Gustavo C. Macintosh

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Pyramiding R genes is a common strategy used by breeders to enhance resistance and increase durability of resistance in crops. However, the molecular mechanisms that mediate R gene interactions are not known. Kamphuis et al. (2019) analyzed Medicago truncatula plants carrying two genes that confer resistance to bluegreen aphids. They identified a potential phytohormone crosstalk triggered by the combined R gene action in response to aphid feeding that enhances resistance and minimizes R gene-associated fitness costs to the plant.


Endoglin Protein Interactome Profiling Identifies Trim21 And Galectin-3 As New Binding Partners, Eunate Gallardo-Vara, Lidia Ruiz-Llorente, Juan Casado-Vela, María J. Ruiz-Rodríguez, Natalia López-Andrés, Asit K. Pattnaik, Miguel Quintanilla Sep 2019

Endoglin Protein Interactome Profiling Identifies Trim21 And Galectin-3 As New Binding Partners, Eunate Gallardo-Vara, Lidia Ruiz-Llorente, Juan Casado-Vela, María J. Ruiz-Rodríguez, Natalia López-Andrés, Asit K. Pattnaik, Miguel Quintanilla

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Endoglin is a 180-kDa glycoprotein receptor primarily expressed by the vascular endothelium and involved in cardiovascular disease and cancer. Heterozygous mutations in the endoglin gene (ENG) cause herediatry hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 1, a vascular disease that presents with nasal and gastrointestinal bleeding, skin and mucosa telangiectase, and arteriovenous malformations in internal organs. A circulating form of endoglin (alias soluble endoglin, sEng), proteolytically released from the membrane-bound protein, has been observed in several inflammation-related pathological conditions and appears to contribute to endothelial dysfunction and cancer development through unknown mechanisms. Membrane-bound endoglin is an auxiliary component of the TGF-B receptor complex and ...


Theoretical Studies Of Ir And Nmr Spectral Changes Induced By Sigma-Hole Hydrogen, Halogen, Chalcogen, Pnicogen, And Tetrel Bonds In A Model Protein Environment, Mariusz Michalczyk, Wiktor Zierkiewicz, Rafał Wysokiński, Steve Scheiner Sep 2019

Theoretical Studies Of Ir And Nmr Spectral Changes Induced By Sigma-Hole Hydrogen, Halogen, Chalcogen, Pnicogen, And Tetrel Bonds In A Model Protein Environment, Mariusz Michalczyk, Wiktor Zierkiewicz, Rafał Wysokiński, Steve Scheiner

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Various types of σ-hole bond complexes were formed with FX, HFY, H2FZ, and H3FT (X = Cl, Br, I; Y = S, Se, Te; Z = P, As, Sb; T = Si, Ge, Sn) as Lewis acid. In order to examine their interactions with a protein, N-methylacetamide (NMA), a model of the peptide linkage was used as the base. These noncovalent bonds were compared by computational means with H-bonds formed by NMA with XH molecules (X = F, Cl, Br, I). In all cases, the A–F bond, which lies opposite the base and is responsible for the σ-hole on the ...


9th Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium, University Of Texas Md Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association Sep 2019

9th Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium, University Of Texas Md Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association

MD Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium Abstracts

The mission of the Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium (APSS) is to provide a platform for talented postdoctoral fellows throughout the Texas Medical Center to present their work to a wider audience. The MD Anderson Postdoctoral Association convened its inaugural Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium (APSS) on August 4, 2011.

The APSS provides a professional venue for postdoctoral scientists to develop, clarify, and refine their research as a result of formal reviews and critiques of faculty and other postdoctoral scientists. Additionally, attendees discuss current research on a broad range of subjects while promoting academic interactions and enrichment and developing new collaborations.


