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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Design, Synthesis, And Reactivity Of Homo- And Heterobimetallic Complexes Bridged By A Xanthene Linker, Thilini Samangi Hollingsworth Jan 2018

Design, Synthesis, And Reactivity Of Homo- And Heterobimetallic Complexes Bridged By A Xanthene Linker, Thilini Samangi Hollingsworth

Wayne State University Dissertations

Cooperative reactivity of bimettalics can be is observed in many different areas of chemistry and have been increasingly investigated because of the advantageous reactivity when compared to the corresponding mononuclear systems. The focus of my dissertation is on (1) investigation of the homobimetallic cooperativity in lactide polymerization catalysis; (2) investigation of the heterobimetallic cooperativity in the biomimetic studies of Mo-Cu carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) enzyme in order to make a functional model of its active site.

Three new main group bis(alkoxide) complexes Mg(OR)2(THF)2, Zn(Cl)(μ2-OR)2Li(THF) and In(OR)2(μ2-Cl)2Li(THF ...


Alternative Strategies To Inhibit Lysine Methyltransferases And Deubiquitinases In Human Cancers, Nicholas Spellmon Jan 2018

Alternative Strategies To Inhibit Lysine Methyltransferases And Deubiquitinases In Human Cancers, Nicholas Spellmon

Wayne State University Dissertations

X-ray crystallography is the gold standard method for imagining macromolecules to atomic resolution. Three dimensional data is central to understanding the molecular mechanism how DNA, RNA and proteins function in biological events. Structural insights into these events provide a molecular window to visualize how biological molecules influence human health. Visualizing the architecture of these molecules set the stage for rational and selective drug design. The following dissertation utilizes biochemical and biophysical tools, including X-ray crystallography, to shed light on poorly understood mechanisms related to SMYD2 activity and regulation, USP10 architecture and function, and PDZ-RhoGEF dimerization. SMYD2 is one member of ...


Investigation Of The Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Gpi Transamidase: Insights Into Its Activity And Subunit-Subunit Interactions, Travis Ness Jan 2018

Investigation Of The Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Gpi Transamidase: Insights Into Its Activity And Subunit-Subunit Interactions, Travis Ness

Wayne State University Dissertations

Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring of proteins is a eukaryotic, posttranslational

modification catalyzed by GPI transamidase (GPI-T). The Saccharomyces

cerevisiae GPI-T is composed of five membrane-bound subunits: Gaa1, Gpi8, Gpi16,

Gpi17, and Gab1. Structural and functional studies have been hindered by the

complexity of this enzyme. Conditions to purify the Gpi8:Gaa1:Gpi16 GPI-T heterotrimer

from yeast have been reported, but an understanding of the subunit functions,

interactions, and stoichiometry remain unclear. Furthermore, a reliable, quantitative, in

vitro assay for this important post-translational modification has remained elusive for

nearly three decades.

Our laboratory has developed an in vitro peptide cleavage assay that ...


Role Of Sirna Pathway In Epigenetic Modifications Of The Drosophila Melanogaster X Chromosome, Nikita Deshpande Jan 2018

Role Of Sirna Pathway In Epigenetic Modifications Of The Drosophila Melanogaster X Chromosome, Nikita Deshpande

Wayne State University Dissertations

Eukaryotic genomes are organized into large domains of coordinated regulation. The role of small RNAs in formation of these domains is largely unexplored. An extraordinary example of domain-wide regulation is X chromosome compensation in Drosophila melanogaster males. This process occurs by hypertranscription of genes on the single male X chromosome. Extensive research in this field has shown that the Male Specific Lethal (MSL) complex binds X-linked genes and modifies chromatin to increase expression. The components of this complex, and their actions on chromatin, are well studied. In contrast, the mechanism that results in exclusive recruitment to the X chromosome is ...