Extensive Ribosome And Rf2 Rearrangements During Translation Termination, Egor Svidritskiy, Gabriel Demo, Anna B. Loveland, Chen Xu, Andrei A. Korostelev Sep 2019

Extensive Ribosome And Rf2 Rearrangements During Translation Termination, Egor Svidritskiy, Gabriel Demo, Anna B. Loveland, Chen Xu, Andrei A. Korostelev

Open Access Articles

Protein synthesis ends when a ribosome reaches an mRNA stop codon. Release factors (RFs) decode the stop codon, hydrolyze peptidyl-tRNA to release the nascent protein, and then dissociate to allow ribosome recycling. To visualize termination by RF2, we resolved a cryo-EM ensemble of E. coli 70S*RF2 structures at up to 3.3 A in a single sample. Five structures suggest a highly dynamic termination pathway. Upon peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis, the CCA end of deacyl-tRNA departs from the peptidyl transferase center. The catalytic GGQ loop of RF2 is rearranged into a long beta-hairpin that plugs the peptide tunnel, biasing a nascent ...


Signaling To Trp53 And Tap63 From Chk1/Chk2 Is Responsible For Elimination Of Most Oocytes Defective For Either Chromosome Synapsis Or Recombination, Vera D. Rinaldi, Jordana C. Bloom, John C. Schimenti Sep 2019

Signaling To Trp53 And Tap63 From Chk1/Chk2 Is Responsible For Elimination Of Most Oocytes Defective For Either Chromosome Synapsis Or Recombination, Vera D. Rinaldi, Jordana C. Bloom, John C. Schimenti

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Eukaryotic organisms have evolved mechanisms to prevent the accumulation of cells bearing genetic aberrations. This is especially crucial for the germline, because fecundity, and fitness of progeny would be adversely affected by an excessively high mutational incidence. The process of meiosis poses unique problems for mutation avoidance, due to the requirement for SPO11-induced programmed double strand breaks (DSBs) in recombination-driven pairing and segregation of homologous chromosomes. Mouse meiocytes bearing unrepaired meiotic DSBs or unsynapsed chromosomes are eliminated before completing meiotic prophase I. In previous work, we showed that checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2; CHEK2), a canonical DNA damage response protein, is ...


Co-Option Of The Gibbon-Specific Lava Retrotransposon In Dna Repair Pathways, Mariam Okhovat, Kimberly A. Nevonen, Brett Davis, Pryce S. Michener, Samantha Ward, Mark Milhaven, Lana Harshman, Ajuni Sohota, Rachel J. O’Neill, Nadav Ahituv, Krishna R. Veeramah, Lucia Carbone Sep 2019

Co-Option Of The Gibbon-Specific Lava Retrotransposon In Dna Repair Pathways, Mariam Okhovat, Kimberly A. Nevonen, Brett Davis, Pryce S. Michener, Samantha Ward, Mark Milhaven, Lana Harshman, Ajuni Sohota, Rachel J. O’Neill, Nadav Ahituv, Krishna R. Veeramah, Lucia Carbone

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Transposable elements (TEs) can shape gene regulation networks by being co-opted as enhancers. However, the contribution of lineage-specific TE insertions to recent adaptations remains poorly understood. Gibbons present a suitable model to study these contributions, as they have evolved many distinct traits, including heavily rearranged genomes and a novel TE called LAVA. The LAVA retrotransposon is still active in the gibbon genome and is thought to have contributed to evolution of gibbon-specific traits. In this study, we characterized fixed and polymorphic LAVA insertions across multiple gibbon genomes and found that 10% of all LAVA elements overlap chromatin states associated with ...


Cold Atmospheric Plasma Induces Accumulation Of Lysosomes And Caspase-Independent Cell Death In U373mg Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells, Gillian Conway, Zhonglei He, Ana L. Hutanu, George P. Cribaro, Eline Manaloto, Alan Casey, Damien Traynor, Vladimir Milosavljevic, Orla Howe, Carlos Barcia, James T. Murray, Patrick J. Cullen, James Curtin Sep 2019

Cold Atmospheric Plasma Induces Accumulation Of Lysosomes And Caspase-Independent Cell Death In U373mg Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells, Gillian Conway, Zhonglei He, Ana L. Hutanu, George P. Cribaro, Eline Manaloto, Alan Casey, Damien Traynor, Vladimir Milosavljevic, Orla Howe, Carlos Barcia, James T. Murray, Patrick J. Cullen, James Curtin

Articles

Room temperature Cold Atmospheric Plasma (CAP) has shown promising efficacy for the treatment of cancer but the exact mechanisms of action remain unclear. Both apoptosis and necrosis have been implicated as the mode of cell death in various cancer cells. We have previously demonstrated a caspase-independent mechanism of cell death in p53-mutated glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells exposed to plasma. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in caspase-independent cell death induced by plasma treatment. We demonstrate that plasma induces rapid cell death in GBM cells, independent of caspases. Accumulation of vesicles was observed in plasma ...