Functional Analysis Of Sin3 Isoforms In Drosophila, Nirmalya Saha Jan 2017

Functional Analysis Of Sin3 Isoforms In Drosophila, Nirmalya Saha

Wayne State University Dissertations

he multisubunit SIN3 complex is a global transcriptional regulator. In Drosophila, a single Sin3A gene encodes different isoforms of SIN3, of which SIN3 187 and SIN3 220 are the major isoforms. Previous studies have demonstrated functional non-redundancy of SIN3 isoforms. The role of SIN3 isoforms in regulating distinct biological processes, however, is not well characterized. In addition, how the components of the SIN3 complex modulate the gene regulatory activity of the complex is not well understood. In this study, I identified the biological processes regulated by the SIN3 isoforms. Additionally, I explored how Caf1-55 impacts the gene regulatory activity of ...


Exploring The Physics Of Proteins At Molecular Level By Neutron And X-Ray Scattering, Utsab Raj Shrestha Jan 2017

Exploring The Physics Of Proteins At Molecular Level By Neutron And X-Ray Scattering, Utsab Raj Shrestha

Wayne State University Dissertations

The protein structures revealed by the crystallographic studies have provided the valuable information over the years regarding their biological functions. However, such snapshots of protein fluctuations averaged over time may not be enough to fully capture the underlying biological phenomena. A deeper understanding of the protein dynamics is crucial for elucidating the structural pathways or the transition mechanism from the initial state to the final state necessary for regulating the physical and chemical processes. Hence, the biological activities and functions are mainly governed by the protein conformational dynamics. However, the direct correlation of a wide range of protein dynamics to ...


Development Of Tools For Phosphosite-Specific Kinase Identification And Discovery Of Phosphatase Substrates, Pavithra Maheshani Dedigama Arachchige Jan 2017

Development Of Tools For Phosphosite-Specific Kinase Identification And Discovery Of Phosphatase Substrates, Pavithra Maheshani Dedigama Arachchige

Wayne State University Dissertations

Phosphorylation is a ubiquitous post translational modification implicated in many diseases, such as cancer. The phosphorylation status of cellular proteins is regulated by the activity of kinases and phosphatases. The biological significance of many phosphorylation events remain unknown because the methods to determine which kinase or phosphatase is responsible for phosphorylation are limited. Previously, we established kinase-catalyzed labeling where kinases accept γ-modified ATP analogs, such as ATP-arylazide and ATP-biotin, to label phosphoproteins. To study substrates of kinases and phosphatases, here we developed two new methods using kinase-catalyzed labeling. As one application, we developed K-CLASP (Kinase-catalyzed CrossLinking And Streptavdin Purification) to ...


Design, Synthesis And Biological Evaluation Of Histone Deacetylase (Hdac) Inhibitors: Saha (Vorinostat) Analogs And Biaryl Indolyl Benzamide Inhibitors Display Isoform Selectivity, Ahmed Negmeldin Jan 2017

Design, Synthesis And Biological Evaluation Of Histone Deacetylase (Hdac) Inhibitors: Saha (Vorinostat) Analogs And Biaryl Indolyl Benzamide Inhibitors Display Isoform Selectivity, Ahmed Negmeldin

Wayne State University Dissertations

HDAC proteins have emerged as interesting targets for anti-cancer drugs due to their involvement in cancers, as well as several other diseases. Several HDAC inhibitors have been approved by the FDA as anti-cancer drugs, including SAHA (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, Vorinostat). Unfortunately, SAHA inhibits most HDAC isoforms, which limit its use as a pharmacological tool and may lead to side effects in the clinic. In this work we were interested in developing isoform selective HDAC inhibitors, which may decrease or eliminate the side effects associated with non-selective inhibitors treatment. In addition, isoform selective HDAC inhibitors can be used as biological tools ...