Evaluation Of Epas1 Variants For Association With Bovine Congestive Heart Failure [Version 1; Peer Review: 2 Approved], Michael P. Heaton, Adam S. Bassett, Katherine J. Whitman, Greta M. Krafsur, Sang M. Lee, Jaden M. Carlson, Halden J. Clark, Helen R. Smith, Madeline C. Pelster, Veronica Basnayake, Dale M. Grotelueschen, B. Vander Ley Sep 2019

Evaluation Of Epas1 Variants For Association With Bovine Congestive Heart Failure [Version 1; Peer Review: 2 Approved], Michael P. Heaton, Adam S. Bassett, Katherine J. Whitman, Greta M. Krafsur, Sang M. Lee, Jaden M. Carlson, Halden J. Clark, Helen R. Smith, Madeline C. Pelster, Veronica Basnayake, Dale M. Grotelueschen, B. Vander Ley

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Background: Bovine congestive heart failure (BCHF) has become increasingly prevalent in feedlot cattle in the Western Great Plains of North America. BCHF is an untreatable complex condition involving pulmonary hypertension that culminates in right ventricular failure and death. A protein variant of hypoxia-inducible factor 2 alpha (HIF2α, encoded by the endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1 gene, EPAS1) was previously reported to be associated with pulmonary hypertension at altitudes exceeding 2,000 m. Our aim was to evaluate EPAS1 haplotypes for association with BCHF in feedlot cattle raised at moderate altitudes (1,200 m).

Methods: Paired samples of clinical cases and ...


The Central Role Of The Tail In Switching Off 10s Myosin Ii Activity, Shixin Yang, Kyounghwan Lee, John L. Woodhead, Osamu Sato, Mitsuo Ikebe, Roger Craig Sep 2019

The Central Role Of The Tail In Switching Off 10s Myosin Ii Activity, Shixin Yang, Kyounghwan Lee, John L. Woodhead, Osamu Sato, Mitsuo Ikebe, Roger Craig

Radiology Publications and Presentations

Myosin II is a motor protein with two heads and an extended tail that plays an essential role in cell motility. Its active form is a polymer (myosin filament) that pulls on actin to generate motion. Its inactive form is a monomer with a compact structure (10S sedimentation coefficient), in which the tail is folded and the two heads interact with each other, inhibiting activity. This conformation is thought to function in cells as an energy-conserving form of the molecule suitable for storage as well as transport to sites of filament assembly. The mechanism of inhibition of the compact molecule ...


A Unified Encyclopedia Of Human Functional Dna Elements Through Fully Automated Annotation Of 164 Human Cell Types, Maxwell W. Libbrecht, Oscar L. Rodriguez, Zhiping Weng, Jeffrey A. Bilmes, Michael M. Hoffman, William Stafford Noble Aug 2019

A Unified Encyclopedia Of Human Functional Dna Elements Through Fully Automated Annotation Of 164 Human Cell Types, Maxwell W. Libbrecht, Oscar L. Rodriguez, Zhiping Weng, Jeffrey A. Bilmes, Michael M. Hoffman, William Stafford Noble

Open Access Articles

Semi-automated genome annotation methods such as Segway take as input a set of genome-wide measurements such as of histone modification or DNA accessibility and output an annotation of genomic activity in the target cell type. Here we present annotations of 164 human cell types using 1615 data sets. To produce these annotations, we automated the label interpretation step to produce a fully automated annotation strategy. Using these annotations, we developed a measure of the importance of each genomic position called the "conservation-associated activity score." We further combined all annotations into a single, cell type-agnostic encyclopedia that catalogs all human regulatory ...


Spectroscopic Description Of The E1 State Of Mo Nitrogenase Based On Mo And Fe X‑Ray Absorption And MöSsbauer Studies, Casey Van Stappen, Roman Davydov, Zhi-Yong Yang, Ruixi Fan, Yisong Guo, Eckhard Bill, Lance C. Seefeldt, Brian M. Hoffman, Serena Debeer Aug 2019

Spectroscopic Description Of The E1 State Of Mo Nitrogenase Based On Mo And Fe X‑Ray Absorption And MöSsbauer Studies, Casey Van Stappen, Roman Davydov, Zhi-Yong Yang, Ruixi Fan, Yisong Guo, Eckhard Bill, Lance C. Seefeldt, Brian M. Hoffman, Serena Debeer

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Mo nitrogenase (N2ase) utilizes a two-component protein system, the catalytic MoFe and its electron-transfer partner FeP, to reduce atmospheric dinitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3). The FeMo cofactor contained in the MoFe protein serves as the catalytic center for this reaction and has long inspired model chemistry oriented toward activating N2. This field of chemistry has relied heavily on the detailed characterization of how Mo N2ase accomplishes this feat. Understanding the reaction mechanism of Mo N2ase itself has presented one of the most challenging problems in bioinorganic chemistry because of the ephemeral nature of its catalytic intermediates, which ...


Mechanism For Apobec3g Catalytic Exclusion Of Rna And Non-Substrate Dna, William C. Solomon, Wazo Myint, Shurong Hou, Tapan Kanai, Rashmi Tripathi, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Celia A. Schiffer, Hiroshi Matsuo Aug 2019

Mechanism For Apobec3g Catalytic Exclusion Of Rna And Non-Substrate Dna, William C. Solomon, Wazo Myint, Shurong Hou, Tapan Kanai, Rashmi Tripathi, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Celia A. Schiffer, Hiroshi Matsuo

Schiffer Lab Publications

The potent antiretroviral protein APOBEC3G (A3G) specifically targets and deaminates deoxycytidine nucleotides, generating deoxyuridine, in single stranded DNA (ssDNA) intermediates produced during HIV replication. A non-catalytic domain in A3G binds strongly to RNA, an interaction crucial for recruitment of A3G to the virion; yet, A3G displays no deamination activity for cytidines in viral RNA. Here, we report NMR and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation analysis for interactions between A3Gctd and multiple substrate or non-substrate DNA and RNA, in combination with deamination assays. NMR ssDNA-binding experiments revealed that the interaction with residues in helix1 and loop1 (T201-L220) distinguishes the binding mode of ...


Egfp Insertional Mutagenesis Reveals Multiple Fxr2p Fibrillar States With Differing Ribosome Association In Neurons, Emily E. Stackpole, Michael R. Akins, Mariya Ivshina, Anastasia C. Murthy, Nicolas L. Fawzi, Justin R. Fallon Aug 2019

Egfp Insertional Mutagenesis Reveals Multiple Fxr2p Fibrillar States With Differing Ribosome Association In Neurons, Emily E. Stackpole, Michael R. Akins, Mariya Ivshina, Anastasia C. Murthy, Nicolas L. Fawzi, Justin R. Fallon

Open Access Articles

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) function in higher-order assemblages such as RNA granules to regulate RNA localization and translation. The Fragile X homolog FXR2P is an RBP essential for formation of neuronal Fragile X granules that associate with axonal mRNA and ribosomes in the intact brain. However, the FXR2P domains important for assemblage formation in a cellular system are unknown. Here we used an EGFP insertional mutagenesis approach to probe for FXR2P intrinsic features that influence its structural states. We tested 18 different in-frame FXR2P(EGFP) fusions in neurons and found that the majority did not impact assemblage formation. However, EGFP insertion ...


Hsp90/Axl/Eif4e-Regulated Unfolded Protein Response As An Acquired Vulnerability In Drug-Resistant Kras-Mutant Lung Cancer, Haitang Yang, Shun-Qing Liang, Duo Xu, Zhang Yang, Thomas M. Marti, Yanyun Gao, Gregor J. Kocher, Heng Zhao, Ralph A. Schmid, Ren-Wang Peng Aug 2019

Hsp90/Axl/Eif4e-Regulated Unfolded Protein Response As An Acquired Vulnerability In Drug-Resistant Kras-Mutant Lung Cancer, Haitang Yang, Shun-Qing Liang, Duo Xu, Zhang Yang, Thomas M. Marti, Yanyun Gao, Gregor J. Kocher, Heng Zhao, Ralph A. Schmid, Ren-Wang Peng