Role Of Alström Syndrome 1 (Alms1) In Nkcc2 Endocytosis, Thick Ascending Limb Function, Blood Pressure Regulation And Metabolic Function, Ankita Bachhawat Jaykumar Jan 2017

Role Of Alström Syndrome 1 (Alms1) In Nkcc2 Endocytosis, Thick Ascending Limb Function, Blood Pressure Regulation And Metabolic Function, Ankita Bachhawat Jaykumar

Wayne State University Dissertations

NaCl absorption by the Thick Ascending Limb (TAL) is mediated by the apical Na+/K+/2Cl- co-transporter, NKCC2. Increased NKCC2 activity and apical trafficking are associated to salt sensitive hypertension in rodents and humans. NKCC2 endocytosis is important for maintaining surface NKCC2 such that blocking NKCC2 endocytosis increased NKCC2 surface abundance and NKCC2-mediated NaCl reabsorption. Despite its importance, NKCC2 endocytosis has been poorly studied and a part of the reason may be attributed to the lack of availability of methods with good time resolution. Hence, we developed a method to image apical NKCC2 to monitor its endocytosis in real-time by ...


Development Of Chemical Tools To Investigate Protein S-Glutathionylation In Response To Metabolic Alteration, Kusal Theekshana Gayan Samarasinghe Jan 2017

Development Of Chemical Tools To Investigate Protein S-Glutathionylation In Response To Metabolic Alteration, Kusal Theekshana Gayan Samarasinghe

Wayne State University Dissertations

Oxidative stress is a common characteristic of age-related diseases such as vascular diseases, diabetes and cancer. Many diseases are known to be regulated by glutathionylation. Glutathionylation is referred to as the formation of disulfide bond between a protein cysteine and a glutathione. To understand the molecular mechanisms behind the disease initiation and progression, identification of such glutathionylated proteins is important. Even though existing methods have been widely used, several limitations of these methods hinder the identification of such proteins in disease conditions. Therefore, we developed a versatile chemical method that generates clickable glutathione inside the cells. In this method, we ...


Studies Of Sumoylation In Regulating Mif Stability And Rangap1 Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Shuttling In Controlling Its Sumo Modification, Progga Sen Jan 2017

Studies Of Sumoylation In Regulating Mif Stability And Rangap1 Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Shuttling In Controlling Its Sumo Modification, Progga Sen

Wayne State University Dissertations

SUMOylation is an essential post-translational modification that regulates a variety of critical cellular pathways ranging from nuclear transport to protein stability. Accumulating lines of evidence have shown that a perturbation of the SUMOylation pathway is associated with human diseases, especially various types of cancer. Our recent proteomic studies revealed a drastic increase in levels of SUMO2/3 modification on the proinflammatory cytokine MIF in the metastatic breast cancer cell line compared to the non-metastatic control cell line. Interestingly, the increase in levels of both MIF and global SUMO-2/3 modification in the metastatic cells are positively correlated to that of ...


Ligand Binding Studies Of A Peptide Targeting Helix 69 Of 23s Rrna In Bacterial Ribosomes, Hyosuk Seo Jan 2017

Ligand Binding Studies Of A Peptide Targeting Helix 69 Of 23s Rrna In Bacterial Ribosomes, Hyosuk Seo

Wayne State University Dissertations

In the development of finding a peptide targeting H69 of 23S rRNA in bacterial ribosomes, phage display was employed at pH 5.5, a buffer condition previously reported of H69 preferring a closed conformation. After sequencing, several peptides were chosen through sequence alignment, followed by preparation using solid-phase peptide synthesis. The peptides were characterized using MALDI-TOF and purified with HPLC. A truncated peptide TARHIY was selected from FID assay. Through binding studies using ESI-MS, SPR, BLItz, and NMR, the binding properties of the peptide to H69 were determined, such as binding affinity, stoichiometry, and interaction site. The peptide exhibited moderate ...