Open Access Articles

Drug resistance and tumor heterogeneity are formidable challenges in cancer medicine, which is particularly relevant for KRAS-mutant cancers, the epitome of malignant tumors recalcitrant to targeted therapy efforts and first-line chemotherapy. In this study, we delineate that KRAS-mutant lung cancer cells resistant to pemetrexed (MTA) and anti-MEK drug trametinib acquire an exquisite dependency on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling, rendering resistant cancer cells selectively susceptible to blockage of HSP90, the receptor tyrosine kinase AXL, the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), and the unfolded protein response (UPR). Mechanistically, acquisition of drug resistance enables KRAS-mutant lung cancer cells to bypass canonical ...


Promotion Of Adipogenesis By Jmjd6 Requires The At Hook-Like Domain And Is Independent Of Its Catalytic Function, Pablo Reyes-Gutierrez, Jake W. Carrasquillo-Rodriguez, Anthony N. Imbalzano Aug 2019

Promotion Of Adipogenesis By Jmjd6 Requires The At Hook-Like Domain And Is Independent Of Its Catalytic Function, Pablo Reyes-Gutierrez, Jake W. Carrasquillo-Rodriguez, Anthony N. Imbalzano

Open Access Articles

JMJD6 is a member of the Jumonji C domain containing enzymes that demethylate and/or hydroxylate substrate proteins. It is a multi-functional protein that has been implicated in disparate aspects of transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of gene expression, including but not limited to enhancer and promoter binding, release of paused RNA polymerase II, control of splicing, and interaction with the translation machinery. JMJD6 contributes to multiple aspects of animal development, including adipogenesis modeled in culture. We mutated proposed or characterized domains in the JMJD6 protein to better understand the requirement for JMJD6 in adipogenic differentiation. Mutation of JMJD6 amino acids ...


Trophic Upgrading And Mobilization Of Wax Esters In Microzooplankton, Keyana Roohani, Brad A. Haubrich, Kai-Lou Yue, Nigel D'Souza, Amanda Mantalbano, Tatiana Rynearson, Susanne Menden-Deuer, Christopher Reid Aug 2019

Trophic Upgrading And Mobilization Of Wax Esters In Microzooplankton, Keyana Roohani, Brad A. Haubrich, Kai-Lou Yue, Nigel D'Souza, Amanda Mantalbano, Tatiana Rynearson, Susanne Menden-Deuer, Christopher Reid

Science and Technology Faculty Journal Articles

Heterotrophic protists play pivotal roles in aquatic ecosystems by transferring matter and energy, including lipids, from primary producers to higher trophic predators. Using Oxyrrhis marina as a model organism, changes to the non-saponifiable protist lipids were investigated under satiation and starvation conditions. During active feeding on the alga Cryptomonas sp., the O. marina hexane soluble non-saponifiable fraction lipid profile reflected its food source with the observed presence of long chain mono-unsaturated fatty alcohols up to C25:1. Evidence of trophic upgrading in O. marina was observed with long chain mono-unsaturated fatty alcohol accumulation of up to C35:1. To the ...


An Attenuated Zika Virus Encoding Non-Glycosylated Envelope (E) And Non-Structural Protein 1 (Ns1) Confers Complete Protection Against Lethal Challenge In A Mouse Model, Arun S. Annamalai, Aryamav Pattnaik, Bikash R. Sahoo, Zack P. Guinn, Brianna L. Bullard, Eric A. Weaver, David J. Steffen, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Thomas M. Petro, Asit K. Pattnaik Aug 2019

An Attenuated Zika Virus Encoding Non-Glycosylated Envelope (E) And Non-Structural Protein 1 (Ns1) Confers Complete Protection Against Lethal Challenge In A Mouse Model, Arun S. Annamalai, Aryamav Pattnaik, Bikash R. Sahoo, Zack P. Guinn, Brianna L. Bullard, Eric A. Weaver, David J. Steffen, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Thomas M. Petro, Asit K. Pattnaik

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus, emerged in the last decade causing serious human diseases, including congenital microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Although many vaccine platforms are at various stages of development, no licensed vaccines are currently available. Previously, we described a mutant MR766 ZIKV (m2MR) bearing an E protein mutation (N154A) that prevented its glycosylation, resulting in attenuation and defective neuroinvasion. To further attenuate m2MR for its potential use as a live viral vaccine, we incorporated additional mutations into m2MR by substituting the asparagine residues in the glycosylation sites (N130 and N207) of NS1 with alanine ...