Biochemical, Structural, And Drug Design Studies Of Norovirus And Zika Virus Proteases, Ben Kuiper Jan 2017

Biochemical, Structural, And Drug Design Studies Of Norovirus And Zika Virus Proteases, Ben Kuiper

Wayne State University Dissertations

Noroviruses, which are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis, cause an estimated 677 million infections and 213,000 deaths each year worldwide. Noroviruses are classified into seven genogroups (GI-GVII); GI, GII, and GIV have been shown to be infectious in humans. However, GII noroviruses cause the majority of outbreaks (89%). No pharmacologic treatment or vaccine currently exists to treat or prevent norovirus infections.

Recently, the development of a norovirus replicon system, a murine model of norovirus infection, and the development of a biochemical protease assay have allowed for the design and development of norovirus inhibitors. However, the replicon and biochemical ...


P120 Catenin Regulates Inflammation In Macrophage, Xiaoqing Guan Jan 2017

P120 Catenin Regulates Inflammation In Macrophage, Xiaoqing Guan

Wayne State University Dissertations

Objective: p120 catenin (p120ctn) has been reported to play a critical role in maintenance of the stability of adherens junctions. It also has potential anti-inflammatory effects in epithelial and endothelial cells. This research was designed to evaluate the effects of p120ctn on inflammatory responses in human macrophages upon LPS stimulation, as well as the possible mechanism by which p120ctn regulates LPS-induced proinflammatory response in macrophages. Methods: THP-1 cells were induced to differentiate into macrophages by PMA. The isoforms of p120ctn were identified via RT-PCR and Western blot. The expression of p120ctn was examined by Western blot in THP-1 derived macrophages ...


Clinicopathology And Molecular Determinants Underlying Benign Breast And Breast Cancer Lesions, Andreana Holowatyj Holowatyj Jan 2017

Clinicopathology And Molecular Determinants Underlying Benign Breast And Breast Cancer Lesions, Andreana Holowatyj Holowatyj

Wayne State University Dissertations

Despite converging incidence rates for breast cancers by race, disparities in mortality persist where black women suffer from poorer prognosis compared to white counterparts. To understand the clinical, demographic, and molecular characteristics underlying these disparities, we examined differences among patients with breast cancer to understand the role of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status, age, and race/ethnicity among women diagnosed with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, and disparities in surgical therapy among female patients with early stage young-onset breast cancer. Benign breast disease, another known risk factor for breast cancer, includes a histological spectrum of lesions, could contribute ...


Understanding The Mechanism Of Oxidative Stress Generation By Oxidized Dopamine Metabolites: Implications In Parkinson's Disease, Nihar Mehta Jan 2017

Understanding The Mechanism Of Oxidative Stress Generation By Oxidized Dopamine Metabolites: Implications In Parkinson's Disease, Nihar Mehta

Wayne State University Dissertations

Oxidation of dopamine to toxic metabolites is considered to be one of the prime factors involved in the death of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson’s disease. Some dopamine oxidation products have the capability to redox cycle in the presence of molecular oxygen, further contributing to oxidative stress. Therefore, our aim here was to study the redox cycling of dopamine oxidized metabolites and elucidate the underlying mechanism by which they cause oxidative stress.

Redox reactions involve transfer of one or more electrons between two compounds

resulting in either oxidation or reduction. In redox cycling, a compound undergoes

alternate oxidation and reduction ...


Analysis Of The Secondary Neurodegenerative Consequences Of Primary Oligodendrocyte Stress Through The Use Of The Novel Obiden Mouse Model, Daniel Zdzislaw Radecki Jan 2017

Analysis Of The Secondary Neurodegenerative Consequences Of Primary Oligodendrocyte Stress Through The Use Of The Novel Obiden Mouse Model, Daniel Zdzislaw Radecki

Wayne State University Dissertations

The work of this project was to develop, test and characterize a potential novel mouse model of the neurodegenerative disease Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Historically, MS has been identified as a primary autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). However, treatments based on this view have met with limited success, and in most cases, fail to prevent progression of MS from mild to moderate and severe forms. Original observations regarding axonal and neuronal pathology in the white and gray matter of the CNS were rediscovered in the 1990s. These observations indicated that even in the absence of the immune system ...


Identification Of Oxygen Optima For Mouse Trophoblast Stem Cells And Human Embryos And The Stress Responses Upon Departing Optima, Yu Yang Jan 2017

Identification Of Oxygen Optima For Mouse Trophoblast Stem Cells And Human Embryos And The Stress Responses Upon Departing Optima, Yu Yang

Wayne State University Dissertations

Low level of oxygen (O2) occurs physiologically during in vivo embryo development. As developing embryos moving from fallopian tube to uterus, oxygen level gradually decreases to ≤ 5% at the time of blastocyst implantation. Blastocysts are made of two major cell populations, trophoblast cells and inner cell mass, from which trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived respectively. TSCs serve as placental stem cells that later on proliferate and differentiate into placenta. Previous study has shown that 2% O2 is the optimal O2 level for mTSC in vitro growth and potency maintenance, which agrees with their low ...


Real-Time Investigation Of Bulky Lesion Bypass By Y-Family Dna Polymerase, Dpo4, Using Single Molecule Fret, Pramodha Liyanage Jan 2017

Real-Time Investigation Of Bulky Lesion Bypass By Y-Family Dna Polymerase, Dpo4, Using Single Molecule Fret, Pramodha Liyanage

Wayne State University Dissertations

DNA is constantly exposed to various DNA damaging agents that are generated by various internal and external sources. Some of this damage may not be able to be repaired by cellular machineries causing DNA replication to be blocked. Once the replication fork is blocked by a DNA adduct, damage tolerance DNA polymerases, mainly Y-family, are able to restore the DNA replication by synthesizing past the DNA adduct. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is one of the most studied environmental carcinogens. It is known to make covalent DNA adducts after metabolic activation and the bulkiness of the B[a]P ...


Effect Of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress On Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells And Its Regulation Of Sm22Α, Neeraja Priyanka Annam Jan 2017

Effect Of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress On Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells And Its Regulation Of Sm22Α, Neeraja Priyanka Annam

Wayne State University Dissertations

Background: The vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMC) possess the ability to differentiate into a synthetic phenotype in response to stress. This phenotypic modulation may be accompanied by inflammatory or osteogenic response in chronic stress. The synthetic state is characterized by low levels of contractile markers unlike the differentiated state.

Hypothesis: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress causes phenotypic modulation in VSMCs leading to apoptosis. Many transcription factors induced by ER stress contribute to the downregulation of Sm22α. Perturbation in cytoskeletal dynamics exacerbates the ER stress response.

Methods: Ex-vivo culture was used to establish importance of Sm22 in ER stress. In vitro analysis ...


Structural Basis Of Membrane Protein Scaffolding And Signaling In Human Disease, Joshua Holcomb Jan 2017

Structural Basis Of Membrane Protein Scaffolding And Signaling In Human Disease, Joshua Holcomb

Wayne State University Dissertations

Protein structural elucidation by means of X-ray crystallography is a powerful approach for both insight into a proteins biophysical properties and function. To date X-ray crystallography remains the gold standard in high resolution structural determination and serves as the basis for rational drug design for the purpose of combating a number of human diseases. Such an approach also allows for the exploitation of how various proteins interact with their substrates providing a molecular basis for their physiological function. In this dissertation, using X-ray crystallographic analysis along with other biophysical characterization methods, we seek to understand the mechanistic foundation for which ...


Navigating Human Cytomegalovirus (Hcmv) Envelopment And Egress, William Longeway Close Jan 2017

Navigating Human Cytomegalovirus (Hcmv) Envelopment And Egress, William Longeway Close

Wayne State University Dissertations

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous viral pathogen. In individuals with fully functioning and mature immune systems, HCMV is associated with mild symptoms prior to establishing latency. In individuals with naïve or compromised immune systems, HCMV is capable of causing severe organ damage. HCMV is the leading infectious cause of congenital birth defects and a major non-genetic cause of hearing loss. Unfortunately, antiviral treatment options lack diversity due to limited knowledge of virion replication. If HCMV replication were better understood, new antiviral treatments could be developed.