Insulin Receptor Substrate-1 (Irs-1) And Irs-2 Expression Levels Are Associated With Prognosis In Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (Nsclc), Andrew J. Piper, Jennifer L. Clark, Jose R. Mercado-Matos, Asia N. Matthew-Onabanjo, Chung-Cheng Hsieh, Ali Akalin, Leslie M. Shaw Aug 2019

Insulin Receptor Substrate-1 (Irs-1) And Irs-2 Expression Levels Are Associated With Prognosis In Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (Nsclc), Andrew J. Piper, Jennifer L. Clark, Jose R. Mercado-Matos, Asia N. Matthew-Onabanjo, Chung-Cheng Hsieh, Ali Akalin, Leslie M. Shaw

Open Access Articles

The insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling pathway has been implicated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) outcomes and resistance to targeted therapies. However, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms by which this pathway contributes to the biology of NSCLC. The insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins are cytoplasmic adaptor proteins that signal downstream of the IGF-1R and determine the functional outcomes of this signaling pathway. In this study, we assessed the expression patterns of IRS-1 and IRS-2 in NSCLC to identify associations between IRS-1 and IRS-2 expression levels and survival outcomes in the two major histological subtypes of NSCLC, adenocarcinoma ...


Effects Of Halogen, Chalcogen, Pnicogen, And Tetrel Bonds On Ir And Nmr Spectra, Jia Lu, Steve Scheiner Aug 2019

Effects Of Halogen, Chalcogen, Pnicogen, And Tetrel Bonds On Ir And Nmr Spectra, Jia Lu, Steve Scheiner

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Complexes were formed pairing FX, FHY, FH2Z, and FH3T (X = Cl, Br, I; Y = S, Se, Te; Z = P, As, Sb; T = Si, Ge, Sn) with NH3 in order to form an A⋯N noncovalent bond, where A refers to the central atom. Geometries, energetics, atomic charges, and spectroscopic characteristics of these complexes were evaluated via DFT calculations. In all cases, the A–F bond, which is located opposite the base and is responsible for the σ-hole on the A atom, elongates and its stretching frequency undergoes a shift to the red. This shift varies ...


Temporal Gene Expression Of Mesenchymal Cells In The Pediatric Lung, Quinlen F. Marshall, Soumyaroop Bhattacharya, Gautam Bandyopadhyay, Ravi Misra, Thomas Mariani, Gloria Pryhuber Aug 2019

Temporal Gene Expression Of Mesenchymal Cells In The Pediatric Lung, Quinlen F. Marshall, Soumyaroop Bhattacharya, Gautam Bandyopadhyay, Ravi Misra, Thomas Mariani, Gloria Pryhuber

Chemistry Student Work

INTRODUCTION: The newborn lung undergoes vast biochemical and physiological changes during adaptation from the intrauterine to the extrauterine environment. Lung morphogenesis continues from birth into early childhood, mediated by dynamic gene expression and a diversity of pulmonary cell types (Whitsett, JA. et al. Physiol. Rev, 2019). Murine models demonstrate that pulmonary mesenchymal cells exhibit remarkable heterogeneity in function and morphology during development, however, confirmation of their role is lacking in human neonates and early childhood (Guo, M. et al. Nat. Comm, 2019). In addition, many current human genomic studies of lung maturation suffer from limited sample size, limiting their applicability ...