In this work, we describe the development and implementation of new tools to study ...


The Development Of Chemical Methods To Discover Kinase Substrates And Map Cell Signaling With Gamma-Modified Atp Analog-Dependent Kinase-Catalyzed Phosphorylation, Dissanayaka Mudiyanselage Maheeka Madhubashini Embogama Jan 2017

The Development Of Chemical Methods To Discover Kinase Substrates And Map Cell Signaling With Gamma-Modified Atp Analog-Dependent Kinase-Catalyzed Phosphorylation, Dissanayaka Mudiyanselage Maheeka Madhubashini Embogama

Wayne State University Dissertations

Kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation plays an important role in cell physiology by regulating a myriad of cellular functions. Thus aberrant kinase activity is implicated in various diseases. Methods are needed to discover kinase substrates and map signaling pathways to explore biology and to help drug discovery. A few techniques are currently available to discover kinase substrate and map cell signaling. However, to augment kinase substrate discovery approaches, it is essential to develop alternative techniques. Pflum has recently discovered cosubstrate promiscuity of protein kinases with gamma-modified ATP analogs. Here, kinase-catalyzed biotinylation with ATP-biotin was used to develop novel tools to discover kinase substrates ...


Studies Towards Broadening The Substrate Profile And Regulation Of Histone Deacetylase 1, Dhanusha Ashanthi Nalawansha Jan 2016

Studies Towards Broadening The Substrate Profile And Regulation Of Histone Deacetylase 1, Dhanusha Ashanthi Nalawansha

Wayne State University Dissertations

Aberrant expression of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) is implicated in multiple diseases, including cancer. As a consequence, HDAC1 has emerged as an important therapeutic target for drug development. HDAC1 regulates key cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell survival, by deacetylating both histone and non-histone substrates. Due to the lack of simple tools to identify physiological substrates of HDAC1, the full spectrum of HDAC1 activities in the cell remains unclear. Here, we employed a substrate trapping strategy to identify cellular substrates of HDAC1. Using this approach, we identified mitosis-related protein Eg5 as a substrate. HDAC1 colocalizes with Eg5 ...


Cardiolipin Is Required For Optimal Acetyl-Coa Metabolism, Vaishnavi Raja Jan 2016

Cardiolipin Is Required For Optimal Acetyl-Coa Metabolism, Vaishnavi Raja

Wayne State University Dissertations

The phospholipid cardiolipin (CL) is crucial for many cellular functions and signaling pathways, both inside and outside of mitochondria. My thesis focuses on the role of CL in energy metabolism. Many reactions of electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, the transport of metabolites needed for these processes, and the stabilization of electron transport chain supercomplexes, require CL. Recent studies indicate that CL is required for the synthesis of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) co-factors, which are essential for numerous metabolic pathways. Activation of carnitine-acetylcarnitine translocase, which transports acetyl-CoA into the mitochondria, is CL dependent. The presence of substantial amounts of CL in the peroxisomal ...


Genome Wide Analysis Identifies Sphingolipid Metabolism As A New Target Of Valproic Acid, Shyamalagauri Jadhav Jadhav Jan 2016

Genome Wide Analysis Identifies Sphingolipid Metabolism As A New Target Of Valproic Acid, Shyamalagauri Jadhav Jadhav

Wayne State University Dissertations

Bipolar disorder (BD), which is characterized by depression and mania, affects about 1% of the total world population. Current treatments are effective in only 40-60% of cases and cause severe side effects. Valproic acid (VPA), a branched short-chain fatty acid, is one of the most widely used drugs for the treatment of BD. Although many hypotheses have been postulated to explain the molecular mechanism of action of this drug in BD, the therapeutic mechanism is not understood. This knowledge gap has hampered the development of new drugs to treat this disorder. To identify candidate pathways affected by VPA, I performed ...


A Novel Role For Repetitive Sequences In Recognition Of The Drosophila Melanogaster X Chromosome, Sonal Suresh Joshi Jan 2016

A Novel Role For Repetitive Sequences In Recognition Of The Drosophila Melanogaster X Chromosome, Sonal Suresh Joshi

Wayne State University Dissertations

In humans and fruit flies, males have one X chromosome while females have two. This imbalance in gene dosage is potentially lethal, and the process of dosage compensation corrects it. The MSL (Male Specific Lethal) complex, which is composed of five proteins and one of two functionally redundant long non-coding roX (RNA on the X) RNAs, brings about dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster. In fruit fly dosage compensation, all the genes on the single male X chromosome are upregulated approximately twofold, via chromatin modifications, to equalize gene dosage with the two X chromosomes of females. This process calls for highly ...


Novel Regulatory Mechanisms Of Inositol Biosynthesis In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae And Mammalian Cells, And Implications For The Mechanism Underlying Vpa-Induced Glucose 6-Phosphate Depletion, Wenxi Yu Jan 2016

Novel Regulatory Mechanisms Of Inositol Biosynthesis In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae And Mammalian Cells, And Implications For The Mechanism Underlying Vpa-Induced Glucose 6-Phosphate Depletion, Wenxi Yu

Wayne State University Dissertations

Myo-inositol is the precursor of all inositol containing molecules, including inositol phosphates, phosphoinositides and glycosylphosphatidylinositols, which are signaling molecules involved in many critical cellular functions. Perturbation of inositol metabolism has been linked to neurological disorders. Although several widely-used anticonvulsants and mood-stabilizing drugs have been shown to exert inositol depletion effects, the mechanisms of action of the drugs and the role of inositol in these diseases are not understood. Elucidation of the molecular control of inositol synthesis will shed light on the pathologies of inositol related illnesses.

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, deletion of the four glycogen synthase kinase-3 genes, MCK1, MRK1, MDS1 ...


An Investigation Into The Molecular Basis Underlying Enhancement Of Transcription By The Intron In Budding Yeast, Neha Agarwal Agarwal Jan 2016

An Investigation Into The Molecular Basis Underlying Enhancement Of Transcription By The Intron In Budding Yeast, Neha Agarwal Agarwal

Wayne State University Dissertations

It is now quite evident that the introns, which are removed from the primary transcript by the process of splicing, are involved in a variety of important functions in eukaryotic cells. One of the evolutionarily conserved functions of introns is their role in regulating transcription of genes that harbors them. This effect of a splicing-competent intron on transcription is known as ‘Intron-Mediated Enhancement of transcription’ (IME). It has been observed that the intron-containing genes are often transcribed more efficiently than non-intronic genes. However, the molecular mechanism underlying IME in budding yeast and higher eukaryotes is not entirely clear, and that ...


A Critical Role Of Cxcr2 Pdz Motif-Mediated Interactions In Endothelial Progenitor Cell Homing And Angiogenesis, Yuning Hou Jan 2016

A Critical Role Of Cxcr2 Pdz Motif-Mediated Interactions In Endothelial Progenitor Cell Homing And Angiogenesis, Yuning Hou

Wayne State University Dissertations

Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) participate in postnatal vascularization in response to growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines. Chemokine receptor CXCR2 and its cognate ligands are reported to mediate EPC recruitment and angiogenesis. CXCR2 possesses a consensus PSD-95/DlgA/ZO-1 (PDZ) motif at its carboxyl terminus. The PDZ motif has been reported to regulate cellular signaling and functions. Here we investigated the potential role of the PDZ motif in CXCR2-mediated EPC motility and angiogenesis. We have found that introducing exogenous CXCR2 C-terminus significantly attenuated in vitro EPC migration and angiogenic activities in response to CXCR2 ligands, as well as in ...