High-Fat Diet In A Mouse Insulin-Resistant Model Induces Widespread Rewiring Of The Phosphotyrosine Signaling Network, Antje Dittmann, Norman J. Kennedy, Nina L. Soltero, Nader Morshed, Miyeko D. Mana, Omer H. Yilmaz, Roger J. Davis, Forest M. White Aug 2019

High-Fat Diet In A Mouse Insulin-Resistant Model Induces Widespread Rewiring Of The Phosphotyrosine Signaling Network, Antje Dittmann, Norman J. Kennedy, Nina L. Soltero, Nader Morshed, Miyeko D. Mana, Omer H. Yilmaz, Roger J. Davis, Forest M. White

Open Access Articles

Obesity-associated type 2 diabetes and accompanying diseases have developed into a leading human health risk across industrialized and developing countries. The complex molecular underpinnings of how lipid overload and lipid metabolites lead to the deregulation of metabolic processes are incompletely understood. We assessed hepatic post-translational alterations in response to treatment of cells with saturated and unsaturated free fatty acids and the consumption of a high-fat diet by mice. These data revealed widespread tyrosine phosphorylation changes affecting a large number of enzymes involved in metabolic processes as well as canonical receptor-mediated signal transduction networks. Targeting two of the most prominently affected ...


Effective Mismatch Repair Depends On Timely Control Of Pcna Retention On Dna By The Elg1 Complex, Lovely Jael Paul Solomon Devakumar, Christl Gaubitz, Victoria Lundblad, Brian A. Kelch, Takashi Kubota Jul 2019

Effective Mismatch Repair Depends On Timely Control Of Pcna Retention On Dna By The Elg1 Complex, Lovely Jael Paul Solomon Devakumar, Christl Gaubitz, Victoria Lundblad, Brian A. Kelch, Takashi Kubota

Open Access Articles

Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a sliding clamp that acts as a central co-ordinator for mismatch repair (MMR) as well as DNA replication. Loss of Elg1, the major subunit of the PCNA unloader complex, causes over-accumulation of PCNA on DNA and also increases mutation rate, but it has been unclear if the two effects are linked. Here we show that timely removal of PCNA from DNA by the Elg1 complex is important to prevent mutations. Although premature unloading of PCNA generally increases mutation rate, the mutator phenotype of elg1Delta is attenuated by PCNA mutants PCNA-R14E and PCNA-D150E that spontaneously ...


Nonnative Structure In A Peptide Model Of The Unfolded State Of Sod1: Implications For Als-Linked Aggregation, Noah R. Cohen, Jill A. Zitzewitz, Osman Bilsel, C. Robert Matthews Jul 2019

Nonnative Structure In A Peptide Model Of The Unfolded State Of Sod1: Implications For Als-Linked Aggregation, Noah R. Cohen, Jill A. Zitzewitz, Osman Bilsel, C. Robert Matthews

Open Access Articles

Dozens of mutations throughout the sequence of the gene encoding superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) have been linked to toxic protein aggregation in the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A parsimonious explanation for numerous genotypes resulting in a common phenotype would be mutation-induced perturbation of the folding free-energy surface that increases the populations of high-energy states prone to aggregation. The absence of intermediates in the folding of monomeric SOD1 suggests that the unfolded ensemble is a potential source of aggregation. To test this hypothesis, here we dissected SOD1 into a set of peptides end-labeled with FRET probes to model the ...


Inactivating Mutations And X-Ray Crystal Structure Of The Tumor Suppressor Opcml Reveal Cancer-Associated Functions, James R. Birtley, Zachary Maben, Grant C. Weaver, Mollie M. Jurewicz, Lawrence J. Stern, Chiara Recchi, Hani Gabra Jul 2019

Inactivating Mutations And X-Ray Crystal Structure Of The Tumor Suppressor Opcml Reveal Cancer-Associated Functions, James R. Birtley, Zachary Maben, Grant C. Weaver, Mollie M. Jurewicz, Lawrence J. Stern, Chiara Recchi, Hani Gabra

Open Access Articles

OPCML, a tumor suppressor gene, is frequently silenced epigenetically in ovarian and other cancers. Here we report, by analysis of databases of tumor sequences, the observation of OPCML somatic missense mutations from various tumor types and the impact of these mutations on OPCML function, by solving the X-ray crystal structure of this glycoprotein to 2.65 A resolution. OPCML consists of an extended arrangement of three immunoglobulin-like domains and homodimerizes via a network of contacts between membrane-distal domains. We report the generation of a panel of OPCML variants with representative clinical mutations and demonstrate clear phenotypic effects in vitro and ...